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a Chronology of the Holocaust Years and Germany 1905 to 1945

 Written by Robert Rico published here with his express consent.

 

Rev & Released 3-21-96/Chrono 3 g

A Personal Note:

 

It is my hope is that you struggle with the issues of hatred, prejudice, the colossal murders of the holocaust, the courage of those that dared to stand against totalitarianism, the motivations behind these horrors and the shame of silence on the part of the Western Christian community.  I do not expect you to read every book or see all the films, I trust that you are exposed to the truth found in the chronology of history and how common men and women stood, sometimes alone, to make a difference in establishing goodness and righteousness.  I am looking forward to meeting with you at some time to discuss with you your findings and discovering together some of your insights, observations,  wisdom and understanding on the notions discovered.

 

This chronology has grown out of a course curriculum on the ”Holocaust” designed for the High schoolers and young adults in the Christian community for the Spring of 1995.  I have added some features such as, at the end of most citations “See . . . ” which will link you to the next event for that idea, country or person. As you read through the chronology you may begin to see similarities of current legislation recently passed or being proposed, I suggest you write to our public officials requesting copies of the bills proposed for your review, you may also clip out  information from your newspapers, and compare  the similarities with the chronology.    I would appreciate making contact with me for the purpose dialogue.

 

The tide of anti-Semitism and intolerance toward “conservative” Christianity (which wishes to “conserve” traditional Biblical values) is rising and once again G*D’s people everywhere must stand against, . . .  possibly . . . the darkest period yet ahead of us in the history of Mankind. As G*D’s people, we all have a legacy of spiritual giants on who’s broad shoulders we can stand.  Persons, like young Esther, who was possibly a teenager at the time, defied her circumstances with faith and great courage to redeem a nation!  We all can be encouraged that we too, as individuals can make a difference where ever we are. May we each learn that an individual can and does make a difference for goodness!

 

Maranatha!

 

 

Bob Rico

Proverbs 24: 10-12

 

PS

For comments or for more information on related topics or a listing of other publication subjects

researched please write or call to:

 

Publisher: Berean Research Group

PO Box 8565, Fountain Valley, CA pz 92708

714-435-9000

 

Copyright: Robert Rico 1995 g


Germany 1905 to 1945

 

 

Chronology

 

 

Pre-Weimer Republic

 

1905

 

 

– Dr. Ernst Rudin* elected president of International Federation of Eugenics** Organization. Funded by Rockefeller foundation and employed by Kaiser Wilheim Institute, Munich. Founder of German Society for Racial Hygiene [Chaitkin 309]. *See July 31,’40 ** Selective breeding protecting and improving the quality of the

human race. Sometimes used by some as basis for development of a “superior race”.  Movement was especially significant in England, Germany and the United States between 1910 and 1940. Closely associated with Anglo-Saxon superiority [Bird & Allen]. See 1910

 

1910

 

– Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) (Charles Darwin’s cousin), founder of the English Eugenics movement was Charles B(enedict) Davenport, who is founder of the movement in America and chief organizer in Eugenics Record Office [Bird & Allen].

Mary Harriman, mother of Averell W(illiam), donates 80 acres of land and building to establish the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) together with the Eugenics Research Association in Cold Spring Harbor, New York. funds are later supplemented by Mary Harriman Rumsey daughter to Mary and her son, Averell W(illiam) Harriman [Chaitkin 304-305] See 1911

 

 

1911

 

– International Congress of Eugenics (1st), held in Great Britain

(Chaitkin 305). See 1921

Eugenics becomes popularized in America! 24 states pass laws between 1911-1930. Laws restrict marriages between various

racial groups; sterilization of various social “misfits”: criminals, mentally retarded and mentally ill [Bird & Allen].

 

1914-18              World War One: “The War To End All Wars!”

 

1918

 

– Averill W(illiam) Harriman joins the board of American Museum of Natural History in New York (later to become a cornerstone to

the Democratic Party and national known American diplomat). (Chaiklin 304). See Jan 1921

1919


 

January

13

– “. . . require the surrender of all [emphasis added] firearms to
Monday the state governments.” [Simkin]  See Apr 12, ‘28

 

 

1921

 

– Hitler writes “Hatred, burning hatred, that is what we want to pour into the souls of millions of fellow Germans, until the flame of rage ignites in of Germany and avenges the corrupters of our nation (the Jews)” [Lawliss 15].

 

– H(arry) H(amilton) Laughlin [1880-1943] publishes: Model Eugenical Sterilization Law (Chaitkin 316).  H.H. Laughlin has been a writer for the Eugenic Record Office monthly publication Eugenical News, which is translated into German and distributed by rising NAZI Party. He is also Superintendent of the ERO, Chief Director Charles B. Davenport)  [Chaitkin 303, 305] See Feb’33

United States is established as the international center for

race science”, “eugenics” through American Museum of Natural History in New York (Chaitkin 303).  “Superior races” are justified on the grounds of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory of natural selection (Chaitkin 304). See Sept 22-Oct 22

 

Sept 22-Oct 22            — International Congress of Eugenics (2nd), held at the American

Thu – Sat                 Museum of Natural History, New York (Chaitkin 304). Hosts: Averell W(illiam) Harriman; Mary Harriman; Mrs. Harriman Rumsey, Averell’s sister; Mrs. Henry Osborne; Madison Grant; J(ohn) P(eirpont) Morgan (founder of US Steel and financier); Herbert Hoover (later to become President of USA); American Museum of Natural History president Henry Fairfield Osborne (nephew to J.P. Morgan) [Chaitkin 305]. See 1925

— All members of the Congressional Committee on Immigration are transported to conference to view exhibits and to hear anti- immigration addresses. Exhibits are later displayed on Capitol Hill itself (Chaitkin 305). See 1924

 

1922-33              Germany: more than 200 instances of Jewish grave desecration’s in Nuremberg alone [Lawliss 15]

 

 

1922

 

– First issue of Der Sturmer appears in Nuremberg, its’ primary banner is “JEWS ARE OUR MISFORTUNE” [Lawliss 15].

 

 

1924

 

– Madison Grant; H.H. Laughlin; and John Trevor (Director of Museum of Natural History, NY) write the U.S. immigration bill, the Johnson Act with pressure of “Big-business”, which virtually limits only those countries of England, Germany, and Scandinavia.


Congress passes immigration as proposed, Ellis Island is closed

(Bird & Allen; Chaitkin 306).

Johnson Act Severely limits immigration into the U.S. from eastern European and Mediterranean countries. Eugenicists claim these immigrants are inferior to Anglo-Saxons and are “polluting” the “pure” American bloodstream. By 1925 Eugenicists are criticized for racial bias, subjectivity, bias in the use of evidence, lack of scientific methodology and academic credibility [Bird & Allen].

 

February                     Eugenical News reports: “This provision would change the character of immigration, and hence our future population, . . . immigrants from north-western Europe furnish us the best material for American citizenship and the for further upbuilding of the American race.” (Chaitkin 306) In an address to Congress states, “America must be kept American.” (Chaitkin 306) See 1925

 

 

 

 

1925

 

– Sixth International Conference Neo-Malthusian and Birth Control Conference. Subjects of Papers presented: Problems of over population; Medical and eugenic aspects of birth control; International aspects of birth control and Religious and ethical aspects of birth control [Sanger – editor].                    See 1927

 

 

 

1927

 

Aug 29-Sept 3             — World Population Conference, held at the Salle Centrale,

Mon – Sat                  Geneva, Switzerland [Sanger].

 

 

1928

 

April                12        — The Reichstag (German Parliament) enacted a “Law on

Thursday  Firearms and Ammunition” which required dealers to be licensed and to “keep a register of transactions which was to be made available to the police on request.” Government permit was required to purchase a firearm and/or ammunition, or to receive a firearm as a gift or bequest. And a permit from the local police required, issued free of charge, for the purchase of ammunition [Simkin].

See Mar 18,’38

 

 

1932

 

May                             Germany: Chancellor Bruning, a member of the Centre (Roman Catholic) Party proposes to dissolve the private armies of the Communist (200,000) and NAZI (200,000) parties by emergency decree; Field Marshal Paul Hindenburg, Chancellor President


refuses fearing the decree will bring in German army into politics

[Tobias 10].

 

August           21-23    — International Congress of Eugenics (3rd) , sponsored by

Sun – Tue  American Museum of Natural History, New York (International Eugenics Congress). Sponsors and participants of Congress included: Mary Averill Harriman ; Mary Harriman Rumsey; Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt; Mrs. Kermit Roosevelt; Margaret Sanger (a Communist: Neo-Malthusian League and Co-Founder Planned Parenthood); Col. William Draper (founder of the Draper

Fund / Population Crisis Committee which will sponsor Global

2000); Irving Fisher (economic advisor to Pres. Calvin Coolidge and Pres. Herbert Hoover); Frederick Fisher; Harry Farnham Perkins; Henry Fairfield Osborn (founder of Population Council in 1952, parent organization of today’s environmental and population control organizations); Charles B. Davenport (founder of Eugenics

movement in America) (Chaitkin 307-308).

 

November         6         — NAZI Party [NSDAP] [Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei: Sunday  National Socialists German Worker’s Party: NAZI Party]  wins on

33.1 percent of popular votes cast (they had 37.3 percent on July

31) very low percent, yet better than any other party [ Bauer 87; Dawidowicz 48; Tobias 10]. Aldof Hitler is offered a subordinate office to the Chancellor a second time, he again refuses . . . waiting for an opportune time [Tobias 10].

 

 

Weimer Republic / NSDAP [NAZI] Regime

 

1933-39              Reichstag will enact over 400 anti-Jewish laws between 1933-

1939 [Lawliss 18]

 

 

1933

 

January

30

Monday

Paul von Hindenberg President of German Republic appointsAdolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich and the NAZI [NSDAP] Part
[Ebenstein 13].– Hitler convinces Hindenberg to dissolve the Reichstag(Parliament) and have new elections March 5th. [Dawidowicz 49]

NSDAP National Party form coalition government with Nationalist (Christian conservatives are deceived and will pay a horrible price for their duplicity through the loss of their sons and the nation in war. Adolf Hitler takes power with 33 percent of popular vote [Bauer 87; Tobias 10].

Fatal flaw of Weimer Constitution: “Emergency Powers” of the Chancellor President, allowed the Chancellor to call for a “State of Emergency” and declares “martial law” [military rule].

February United States eugenics expert H.H. Laughlin receives honorary degree for his contribution on eugenics from Heidelberg University,
a major NAZI “race purification” research center [Chaitkin ].
See July 14’33


27        — BURNING of REICHSTAG [German Parliament] building, Hitler

Monday            blames Communists for starting fire which was started in the

Debating Chamber of the capitol building [Tobias 9].

 

28

Tuesday

Hitler convinces Hindenberg to evoke “Presidential Decree for the Protection of “People and Reich [State].[Ebenstein 4]
Legality of the decree rests on Article 48, Section 2, of WeimerConstitution [Ebenstein 5].
Reichstagsbrandverordung (Reichstag Burning Decree)
[Tobias 10].– Decree annuls Constitutional Republic seven guaranteed basic rights Constitution in Articles: 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124, 153.
They included the freedom of person, opinion, press, meeting,
association, the privacy of communication through the mails,
telegraph or telephone, search of the home without warrant, and
the inviolability of property. (Ederstein 5)  Also, introduced capital
punishments for several offenses committed by enemies of the State.– A quasi legal persecution of opponents to the regime begins – –opposition was short lived . [Lawliss 31]

4,000 arrested: Communists, Social Democrats, liberal leaders and members of the Reichstad. [Lawliss 31 ]

Feb-Mar Police issued “Shoot to kill” orders to fire on demonstrators[Lawless 31]. In the last few days of March elections, SA
[Sturmabteiling: Storm Troopers, “Brown Shirts”] created violent
disturbances throughout nation [Lawliss 31]. NAZI’s win electionwith 44% of popular vote to bring absolute order out of created chaos. [Niewyk 3].– Conservative Christians help elect Hitler! Hitler uses “Conservative Christian Values” such as: Family, Patriotism, Fidelity, etc. to dupe and attract their votes and is successful.

— Article 24 of NAZI party program demands “liberty for all religious denominations in the State so far as they are not a danger to . . . the moral  feelings of the German Race” [Shire 234].     See Mar 23

First detention / concentration camps set up. SA and SS

[SchultzStaffel: lit.: “Protection Detachment” also known as,
Sonderbehanlung: lit.: “Defense Echelon”, “Black Shirts” exclusively
assigned to Heinrich Himmler]. [Klee 304]
SA, SS, and SD [Sicherheitsdienst: intelligence group of  SS]
conduct door-to-door searches and begin intelligence operationsagainst German people at large.
March

4

Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurated 32nd President of the
Saturday United States. States in his inaugural address the he wants “broad
executive powers to wage a war against the emergency, as great asthe power that would be given if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.”           (Flynn 8)NOTE: The “emergency” never has been declared over nor have the “executive war powers” ever been rescinded by any president at this writing!

5

La Stampa of Turin declares: “‘Mr. Roosevelt is following .
Sunday Fascist revolution and the genius of Il Duce, a just pride in the
spirit and the trail-blazing work of Fascism prompts us to point this


out. The situation recalls the Mussolinian phrase, ‘where we have shown the way, others will follow.”’ [La Stampa of Turin, Italy as quoted in New York Times]

 

 

Hitler Fuhrer / NAZI Regime [National Socialist German Worker’s Party]

 

March                5        — “LAST FREE ELECTIONS OF THE WIEMER REPUBLIC.Of the

Sunday  45 Million votes cast nearly 15 Million votes are cast for the NSDAP (National Socialist German Worker’s Party, i.e NAZI Party) which is the consummation of 150 years of anti-Semitic sentiments in Germany. [Dawidowicz 47-49]

 

9        — FDR proposes / Congresses passes “Emergency War Powers”

Thursday                     and “Banking” Laws “Trading With The Enemy Act of 1917” amended and passes on voice vote with only one copy in the well of the congress [Manchester 78]. No Congressman read the bill [Schlesinger 4-’58]. ACT RESULTS: Grants the President Dictatorial powers over the United States as “Commander-In-Chief”; Suspends the Constitution; Creates a “State of Emergency”; in effect, suspends the Constitution and Bill of Rights; effectively makes American citizens “Chattel”, confiscates land and all personal property by U.S. Government and uses these  confiscation’s as “equity” for the

Federal Reserve Bank for a new “War Time Currency” to be used during the declared “State of emergency” [Nellis/Schroder 43]. American people are not aware of what had happened to the Nation in Congress. President can rule through “Executive Orders” [Nellis/Schroder 3-4]. Beginning of truly a “New Deal” in America. News papers of the day state in headlines: “Roosevelt will ask Congress for the power of a banking dictator during the emergency”

[New York Times 1].  The “emergency” has never been declared over by any administration since FDR! On the next day (March 10th) banner headlines proclaimed, “PRESIDENT SEEKS ROLE OF DICTATOR” [The Whittier News 1] are examples of headlines across America’s newspapers. Within a month the newspapers ceased from alerting the nation what had just occurred with the “New Deal”. Within FDR’s “One Hundred Days” the nation’s wealth had effectively been confiscated. [Nellis/Schroder 35-36]

See Spring 1934

 

21        — 62nd Anniversary of Bismarck’s First Riechstag in a unified

Tuesday  Germany. Hitler negotiates with Catholic Centrists for support of “Enabling Act” Storm troopers and police looting and burning Socialist and Communist party offices. Social newspaper Reichbanner is suppressed in many areas of Germany. [Dawidowicz 51]

23        — “ENABLING ACT”: Grants government extraordinary powers to

Thursday   introduce, without consulting parliament, legislation which deviates from Constitution. Together with Reichstagsbrandverordnung forms legal foundation for a National Socialist [NAZI] dictatorship, resulting in the end of the Weimer Constitutional Republic; for the next twelve years, Germany is ruled by “Fuehrer orders” (executive orders) for the “protection of People and Reich.” [Klee

304] See Apr 1,’37


Hitler pays tribute to Christian faiths as “essential elements for safeguarding the soul of the German people,” and further promises to respect their rights, declared that his government’s “ambition is a peaceful accord between Church and State”. He adds “we hope to improve our friendly relations with the Holy See.” in influencing Catholic Center Party [Shire 234].                                See July 20

 

29Wednesday Anti-NAZI offenders threatened with death penalty by use of Ex Post Facto Laws. Offenses committed between January 31 and February 28 may be punishable with death [Ebenstein 73].
See June 28, ‘35
April Professional restrictions(Berufbeschrankung) imposed on
German Jewish physicians and pharmacist [Klee 304].– Jews First Attempt to Unify! Central Committee for Help and
Reconstruction [Zentralausschuss fur Hilfe und Aufbau, ZA] headed
by  Berlin rabbi Dr. Leo Baeck and Jewish community leader ofWuttemburg, Dr. Otto Hirsch. To meet extended threat, the Jewish community is disunited and split into factions but they establish the “Central Committee”. [Bauer 119] See Sep’33

1

Hitler, states, “I believe that I act today in unison with [the]
Saturday almighty creator’s intention, by fighting the Jews I do battle for
the Lord.”Jewish Boycott, Fuehrer Order Number 5.  Action against Jewish business [“Don’t buy from Jews”]. Lawyers and doctors centrally organized by NSDAP  and overseen by Julius Stretcher, most notorious anti-Semite [Bauer 114; Klee 304; Lawliss 18].– “Grit your teeth and think revenge.” — Adolf Hitler [Lawliss 21]
— “Professional restrictions” [Berufsbrankung] imposed on Jewish
Judy Toffle, Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s elderly grandmotherdeliberately walks through Storm Troopers SA to purchase strawberries from her Jewish grocer [Bonhoeffer: film].
7 Federal German States are dissolved and NAZI Governors
Friday appointed by Reich; the “New German Federalism” martial law
begins. [Lawliss 31-32]
German law on career civil service [Berufsbeamtengesetz].
Elimination’ of Jews from public service by ‘Aryan paragraphs’[Aryan paragraphs exclude Jews from membership of societies, associations, etc. (Klee 304; Lawliss).– All Jews are removed from civil service.

By end of 1933 all “non-Aryans” were removed from: legal and technical professions, journalism, banks, and the stock exchange.

Reich Chambers of Culture established. Reich guilds for workers in film, theater, music, fine arts and journalism. Jews are exclusively excluded [Lawliss 18].

Nazification of the German culture begins [Lawliss 31-34] See May 10

May 1 Worker’s Holiday, and labor leaders invited to participate in
Monday parades and celebrations. [Lawliss 32]


2         — Trade unionists leaders are arrested; by the end of the month,

Tuesday  all labor unions cease to exist. [Lawliss 32]

 

10        — Book Burning bonfires in German cities [university, libraries, and

Wednesday bookstores] to purify German culture [Lawliss 34]. “Where one burns books, in the end, burn people” — Heinrich Heine [Lawliss 31].

 

Early May                    — Judiciary brought under NAZI control. “People’s Court” established to try anti-NAZI opposition as treason cases. [Lawliss 32]

Proceedings secret, no appeal of verdict except to Fuehrer.

[Lawliss 32]

Death sentences routinely handed out. [Lawliss 32]

 

July                              Protestant Leaders reveal new constitution for the new “National Reich Church”. Neimoeller agrees with “National Reich Church” and with Hitler as Chancellor President. [Shire 237]

Some of Hitler’s main articles of the National Reich Church, some are known fully others not until later:

— The National Church is determined to exterminate the f oreign Christian faiths imported into Germany (this will co-op Lutheran clergy against non-German Christian factions).

— The National Church demands immediate cessation of the publication and dissemination of the Bible.

— On the altars of the National Church there must be

nothing but Mein Kampf and a sword.

— The Christian Cross must be removed from all churches and must be superseded by the only unconquerable symbol, the swastika.

— Such were the tenets of Hitler’s church. To establish it, he had to destroy Judaism and Christianity. He went at the task with maniacal vengeance.” [Gabor vi]  See July 14

 

14        BUSY DAY OF LEGISLATION AT THE REICHSTAG:

Friday    National Socialist German Workers’ Party [NAZI Party] officially declared sole party in Germany! [Lawliss 33]

Constitution approved of the only official church in Germany the National Reich Church. Heated struggle breaks out among the factions over the election of the first Bishop of the church. Hitler

appoints his friend, Chaplain Mueller becomes Reich Bishop, highest office in the National Reich Church. Any opposition by clergy will be dealt with swiftly and ruthlessly by Gestapo, SS and SA who will terrorize and intimidate those who will not fall in line and vote for NAZI church leadership. [Shire 237] See Nov 13

“Law of Prevention of Hereditary and Defective Offspring”

proclaimed. [Dumback 86] Surgical sterilization of mentally retarded, schizophrenic, alcoholic or genetically diseased persons. [Chaitkin]

Eugenics courts established. Law based on H.H. Laughlin’s 1922

Model  Eugenical Sterilization Law. Courts sterilize 375,000 people before start of  W.W. II [Chaitkin].

Hereditary Health Courts formed to carry out sterilization law. By 1937, more than 225,000 Germans will be ordered sterilized [Chaitkin ].  See July 31,


 

20        — NAZIs sign concordat with Vatican to guarantee freedom of Thursday   Catholics in Germany and right of Church “to regulate her own affairs.” Papen signs for Germany and Papal secretary of State,

Monsignor Pacelli, who is later to become Pope Pious XII [Shire 234].

See July 25

 

25        — Roman Catholic Church offended by new sterilization law

Tuesday    by NAZIs [Shire 234]

 

30        — NAZIs begin steps to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. This

Sunday     is decreed the beginning of Catholic persecution. Over the next few years thousands of Catholic priests, nuns and lay leaders will be arrested on false charges of  “immorality” or of “smuggling foreign currency.” [Shire 235] See June 30,’34

 

September                  — First Nuremberg Annual rally of NAZI’s from national to local village block leaders attend in a delirium of speeches, music, touchlight parades, pagan pageantry and emotional frenzy. Hitler believes that “…in the evening the people’s will overpower more easily succumbs to the dominating force of a stronger will. “They looked up at him as if he were a Messiah” [Lawliss 35]

Success! Jews Unite to form a single political voice! The

Central Representation of German Jews [Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, RV].  [Bauer 119]

22        — Reichskulturkammergestz [Reich chamber of Culture Law]. Jews

Friday      are excluded from cultural life (Klee 304).

 

October                       — Chancellor Hitler takes Germany out of League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament Conference [Lawliss 43]

 

 

1934

 

Spring              German Brotherhood Council of the Confessing Church emerges, led by a disillusion Pastor Niemoeller become the remnant of resistance in both the “Confessional Church” and the Pastors’ Emergency League [Shire 238].  See May; 1935 & Early May 1943

Roosevelt criticized for dictatorial policies by Roman Catholic Priest from Detroit, on his radio program on WJR, Father Charles E. Coughlin states, “We now see the policies of a Hitler, the suggestion of a Mussolini and the dogma of a Stalin more honored in our midst than the ideas of a Washington or a Jefferson.” (Schlesinger. vol.-III,

24) See Aug 1-6’36

May                             “Confessing Church” led by Pastor Dr. Rev. Neimoeller separates from the National Lutheran Church which will become

the State (NAZI) Church [Bonhoeffer: film]. Dr. Rev. Neimoeller declares from his pastorate Church of Jesus Christ at Dahlem, a suburb of Berlin that the “Confessing Church” is the legitimate Protestant Church of Germany and sets up a provisional church government. [Shire 238]

— Result of Dr. Niemoeller’s declaration has created two rival State churches, one headed by Reich Bishop Mueller and Pastor


Niemoeller’s claim to legally constitute the Church [Shire 238]. See 1935

June                            Hitler gives verbal order to “purge” the gypsies, the so-called

euthanasia programme Aktion (T4) and other such occasions. Heydrich and even Eichmann said that no one would question or

insist on seeing a written “Fuehrer order” (an Executive Order).

 

June 30 – July 1          — Blood Purge of Capt. Ernst Roehm’s SA group and coup leaders

Sat-Sun             (brown shirt storm troopers) SA loose power. SS is firmly in control along with army. [Klee 305; Shirer 221].

 

July                 20        — SS strengthened and takes over control of most concentration

Friday    camps formerly under SA control (Klee 305).

 

30        — Catholic Action leader, Erich Klausener murdered during

Monday  purge. Catholic publications suppressed. Sanctity of confessional is violated by Gestapo agents [Shire 235]. See Mar 14,’37

 

August              2        — Chancellor Paul von Hindenburg dies, Hitler combines

Tuesdays  Chancelleries of President (Praesidial-kanzlei) and Reich (Reichskanzlei) into one, declaring himself Chancellor Reich Fuehrer (Fuehrer und Reichskanzlei) of the German People and Leader (Kanzlei des Fuehrers der NSDAP NAZI Party) of NSDAP [Ebenstein 23]

 

 

 

1935

 

– Dr. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a Berlin University professor and pastor challenges the national Lutheran Synods. Bonhoeffer’s four challenges, the “Church: 1) – must as its political action ask the State to answer for it’s legitimate action; 2) – has an obligation towards

the victims of any social order, even if those victims are not the members of the Christian community; 3) – has a responsibility not only to bind up the victims beneath the (spoked cart) wheel, but also to put a spoke in, if need be” [and help the victim]; 4) is not only its’ task to look after the victims of madmen who drive a motorcar in a crowded street, but to do all in its’ power to stop their driving at all. [Bonhoeffer: film].  See Sept 28 ’37 & Early May 1943

—  700 “Confessing Church” Pastors will be arrested by end of year, pastors will be charged for “offenses against the State” in

“Special Courts” (Sondergericht). Many will be fined and imprisoned for “abuse of the pulpit” and holding collections in the church.

Some will be executed. [Shire 238]  See May 1936

Compulsory military service decreed in Germany, pacifists and non-compliance will national order are summarily shot

[Bonhoeffer: film].

By March 1935 Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen built

(+Gilbert 76).

 

March                         Hitler states he will rebuild the “Reichswehr” revealing the existence of  German air force and 36 division army in peace time [Lawlis 43].


 

16 Germany renews conscription in violation of Versailles Treaty
May 21 — “Army Law”: ‘Aryan descent’ is a prerequisite for active service
Tuesday in German army, Jews are barred from serving (Klee 305).
June 28 Principle of “nulla poena sine lege” (“no punishment without a
Friday law”) destroyed in Germany. Principle of law changed “to sound
feeling (gesundes Volsempfinden) of the people . . . punishment
according law whose basic idea best fit it” (Ebenstein 73).– Rule and punishment by terror of the State officially established.

 

September      13        — Hitler decrees “Nuremberg Laws”! (Bauer 102).

Friday

15        —  Reichstad Passes “Law for the Protection of German Blod

Sunday     and German Honor, the Nuremberg Laws”. “Reich Citizenship” laws removes citizenship, political rights [active and passive rights to vote, to hold public office, etc.], and all human rights from Jews. [Bauer 102-103; Bonhoeffer:film; Lawliss 18].   See Nov 14

– Outright isolation and persecution of the Jews, naked iron fist

unleashed. Policy will be repeated in every NAZI occupied country and so-called protectorate. [Lawliss 18]

— The Jews are declared “chattel” of the State [Staatsangehorige:

subjects owned by the state] or slaves of the State.

Outright NAZI seizure Jewish businesses and authorize the breaking of commercial contracts and dismissal of all Jewish employees.

Jewish children are barred from attending public schools.

‘Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor’ makes marriages and extra-marital sexual relations between Jew and Aryans a state offense punishable by imprisonment [Klee 305; Lawliss 18].

 

November       14        —  Reichstad passes Jewish ‘Mischlingen’ [people of partly Jewish

Thursday  descent for good of “German, Kindred blood” or “persons of mixed blood”] (Bauer 103).                                    See July 31,’36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1936

 

January            1        — James G. McDonald resigns in protest. High Commissioner of

Wednesday  the League of Nations Commission for Refugees* (Jewish or others).

Since 1933 Germanys persecution of the Jews has been inhumane, the world is aware but refuses any political or humanitarian action on the part of the West. * Forerunner of the United Nations.

 

March               9        — Three Jews are murdered in small village of Przytyk, Poland after:

Monday  Roman Catholic priest, Cardinal Holland of Poland declares publicly in an open letter, “It is true that the Jews are committing frauds, practicing usury, and dealing in white slavery.” [Lawliss 47]


 

May Dr. Rev. Neimoeller’s “Confessing Church” continues to maintain it is only legitimate Church in Germany. Memorandum to Hitler firmly demands an end to governments ruthless anti- Christian action, along with State interference in the churches to
cease immediately. Result: Nazi  Interior Minister Flick arrests
hundreds of memorandum signers, Dr. Weissler is murdered in theSahsen-hausen concentration camp, the funds of the “Confessional Church” are confiscated and collections are forbidden [Shire 238]. See 1937
July 31 —  Jewish “Mischling” further defined by Riechstad: “out of
Friday wedlock offspring between Jews and non-Jews considered

Mischlung.” [Bauer 104]

 

August

1-6

Sat-Thu

Summer Olympic Games in Berlin. For propaganda reasons anti-Jewish measures are avoided for duration of the games and
slogans removed from the streets, businesses and buildings.Nuremberg Laws are ignored (Klee 305; Morse 104).– United States Olympic Committee removes two American Jews from the finals of the 400 meter relay. Jesse Owens, a black American wins an unprecedented four gold metals. [Lawliss 41]

See Nov 1936

Dignitaries report to U.S. President FDR, who is silent on Berlin Olympic debate. “The synagogues were crowded and apparently there is nothing very wrong.” [Lawliss 42] Nov 18’38

November Roosevelt re-elected 32nd President of U.S. See Feb. 9,’38

 

 

1937

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

807 “Confessional Church” pastors and lay leaders will be arrested and compromised because of NAZI threats and State sponsored terrorism against the “Church”. By the end of the year respected Bishop Marahrens of Hanover will be coerced by Hitler’s friend Dr. Hans Kerrl, Minister for Church Affairs to make a public declaration of humiliation: “The National Socialist conception of life is the national and political teaching which determines and characterizes German manhood. As such, it is obligatory upon German Christians also.”  See June 27 and April 19’38– Pope Pius XII issues the “Mit Brennender Sorge” (With
Sunday Burning Sorrow) Encyclical, Charges Nazi government with
“evasion” and “violation” of concordat and accusing it of sowing “thetares of suspicion, discord, hatred, calumny, of secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church.”     On ”the horizon of Germany” Pope sees “the threatening storm clouds of destructive religious wars . . . which have no other aim than . . . of extermination.” [Shire 235]
April

1

“Enabling Act” of March 23, 1933 officially….”becomes
Thursday ineffective on 1 April 1937.” Act never rescinded, nation is under

dictatorship.


 

June

27

Sunday

Pastor Niemoeller’s last sermon under the NAZI reich. His premonition was correct when he stated before the overflowed
church in Dahlem, “We have no more thought of using our ownpowers to escape the arm of the authorities than had the Apostles of old. No more are we ready to keep silent at man’s behest when God commands us to rather than man.” {Shire 239] See July 1
July 1 Dr. Rev. Martin Niemoeller leader of “The Confessing Church
Thursday arrested and confined to Moabit prison in Berlin [Shire 239]
See Sept 28

 

September      28        — Dr. Bonhoeffer’s “Confessing Church” Seminary ordered closed

Tuesday  in Palmerania, Germany by Gestapo.  [Bonhoeffer: film] See Mar 2’38

 

November        5         — Secret discussions in Reich Chancellery: Hitler reveals his

Friday     plans for war (Klee 305).

 

 

1938

 

March              2          — Rev. Niemoeller tried in “Special Courts”(Sondergericht) Wednesday sentenced to eight months in prison. Result: Fined 2,000 Rms

and sentenced to 7 months in prison, but was released because of

time served. Offense to State: main charge was “underhand attacks against the State”; “abuse of  pulpit” and holding collections in his church. [Shire 239] Later to be arrested again and sent to Sachsenhausen prison. [+ Gilbert 686]  See April 19 & May 4,’45

 

11        — German troops occupy Austria [Lawliss 43].

Friday

13        — Annexation of Austria [Anschuluss]. Within a year, NAZIs will

Sunday    totally exclud Jews [185,000] from public life. Austrian anti- Semitism endorsed as “public policy” (Klee 305).

 

18        — “Weapons Law” announced. License to manufacture guns “must

Friday      not be issued if applicant – or if one of the persons proposed for the commercial or technical management of the business – is a Jew”. The weapons law specified; however, that a “firearm acquisition permit is not needed by [among others] officials of the central government” or persons “in service of the central government” and “the states,” “the SA,” and “SS.” [Simkin] See Apr. 9-May 16,’43

—  NAZI “Weapons Law” is prototype for “United States Gun Control Act of 1968” according to research by Jews For The Preservation Of Firearms Ownership, Inc. [Simkin]

 

April                19        — Fuehrer’s 49th Birthday Gift: State Church (Lutheran) and

Tuesday                       “Brotherhood Council of the Confessing Church” clergy are ordered by Bishop Marahrens, “….as a birthday gift to the Fuehrer, all Pastors are to take a personal oath to Adolf Hitler. ‘ It is hereby decreed, he who is called to spiritual office is to confirm his loyal duty with the following oath: ‘I swear that I will be faithful and obedient to Adolf Hitler, the Fuehrer of German Reich and the people, I will conscientiously observe the laws and carry out the


duties of my office, so help me God.’ Anyone who was “called” before this decree is to take  this oath of allegiance retroactively, anyone who refuses to take this oath of  allegiance is to be dismissed.’” The majority of the “Confessing Church” signed the oath, because they thought it was their patriotic nationalist duty to do so. [Bonhoeffer: film; Shire 239] See Apr 5’43

 

26        — Registration of all German Jews with assets exceeding

Tuesday  5,000 RM(Reich Marcs) (Klee 305).

 


May

 

24        —  Hungarian Regent Nicholas Horthy’s government under NAZI Sunday                coercion, parliament passes anti-Jewish laws limiting employment of Jews in private businesses to 20 percent. [Dawidowicz 381]

See 1939


 

June              13-18    German police instructed to arrest for “preventive detention,”

Mon – Sat                      anti-social able bodied males and Jews with criminal records “are dangerous to security and useless eaters” (Dawidowitz 99).

 

14        — Registration of German Jewish enterprises. Beginning of so-

Tuesday  called “Aryanization”. Jews pressured to sell to certain people or

firms [IG-Flick, the Flick group, major banks, etc.]. Payment of sales proceeds, far below market value, into government blocked

accounts (Klee 305).

 

Summer            Buchenwald, Dachu, and Sachsenhausen are greatly enlarged

as “labor camps”. Dacau Jews are ordered to wear “Star of David”
on uniform. [Dawidowitz 99]
July 6Wednesday German Law prohibits numerous Jewish business activities(Klee 306).

 

July-October              Further German laws limiting professional activities of doctors and lawyers (Klee 306).

 

August                        “Zentralstelle fir judishe Auswanderungs” [Officer for Jewish

Emigration] established in Vienna [within eighteen months

150,000 Austrian Jews induced to emigrate] (Klee 306).

 

11        — Reuters dispatch: Manchester Guardian state: “Everybody is

Thursday                     Weimer knows of the Buchenwald and will readily indicate the general terms where it is, but one mentions the dread words

‘concentration camp.’”  [Morse 184]

September                  Allies agree to Hitler’s annexation of Czechoslovakia, the

“sudentenland” See Mar 15

 

October           28        — Polish Jews expelled from Germany to Polish border!

Friday

 

November      9-10     — “REICHSKRISTALLNACHT!” [“nation’s night of broken glass”].

Wed-Thu   Pogrom organized by the NSDAP. Official pretext was the murder of a German legation secretary in Paris by a young Jew. Numerous synagogues and Jewish businesses destroyed. Within 48 hours


ninety Jewish citizens are murdered, 1,000 synagogues burned down, 7,000 businesses are vandalized and looted, cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes are destroyed (Klee 306; Lawliss 47). Silent crowds look on and police regulated traffic and make

wholesale arrest of Jews “for their own protection.” [Dawidowicz 102; Feingold 41]

Christian attitude is, “this was a curse on the Jews…”

Dr. Bonhoeffer’s response: Psalms 74: 10-11 [Bonhoeffer: film].

German Roman Catholic Bishops and German Lutheran Synod are silent in response to outrages of Reichskristallnacht”.

 

November       11        — “ NAZIS SMASH LOOT AND BURN JEWISH SHOPS AND

Friday      TEMPLES UNTIL GOEBBELS CALLS HALT” [New York Times 1]

 

12        — Punitive “Money Atonement Fines” At the suggestion of,

Saturday  Goebbels Goring decrees “Atonement fines” of German Jewry of one Billion RM for the damages caused during “Reichskristallnacht”, although this was part of Hitler’s “Four year plan” to destroy Jewry [Dawidowics 104; Morse 186-187]. Insurance awards, amounting to more than 10 Million RM, are paid to the German Reich (Klee 306).

A share fixed at 20% of all property registered to Jewry is to

paid to the Reich government in four installments for property valued over 50,000 RM [an additional 5% is added]. [Feingold 43]

— All Jewish owned retail establishments are ordered closed by

Reich. [Feingold 43]

36,000 Jews arrested “for their protection” and sent to detention camps at: Bachwald, Dachau, and Sachsenhauson (camps are expanded to accommodate the influx of new arrivals).

[Morse 182-187]

15        — Jewish children are excluded from all German schools

Tuesday  (Klee 306).

18        — President Roosevelt recalls Hugh Wilson, ambassador from

Friday      Berlin and extends work visas for German Jews for an additional six months [Feingold 103-104]. He refuses to increase immigration

limits because 67.8 percent of Congress is against increased immigration .  [Feingold 42] See Dec 3

 

28        — Regierungsprasidenten (“presidents of regional councils”) are

Monday    empowered to impose curfews on Jews (the “Judenbann”) [Dawidowicz 103; Klee 306].

December         3        — “Security and Flight Taxes” NSDAP require Jewry who emigrate

Saturday  from Germany to a pay “security tax” and “flight taxes” of 25% on all property valued at more than 200,000 RM or yearly income of

20,000 RM [Feingold 42-43]

— Decree provides for compulsory disposal of Jewish businesses, stores, real estate, industrial firms, securities, etc. (Klee 306).

—  All Jews denied access to most public places. Jews try to escape the Germany and Austria. [Lawliss 48]

British severely limit emigration to Palestine. [Lawliss 48]

Swiss close their borders to avoid being over-run by Jews. [Lawliss 48]

United States have strict quotas: “Objectionable qualities”. In every American poll Jews were cited as posing a “major threat to the community . . .”  [Lawliss 48] See May 1939


14        — Goering is to be responsible for issues of the “Jewish

Wednesday  question”[Dawidowicz 104]

 

 

1939

 

Hungary passes omnibus anti-Jewish legislation: defining Jewish status; barring leadership in media; prohibits trade licenses and renewals; barred further entrance into professions until Jews were less than 6% of a given profession; expropriation of real property with compensation; elimination of naturalized citizenship; voting rights denied to nonnative Jews whose families were not

permanent residents  prior to 1868 (Dawidowicz 381). See Aug 1941

 

January          24        — Establishment of Reichszentrale fur Judische Auwanderung

Tuesday    [Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration] in order to organize and accelerate the emigration of the Jews [almost 80,000 Jews left Germany in 1939] (Klee 306).

 

30        — Hitler threatens Jewry with destruction in event of war

Saturday  (Dawidowicz 110; Feingold 167).

 

February           9        — Save the German Refugee Children & Wagner/Rogers Bill. Sen.

Thursday   Robert Wagner, of  New York and Rep. Edith Rogers, of Massachusetts introduce the exact same bill creating a Non- Sectarian Committee for German Refugee Children. Bill will save

10,000 children in 1938 and an additional 10,000 in 1939. The response to the proposal by the 76th Congress is exemplified by one of the 60 anti-alien bills by Rep. Stephen Pace of Georgia (HR 9999) “every Alien in the United States shall be forthwith deported.” [Feingold 149-151]

Roper poll reveals sixty percent of Americans think Jews possess “objectionable.” qualities. Public opinion is that “Jews pose a major threat to the community.” [Lawliss 48]

 

March                         Pope Pius XII begins his reign.

Slovakia declared an independent state. Father Jozef Tiso, a

Catholic priest is installed as NAZI Slovakia’s puppet Fascist government’s Prime Minister, and with his Nlinka People’s party, he fulfills all NAZI wishes (Dawidowicz 377). 90,000 Jews are at risk. See Apr

 

Wednesday Bohemia and Monrovia become German protectorates(Klee 306).
April New Slovak Catholic state begins in rapid succession enacting anti-Jewish laws: Jewish status is defined by religion and not ethnically; exclusion of Jewry from public life and restrictions from employment in numerous professions and occupations (Dawidowicz 378).
May Panicky Jews file applications for visas at American Consulates in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia quotas are filled for 5 years. See Jan 1940

 

15        — German troops invade Czechoslovakia {Klee 306). See Oct


 

13        — Voyage of the St. Louis (Hamburg – America Lines) sets sail

Saturday  from Hamburg to Havanna, Cuba of the 936 passengers, 930 are Jewish refugees (one of the last ships to leave NAZI’s grasp). Each refugee pays $262 for passage, plus $81 as a guarentee for return fare in the event that Cuban government denies acceptance. This is a formality, because every passanger held “landing certificates” signed by Col. Manuel Benite, Cuba’s director general of immagration at the cost of $150 per certificate. Jewish passengers hads less than $4 per passenger, they had been fleeced completely. [Morse 219-220]  See May 27

 

27        —  St. Louis docks in Havanna. Cuban government invalidated a

Wednesday      week earlier refugees’ landing permits which had been pre- purchased at $150 per passenger. Cuba had established a stricter procedure for accepting refugees. The line, fails to inform the refugees of the new regulations which had been changed prior to sailing from Hamburg. [Feingold 65-66; Morse 220] See May 28

 

28        —  American Jewish Joint Distribution Committe (JDC) sends

Sunday                        two representatives to Cuba. Cecilia Razovsky, a social worker and Lawrence Berenson, an attorney. JDC’s attorney posts $125,000 bond to guarentee that none of the passengers will become

dependent upon the Cuban government by seeking employment in

Cuba. [Morse 223-224]

—  Cuba’s President Federico Raredo Bru agrees to meet with

JDC’s attorney Benson on 1 June, 1939. [Morse 224] See May 31

 

31        —  Gustav Schroeder captain of St. Louis is ordered to sail from

Wednesday    Havanna. Captain attempts to intercede for his passengers to Pres.

Bru of Cuba to be permit his passengers ashore, he his unsuccessul.

—  Cuban government refuses to return the $150 per passenger paid inadvance for “landing certificates”. [Morse 224]

See June 2

 

 

June

2

Friday

St. Louis steams out of Havanna Harbor at 11 AM with 907 passengers destined for Hamburg, Germany. [Morse 225]
See June 6

6

At 11:40 PM St. Louis ends idle cruising and sets course for
Tuesday Europe. Capt. Schroeder sets course but slowly. [Morse 229]
F.D.R. ignores telegram from St. Louis passenger committee.Telegram requests help for the 907 passengers, “of which 400 are women and children.” [Morse 229] See June 9

9

New Yorks Times, “The cruise of the St. Louis is cries to high
Friday heaven of man’s inhumanity to man.” [Morse 229]  See June 10
10 U.S. Government remains recalcitrant towards to plite of the
Saturday St. Louis’s human cargo. Telegram to JDC, “ANY IMMIGRATION
THIS SIDE OF WATER . . . IS OUT OF QUESTION. THIS WE HAVENOT COMMUNICATED TO PASSENGERS BUT WISH YOU TO KNOW.” [Morse 230] See June 12


 

12        — Holland’s Queen Wilhelmina welcomes 194 passengers from

Monday     St. Louis., final disposition 224 passengers are accepted. [Morse 231]

 

13        — Morris Troper, representative for JDC, wires the St. Louis:

Tuesday  FINAL “ARRANGEMENTS FOR DISEMBARKATION ALL PASSENGERS COMPLETED HAPPY INFORM YOU GOVERNMENTS OF BELGIUM, HOLLAND, FRANCE, AND ENGLAND COOPERATED MAGNIFICENTLY WITH AMERICAN JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE.” [Morse 232]                                         See June 17

 

17        — 4:00 AM JDC’s representative finalizes disposition of St.

Saturday    Louis’s passengers: 214 to Belgium, 214 to Holland, 287 to England, 224 to France. The 907th passenge, Mr. I Winkler, a traveling salesman from Hungry boarded the St. Louis by accident, as soon that it docked he run off as rapidly as possible. [Morse 233]

Postscript of the St. Louis : The victory was short lived, on

Friday, September 1, 1939 World War II began with Germany invading Poland. S.S. Ordina, S.S. Quanza, and the S.S. Flanders

are examples of similar fates as that of the St. Louis. [Feingold 66] In the end the survivors of the various ships were later rounded up and sent to concentration camps if they were unable to escape from Europe or become involved in the resistence movements.

[Morse 233] See August

 

21        — Reich Protector of Bohemia and Monravia decrees Jews are to be

Wednesday  under the German legal jurisdiction thereby: defining Jewish status, isolation of Jews, and expropriating Jewish property

[Dawidowicz 376].  See Mar 15,’40

 

29        — Italy: Jewish professionals restricted to practice only among

Thursday    Jewish clients and patients. Marriages between Jews and Italians forbidden. Limitations on property ownership, especially

agricultural land. [Dawidowicz 370] See Oct 7,’42

 

July                  4         — NAZIs supplements Reich Citizenship Law [Fuhrer Order 10]

Tuesday     by establishing Reichvereiniguing der Juden un Deutschlund placing all Jews under the Gestapo thereby eliminating all autonomous Jewish organizations.

 

August                        Hitler mocks the United States for it’s hypocracy over the Jewish Question. Der Weltkampt comments upon democratic pretense adds reality: “We are saying openly that we [the German people] do not want the Jews while democracies keep on claiming that they are willing to receive them . . . and then leave the guests out in the cold! Aren’t we savages better after all?” [Morse 234]

 

23        — Stalin signs NAZI – Soviet Non-Aggression Pact See June 22’41

Saturday

September                  Ill-treatment and murder of thousands of Jews begins.

Sept- Dec         Establishment of first concentration camps and ghettos in Poland.

SS and police and villages [exciting the protests of

Oberbefehlshaber-stohannes Blaskowitz] (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).


See Sept 21

1        — German Army Invades Poland: Beginning Second World War –

Friday      World witnesses “Blitzkrieg” (lightning war) for first time. The invasion is brutal and merciless! (Bauer 140; Klee 307; Niewyk xiii). See Sept 21

 

3        — Britain and France Declare War on Germany (+ Gilbert 4).

Sunday

21        — Polish Jews Expelled from most Towns, Villages and

Thursday  Territories except for Lodz, beginning of concentration and ghettoization. [Dawidowicz 396]                                 See May 1’40

Reinhard Heydrich (chief of Security Police [sicherheitspolizei]) prepares plans for “Final Solution” (Die Endlosung) with Gestapo, SS, SD and the Criminal Police. [Lawliss 69]

 

23        — Jews in German Occupied Poland Forced to Wear

Saturday  Distinguishing Badge, Star of David.

 

October                       Father Jozef Tiso, a Catholic priest is elected Slovakia’s

President [Dawidowicz 377]  See Aug.’40

– First deportations of Czech Jews to Poland. [Dawidowicz 377] See Sept.’41

 

17        — 1,000 Jewish men must live in open fields in severe

Tuesday    temperatures of -20°C. Czech Jews taken to Nisko and left in open fields and sometimes quartered in poor Jewish village and told to build new settlements. [Bauer 151-152]

 

Oct-Dec              — Ongoing Polish concentration camps operation in process

(Niewyk xiii).

 

December                   Reich Youth (Hitler Youth) Service law enacted, compulsory service of every healthy German (Aryan) child over nine.

every handicapped and retarded children excluded and considered

nutzloseEsser (useless eaters), will be put to death by injection or gas at mental instiutions under the “Euthanasia” Programme [Heck 7-8]. See January ‘40

 

 

 

1940

 

January —  Start of “Euthanasia” Programme, Aktion T4, in extermination institutes within German Reich [killing of mentally ill with carbon monoxide] (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).
— Dr. Ernst Rudin, architect of Aktion T4  program; responsible for
exterminating 400,000 mental patients [Chaiklin ].  See July 31– Breckinridge Long is appointed by Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of State for Special Problem. His task: to halt completely the flow of Jewish refugees. [Feingold 15] See June’42
March

5

Bohemia and Monravia Gestapo enacts Zentralstelle fur die
Tuesday judische Auswanderung by decree placing Jews under all anti-
Jewish German legislation. [Dawidowicz 376]


 

 

 

 

Friday    day before Hilter’s 51st birthday gift two countries. [Bauer 293]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 9Tuesday NAZIs Invade Norway (Gilbert+ 72).
19 Denmark and Norway invaded and fall in a matter of days. On
See From July’41
27 Himmler orders creation of Auschwitz, Poland concentration
Saturday camp. (Niewyk xiii)
May 1 — Phase II of Polish ghettoization plan concentration of Jews at
Wednesday Lodz.[Dawidowicz 397] See Nov
10 Belgium and Netherlands invaded, Belgium falls in five days;
Friday Netherlands in three weeks [Dawidowicz 366].
British army trapped in France and is evacuated from thebeaches of Dunkirk.
14 Netherlands Surrender to Nazis [Dawidowicz 366] See May 18
Tuesday
18 Netherlands incorporated as “Germanic” state after invasion.
Saturday Austrian Artur Seyss-Inquart appointed Reich Commissioner, Dutch

 

NAZIs govern state [Dawidowicz 366]. See Oct 22

 

22        — France Surrenders to NAZI Germany

Wednesday

 

June                10        — Mussolini announces Italy’s entry into World War (Bokun 116b)

Monday

21        — France falls to the NAZIs. See Sept 27

Friday

 

July                 31        — Murder of German Jewish mentally ill at Branderburg, Germany

Wednesday extermination institute (Klee 307). Under the Akton T4 euthanesia programme, Jews did not have to meet this protocol. [+Gilbert 105] See March & Summer 1941

 

August                        SS-Haupsturmfuehrer Dieter Wisliceny arrives in Bratislava, Slovakia as Eichmann’s representative from the Reich security Main Office to advise President Father Tiso of all Jewish matters. Reorganizes Hlinka Guard and Freiwillige Schultzstaffel [Slovak volunteers of SS] to carry out all anti-Jewish measures.

[Dawidowicz 378] See Sept

Dictator Carol II of Rumania decrees anti-Jewish statutes based on Italian model: Jews expelled from cultural life and from all government service, including armed forces [Dawidowicz 384]. See Oct

 

Aug 8-             — Rabbi Serebrenik and the Consistory in Luxembourg 2,500

Oct 15, 1941           Jews are evacuated through illegal means to unoccupied France

Thu – Tue         and Portugal. [Dawidowicz 366] See Sept. 5

 

27        — French Vichy government annuls April 21, 1939 decree that

Tuesday           punishes slander and libel “toward a group of people but origin to a


particular religion,” thereby providing a “legal” basis for subsequent anti-Jewish laws. [Dawidowicz 361] See Sept. 27

 

31        — First NAZI decree abolishes “shehita” (ritual killing of a kosher

Saturday     animal) or the Jews of the Netherlands [Dawidowicz 367]

 

September        5        — Luxembourg decrees anti-Jewish legislation. Jews are

Thursday   ghettoized, forced to wear arm bands; assigned to labor camps;

exported to Nazi authorities  [Dawidowicz 366-367]. See Oct 19’40-Apr 19’43

26        — Ustredna Zidow [Center of Jews] decreed to represent all Jews

Thursday     in Slovakia, responsible to the Central Economy Office [under

Minister of Interior]. [Dawidowicz 367]  See Sept’41

27        — German’s order French government to complete a census of all

Friday      Jews and their property. Census to be completed by October 20,

1940    [Dawidowicz 367] See Oct 3

 

October                       Rumania’s Antonescu’s coalition government enact legislation for the “Rumanianization” of Jewish property similar to “Aryanization”. [Dawidowicz 384] See Jan.’41

Serbia (Yugoslavia) government decrees: limiting access of Jews to secondary and higher education and halting the issuance of licenses for Jewish businesses while restricting the renewals. [Dawidowicz 391]   See May’41

 

3         — French Vichy government enacts anti-Jewish statutes, defines

Thursday   what a Jew is and prohibits Jews from holding most public offices, bans them from judiciary, teaching, the military, banking, real estate, the media, and limits their presence in the professions. [Dawidowicz 361]         See Oct’4

 

4         — Vichy government authorizes the internment of foreign Jews.

Friday      Consequently, trapping about 25,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria. Internees forced into labor brigade, and large numbers die of hunger, cold, and disease. [Dawidowicz 361] See Mar’20

 

18        — NAZIs begin “Aryanization” process by registration of all

Friday      French Jewish owned businesses to of all Jews. [Dawidowicz 362] See Mar. 20,’41

 

22        — Netherlands Jews ordered to register all businesses owned

Tuesday    whole or in part and operated along with all properties.

See Jan 10’41

— Jews defined by Reich racial standards.

 

28        — After six months of NAZI occupation of Belgium, they decree

Monday     all Jews as defined by Reich racial standards to register along with all Jewish owned businesses. Registration discloses 42,000 Jews in Belgium, 25,000 native born. [Dawidowicz 364]

— Jews excluded from Belgium public service, schools, law, press, and media. [Dawidowicz 364] See May 31,’41

 

November                   — Government force Jews to wear arm bands [Lawliss 69].


Rumanian government decrees to expelled Jews from employment. [Dawidowicz 397]

 

5        — Polish Jews sealed in Warsaw Ghetto, approximately 500,000

Tuesday    inhabitants (Niewyk xiii). See Apr’41

 

7        — FDR re-elected unprecedented 3rd term of President.

Thursday

 

December       24        — Bulgarian Sobranie [parliament pass anti-Jewish “Law for the]

Tuesday    Protection of the Nation” which define who is a Jew. [Dawidowicz 388]  See Feb 17’41

 

 

1941

 

January          10        — Jews in Netherlands ordered to register with local Census

Friday     Office.  Failure to register is punishable by five years imprisonment and/or confiscation of all property. [Dawidowicz 367] See Mar. 12

 

21-26      — Brutal Massacre of 170 Jews in Bucharest, during fighting

Tues – Sun  between Rumania’s Iron Guard and Antonescu’s army supporters. [Dawidowicz 385]                                See June

 

February         12        — Jewish Council [Joodsche Raad] formed in Netherlands under

Wednesday  duress by NAZI Dutch. Jews confined to “old section” of Amsterdam under Hans Rauter, High SS and Police Leader, Seyss- Inquart’s Commission for Security and Police. Area sealed off as ghetto. See Mar 12

 

17        — Pro-German Bulgarian Premier Bogdan Filov implements

Monday    executive order to define who is a Jew [anyone who has one parent who is Jewish is considered a Jew]. [Dawidowicz 388] See June’42

 

22        — First “Razzia” [round-up] of Jews in Netherlands and

Satursday   Holland (?).       See Mar 12

 

March                         — Victor Brack who works in Hitler’s Chancellery will testify at Nuremberg trails that by March 1941, “higher party circles”, no more than a dozen people knew that the Jews were doomed to extermination (Niewyk 252). See Summer

 

1        — Himmler visits Auschwitz POW Camp. Orders expansion

Satursday 140,000 prisoners for occupancy of ideological enemies, Jews and

“Bolsheviks”.  [+Gilbert 121]

 

12        — Germans begin “Aryanizing” Netherlands Jewish property.

Wednesday  [Dawidowicz 367] See Spring

 

18        — NAZIs place Netherlands Jews under “Joodsche Raad”. Jews

Tuesday    prohibited from traveling, dismissing them from civil service, cultural posts, and the stock exchange, barring them from public schools and vocational schools. See Spring


 

20        — Vichy government appoints anti-Semite Xavier Vallat as

Thursday    Commissioner and creates General Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, functions to: liquidate Jewish property and supervise all police powers with regard to Jews. [Dawidowicz 361] See Apr. 26

 

Spring              Netherlands Jews are rounded up for deportation. Zentralstelle fur Judische Auswanderung [Central Office for Jewish Emigration) established under SS-Hauptsturmfurhrer Ferdinand aus der Funten. Joodsche Raad made subordinate to the Zentralstelle.

[Dawidowicz 368]  See May 21

 

April                            Polish Jews in the Generalgouvernement are “ghettoized”, Phase II complete. [Dawidowicz 397] See From July

 

9        — Greece and Yugoslavia invaded by NAZIs. First year anniversary

Wednesday  of Norway’s invasion. [+Gilbert 172]

 

10        — Croatia (Yugoslavia) Ante Pavelic becomes puppet government

Thursday   of Germans. Anti-Jewish degrees: Defining Jews; registration of property; ordering identifying badges; identifying Jewish owned businesses.   See May

 

20        — Hitler’s 52nd birthday

Sunday

26        — French Jews forbidden from engaging in wide variety of

Saturday   occupations including positions in contact with the public. [Dawidowicz 362]  See June 22

 

 

29        — Dutch Jews decreed to wear Jewish Star; further restrictions on

Tuesday     occupational activities. Curfew introduced. May 21

 

May Germans occupy Old Serbia (Yugoslavia) within one week Jews ordered to register, wear yellow Star of David, and assigned to forced- labor brigades. [Dawidowicz 391] See June 26– Croatian Jews ordered to pay heavy taxes and ordered into forced labor.  See June 26
21 Expropriation of Netherlands Jews decreed of all property with
Wednesday exception of wedding bands and gold teeth. [Dawidowicz 368]
See Aug. 27
31       — “Aryanization” begins in Belgium and Serbia (Yugoslavia) of all
Saturday Jewish property, rapid impoverishment occurs. [Dawidowicz 364]
See From July– German military commander issued Belgium anti-Jewish decrees: defining Jews; registration of property; and separated economic life of the nation. See From July
June Special Rumanian troops assigned to rounding up, deporting, and murdering Jews. [Dawidowicz 385] See Aug


2         — Vichy government “Aryanization” begins and expropriates

Monday    Jewish properties. [Dawidowicz 361] See July 22

 

6         — Hitler invades Greece and Yugoslavia, fighting is extremely

Friday     fierce. See Autumn-Winter

 

22        — “Warzburg” NAZI Germany invades Soviet Union at 3 AM,

Sunday    unleashing mobile killing units by means of engine exhaust [carbon monoxide] (+Gilbert 193; Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).                                         See June-Aug

 

26        — Croatian government ordered mass arrests of Jews in Bosnia

Thursday         and Herzegovina.  [Dawidowicz 372]  See Oct June-Aug

SS organizes pogroms against Jews in the Baltic states and the Ukraine using local populations [according to the report of Thursday (22nd), Einsatzgruppe A, by 29 June about 2,300 Jews were “rendered harmless” in Kaunas] (Klee 307). See Sept 29-30

 

Summer            New Program for “Final Solution” launched by construction of the“Vernichtungslager” (the annihilation camp). Civilians are instructed on the use of Zyklon B.  See Sept 3

 

From July                    — Beginning of mass shootings of Jews by Security Police and SD Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos [see ‘Jager-Bericht’] and police units [e.g. Police Battalion 322 and Polizeiregiment Mitte]. Wehrmacht also part in mass shootings of Jews (Klee 307).

Jews in Belgium declare real estate holds; orders issued

forbidding banks to accept deposits from Jews; 7,600 Jewish firms in existence ordered closed, by mid-1942, Jewish property “Aryanized”.  [Dawidowicz 364]  See Autumn

NAZI Norwegian puppet government carry out Reich Commissar

Terboven’s policies without legislation. All businesses submit lists of their employees, indicating their religion. [Dawidowicz 371]

See Nov

“Aryanization” of Serbian Jews (Yugoslavia) begins. [Dawidowicz 391] See Aug

Polish “ghettoization” of Jews finalized with the taking of Galatia. Jews endure hunger, disease, and ordered into forced- labor brigades. An estimated 500,000 Polish Jews died from policy of annihilation from “natural causes” and daily terror.

[Dawidowicz 397]         See Dec 5

 

July 22 French government gives General Commissioner wide powers
Tuesday of expropriating Jewish property and businesses.[Dawidowicz 361] See Nov. 29

 

Thursday comprehensive solution to the Jewish Question.” (Niewyx xiii)Endlosung derJudenfrage” [‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question’,
i.e. elimination of Jewry] (Klee 307).
August Execution of Jewish children in Byelaya Tserkov [Ukraine] (Klee 307).  See August 24– Rumanians expel Bessarabian Jews to Transnistria. [Dawidowicz 385]         See Nov

 

31        — Goering orders Heidrich in a letter to “formulate a


Hungary government passes laws defining Jews. 100,000

Christians defined as “racial” Jews, subject to anti-Jewish laws. Start of Jewish round ups, beginning with 17,000 stateless. [Dawidowicz 391]      See Mar’42

Mass Serbian Jews internment of adult males. Internment camp set-up outside Belgrade, Nis and at Sabac. Death camps are not ready and begin to shoot the Jews in masse. [Dawidowicz 391]

 

24        — Euthanasia” programme discontinued. Killings continued by

Sunday      other means [poison, starvation, etc.] (Klee 307). See Sept 3

 

27        — Netherlands Census Office reveal 160,820 registrations; 140,552

Wednesday     are Jews; 14,549 “half-Jews;” and 5,719 “quarter-Jews.” [Dawidowicz 368] See Jan’42

 

29        — Netherlands: Jews banned from schools and vocational

Friday      schools. [Dawidowicz 368] See Jan’42

 

September                  Papal Charge d’Affairs, Msgr. Burzio immediately protests NAZI Slovakia’s anti-Jewish legislation to deport Jewish citizens into German hands. [Dawidowicz 378]  See Sept 9 & Autumn- Winter

Czech Jews from Bohemia and Moravia must identify themselves with a yellow Star of David. [Dawidowicz 377] See Autumn

3       — First experimental gassing with Zyklon B in Auschwitz, Poland

Wednesday  concentration camp of Soviet POWs. Zyklon B established as murder method (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).

 

9       — Father Tiso’s Slovakian government decrees 270 anti-Jewish

Tuesday  articles of omnibus legislation. Defining Jews as racial group, Jews must wear yellow Star of David, forced labor, evictions from specified towns and districts, etc. [Dawidowicz 378] See Late Autumn

 

13      — Germany: NAZIs Announce Every Jew Must Wear Yellow Star

Friday    Of David On left side of body by next Friday, September 19. [Jens 300]

 

19      — Deadline for All Jews In Germany Ordered To Wear Yellow Star

Friday  Of David [Jens 300]

 

29-30  — Mass shootings of 33,771 Jews from Kiev in Babi Yar ravine by

Mon-Tue members of derkommando 4a from Einstatzgruppe C and members of

Polizeiregiment Sud (Klee 308; Niewyk xiii). See Late Autumn

 

October                       Jewish legal emigration ceases from Germany, Austria, and

Soviet areas conquered by Germany.

Jews in Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina are all either in forced labor, in concentration camps or have been shop to death, at the mercy of the next atrocity that awaits them at Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 392]            See Nov

Mid-Oct                       — Beginning of railroad deportation transports on Deutche

Reichbahn [German ways]. Goods or cattle wagons mostly used for


transporting Jews. Many do not survive the transports, owing to poor hygiene and inadequate supplies of food and water (Klee 308; Niewyk 252).

 

Oct-Apr 1942               — Jews deported from Luxembourg, approximately 800 sent to Lodz, Auschwitz and Theresienstadt. After the war 400 Jews will survive in Luxembourg. [Dawidowicz 367]

 

Autumn            – Beginning of dispute between Generalkommissar for White Russia, Gauleiter Kube, with the SS members lodge complaints about Kube (Klee 308; Niewyk 252). See Autumn-Winter

Belgium Jews isolated; subject to curfews; forbidden travel outside major cities where concentrate; prohibited from public parks and streets of Antwerp. [Dawidowicz 364] See Nov. 25

Germans set-up central ghetto for Czech Protectorate Jews

[Bohemia and Moravia] at Theresienstadt [Terezin]. [Dawidowicz 367]                                    See 1942

 

Oct- Nov                      — Extermination camp of Chelmno [Kulmhof], Poland set up in

Warthegau (Klee 308). See Dec 8

 

Late Autumn        — The RSHA puts gas-vans at disposal of Security Police and SD

Einsatzgruppen (Klee 308).

Plans to deport Slovakian Jews to concentration camps begin. [Dawidowicz 378] See Mar-Aug 1942

 

Autumn-Winter     Unauthorized murders of Russian Jews by Taubner’s

Werkstattzug in Russia [Klee 308]. See Mar 9’42

 

November                   Inventory of all Norwegian Jewish-owned businesses demanded by provincial governors. See Mar 1

Over 120,000 Romanian Jews transported to Transnistria concentration camps. An estimate of 200,000 are shipped to Transnistria by late 1942, two-thirds die of hunger and epidemics. [Dawidowicz 385] See Sept

– 5,000 male Serbian Jews are murdered by Germans between August-November at concentration camps at Belgrade, Nis and Sabac.   See Nov 23

 

23        — Second Croatian Mass arrest of Jews in Bosnia and

Sunday     Herzegovina.[Dawidowicz 392] See Dec

 

25        — NAZIs order Belgium formation of “Judenrat[Jewish rats]

Tuesday    lead by Dr. Salomon Ullmann, head of Jewish chaplains in Belgium army. This ad hoc body becomes the Association des Juits en Belgique [AJB], to which all Jews are to subject. Task: To be responsible for the affairs of the Jews and to transmit and carry-out German orders. [Dawidowicz 365]  See Dec. 31

 

29        — French government establishes UGIF (Union Generate des

Saturday      Israelites de France) purpose to represent affairs of all Jews vis-à-vis the state.  All Jewish property turned over to UGIF and all Jewish organizations disbanded, except for religious associations. [Dawidowicz 361] See Winter 1942


 

December                   Serbia (Yugoslavia) Jewish women and children are interned at Belgrade, Nis and Sabac and are shot to death. Several hundred surviving Jews in hiding are hunted down by Serbian collaborators and turned over to NAZIs. By mid-1942 German declare success in “solving the Jewish question” in Serbia. [Dawidowicz 391]

See Aug 1942

 

5         — First transport of Jews to Chelmno, Poland extermination

Friday      camp (Klee 308). See Dec 5

7        — Pearl Harbor Bombed by Japan! America enters World War

Sunday     (Morse 249).

8        — Chelmno, Poland first extermination camp to completed

Monday    opens, victims are killed in gas-vans with exhaust gases [carbon monoxide] (Davidowitz 135: Niewyk xiii). See Mid-Dec

German army occupy Semlin, Serbia use gas trucks at makeshift camp, before facilities are ready. [Dawidowitz 135]

 

12        — 1,000 French Jewish lawyers and doctors rounded up and

Friday      deported to the East, as reprisal for unsuccessful assassination attempt on a German air-force officer.

16        — Rumanian government dissolves Jewish Federation Unions of

Tuesday     the Jewish Communities of Bucharest and set up Centrala Evreilor din Romania [Center for Rumanian Jews] as “sole body authorized to represent the interest of the Jewish community of Rumania.” They become the instrument used by government to fulfill it’s anti-Jewish demands

 

Mid-Dec                       — So-called “Dezember-Aktion” [‘December Action’] – mass shootings in mid-December Libau [Liepaja] watched by a great number of spectators. Further mass executions in Baltic states (Klee 308).

– Phase III of anti-Polish Jewish policy begins, death camps at Chelmno and  Belzec (2nd killing camp completed) become operational, deportations begin Wartheland to Chelmno. [Dawidowicz 135, 397]       See 1942, Feb,’42 & Mar-July 1942

 

31        — Belgium Jewish children excluded from public schools.

Wednesday  [Dawidowicz 364] See Winter 1942

 

Autumn-Winter      – Vatican is made aware of the increasing persecution faced by the Jews under NAZI controlled nations and territories [Austria, Poland, and Ukraine].

Vatican Papal Nuncio in Berlin informed sphere of responsibility

limited exclusively to Germany. See Mar 24’42

 

 

1942

 

U.S. State Department and British Foreign Office has no intention of  rescuing large numbers of  European Jews. Consequently, their policies are for obstructing rescue possibilities and ignoring public pressures for governmental action.

See Summer 1942


Czech Jews to death camps in Poland. 55,000 Czech Jews alone deported to Auschwitz, Poland and other death camp. [Dawidowicz 377] See Mar-July 1942

 

Winter              Start of Belgium Jews deportations. 25,437 Jews are deported to Auschwitz via transit camp at Malines mid-1942 through mid-

1944 according to NAZI records. By end of war 40,000 are found in Belgium [6,000 German and Austrian refugees, 8,000 Polish Jews, remainder Belgian and Dutch nationals.  [Dawidowicz 365]

See February

 

January                      Forced-labor camps established in Netherlands. Jews begin to be concentrated in Amsterdam. [Dawidowicz 368]

 

1        — First Jewish Resistance Organization (FPS; United Partisans

Thursday  Organization) established in Vilna, Germany. “Lets not allow ourselves to be led like sheep to the slaughter.” [Dawidowicz 314]

 

20        — Berlin: Wannsee Conference (“Final Solution of the Jewish

Tuesday    Question”) (Klee 308): chaired by SS Gruppenfuhrer Reinhart Heydrich [second in command to Himmler expressed by Hitler in speeches of January 30 and February 24] (Jens 300) participating departments receive reports on compiled extermination actions and outline organizational matters for extermination of Jewry

(Niewyk xiii)

 

February                     Beginning of French Jews ordered to wear yellow-star arm bands and badges. [Dawidowicz 362] See Mar 28

Belgium Jews in Antwerp used for forced-labor brigades for

Organisation Todt. [Dawidowicz 364]  See June 6

Belzec Becomes Operational For Killing [Dawidowicz 135].

 

19        — FDR signs Executive Order 9066. 125,000 Japanese-Americans,

Thursday   of whom are U.S. citizens are forced to leave their home and busineses in the west coast of the U.S. and sent to places the New York Times calls “concentration camps”. [N.Y. Times]  See March

 

Spring              Locally stationed Security Police and SD units take over job of exterminating the Jews in USSR [Klee 308].

March                         Solibor Death Camp Construction Begins [Dawidowicz 135]. Mar-July            — Extermination begin at “Operation Reinhard” camps: Belzec,

Sobibor, and Treblinka [Niewyk xiii].

 

Mar-Aug                      — Deportation in earnest of Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz

[75 percent, some 58,000 deported during this time].

 

Early March                — Belzic extermination camp completed as of “Aktion Reinhard” [‘Final Solution of Jewish Question’ in Genera-Gouvernement]. The two further extermination camps envisaged by “Aktion Reinhard” are Sobibor and Treblinka. The Jewish victims are killed at the camps

in gas-chambers with engine-exhaust fumes [carbon monoxide].

The manpower deployed for “Aktion Reinhard” consists for the most


 

part of ‘“experienced” personnel who had worked on Aktion T4 with mobile killing units using engine exhaust (Klee 309). See March 17
Miklos Kallay heads Hungarian government and begins torestrict anti-Jewish legislation by end of year he rejects German demands to introduce yellow badges for Jews to deport them to Poland. See Mar 19’44
March

1

Beginning of Norwegian Jewish passports and national identity
Sunday card marked “Jew”. Fugelsand, Chief of the Norwegian State
Secretariat is charged with “racial department” and anti-Jewishorders to begin rounding up Jews. See June– Norway: Passports and national identity cards must be marked “Jew”. “Racial Department” established to administer anti-Jewish decrees. [Dawidowicz 372] See Oct 23

9

Vatican’s diplomats confirm NAZI’s Holocaust policy against.
Monday Jews Slovakian Papal Charge d’Affairs, Msgr. Burzio informs Vatican
of proposed deportation of 80,000 Jews to their deaths. Similarreports are sent by Nuncios  in Budapest and Berne at the instigation of Jewish sources calling for Papal intervention. [Niewyk 228] See Mar 14
14 – Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Maglione firmly expresses to
Saturday Slovakian Minister his hopes that plans to deport Jewish citizens

into Germany hands will not occur. See Mar 24

 

17        — Beginning of “Aktion Reinhard” extermination programme.

Tuesday      Jews from Lublin are deported to Belzec, Poland concentration camp starts (Klee 309). See May 4

 

24        — Cardinal Maglione makes a second appeal without success.

Tuesday  Msgr. Burzio directly protests to President Father Jozef Tiso “making appeal to his sentiments as a priest.” Appeals utterly fail. See 1943

 

26        — Roman Catholic priest, Father Jozef Tiso Orders Deportations

Thursday   of Jews to Poland, beginning with the arrest and transport of 16- year-old girls to Auschwitz. See July

Tiso government paid the NAZIs 500 RM for each Jew deported to Poland.

Deportation of Jews are arranged by Jewish affairs Gestapo, Dieter Wisliceny assigned to German embassy at Bratislava.

 

28        — First Deportation of French Jews from Drancy for Auschwitz.

Saturday     [Dawidowicz 362] See July 1

 

April                29        — Netherlands: introduction of yellow Star of David must be

Wednesday  worn; occupation restrictions and curfew introduced. [Dawidowicz 368]                                    See July-Sept. 1943

 

May                  4         — Beginning of mass gassings at Auschwitz, Poland (Niewyk xiv).

Monday    See Early May


Summer            Clear evidence of systematic murder of Jews reaches the West.

Two million Jews have already been massacred and killing is accelerated. The West will do nothing except for symbolic action until end of the war.  See June

 

Early May                    — “The Leaflets of the White Rose (Weisse Rose)” secret anti-Nazi movement established with three members in Munich write and distribute first leaflets. They refuse to be silent in face of the unparalled oppression and inhumanity in a nation otherwise gone mute. [Scholl] First Leaflets of the White Rose call for “every individual, conscious of his responsibility as a member of Christian and Western civilization . . . [to] defend himself as best he can at this late hour . . . [to] work against the scourges of mankind, against fascism and any similar system of totalitarianism. Offer passive resistance — resistance . . .” [ Jens 201]  See June

Mass gassing begin at Sobibor, Poland extermination camp

(Klee 309).       See Early May – Early July

 

End May – Early July — Construction work on Treblinka extermination camp begins

(Klee 309)

 

June London’s Daily Telegram first to report: 700,000 JEWS GASSED!“The WHITE ROSE WILL NOT LEAVE YOU IN PEACE.” Second issue of of four leaflets printed and distributed anonymously between May thru July in Munich by non-violent student resistance group (Vinke 113). This summer the students begin to learn of German atrocities in Poland, and subsequent leaflets publish the information that since Poland’s conquest, 300,000 Jews had been murdered there. [Jens 201; Niewyk 229]                                See Jan, 1943– Bribery For Lives. Rabbi Michael Dov-Ber Weissmandel [a young anti-Zionist, orthodox religious zealot] and Gizi Fleischmann [a Zionist-secularist woman, relative to the rabbi] leaders of the
Slovakian JDC [Joint Distribution Committee] approach Gestapo
Dieter Wisliceny through Karl Hochberg, a Jewish traitor in June tobribe Wisliceny with $50,000 in foreign currency to cease deportations for seven weeks. Bribe is partially effective. See Sept ‘42– Beginning of NAZI planned expulsion, and emigration by ransom. [Niewyk 229]

Norwegian Jewish owned businesses placed under the control

of commissioners. See Sept-Oct

Bulgaria proposes to “solve the Jewish question” by expelling all

Jews and confiscating their property. See Aug 28

6 Belgium Jews forced to wear Star of David arm bands.
Saturday [Dawidowicz 362]     See July-Sept 1942

 

July-Sept 1942            — 300,000 Polish Jews are deported from Warsaw to death camp at

Treblinka. [Dawidowicz 397]  See July

 

July-Sept 1943            — Deportations begin for Dutch Jews to concentration transit camps Westerbrook and Vught for final destination of Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz  362]     See Sept. 29 ’43


 

July Start of deportations of Dutch and French Jews to Auschwitz& Warsaw Jews to Treblinka, Poland(Niewyk xiv).  See July 22– Vatican protests deportations of Jews. Deportations in Slovakia are curtailed for a short period. See Sept-Oct

— Germans appoint Saby Saltiel as President of Jews in Greece. Jews are evicted from homes, arrested, humiliated and taken as

hostages.  NAZI Directive order Jews to forced labor battalions
(approximately 10,000). Further edicts confiscate all Jewishproperty. [Dawidowicz 393]  See Feb 1943
2 France: Vichy Council of Ministers decide, with Petaino
Thursday approval to make a distinction between French and foreign Jews.
[Dawidowicz 362]         See July 16-17
16-17 Paris, non-French Jews, including women and children rounded
ThuFri up. One week later all are sent to Auschwitz. Those without
families are transported to Drancy immediately. After the war of21,884 sent, 30 adults return, no children survive. [Dawidowicz 362] See Nov. 11

 

22        — Start of deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Belzec and

Monday  Treblinka.[Klee 309] See July 23

 

23

Thursday

Mass gassing begins in Treblinka extermination camp [Klee309]. See Jan 18 ’43
August 15,000 Jews interned in French camps turned over to NAZIs for deportation. [Dawidowicz 362] See Oct– Croatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian Jews (approximately

9,000) are deported to Auschwitz. See Sept

 

1        — Dr. Gerhart Reigner, a German Jew, is Representative of World

Saturday    Jewish Congress informed of Hitler’s plan to exterminate Jewry with prussic acid, the lethal ingredient Zykon B gas . . . he is not believed. [Morse 9-13] See Sept.

 

28        — Bulgarian government establishes Commissariat of Jewish

Friday      Affairs and begins process of surrending to German jurisdiction Bulgarian Jewish citizens and those residing in German-occupied countries.            See Feb ’43

 

Sept-Oct                      — Three transports of Slovakian Jews continue to Auschwitz for extermination. Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Maglione intervenes and partly through bribery and promises of financial profit by Jewish leaders used to negotiate directly with SS-

Hauptsturmfuhrer Dieter Wisliceny. Outcome: deportations stop until

1944 Slovak rebellion when 13,500 Jews are then deported. See 1943

 

September                  German occupation of Italy begins. [Dawidowicz 370] See Oct

Start of mass gassings at Maidanek (Niewyk xiv).

— Extensive Norwegian roundups of Jews destined to be interned in labor camps in northern Norway. [Dawidowicz 371-372] See Oct 3


Finland forced to be allied with Germany against Russian invasion. Himmler visits Helsinki, attempts to induce Foreign Minister Rolf Witting to deport Finland’s 2,000 Jews, but refuses to give matter any consideration.

Roosevelt Administration refuses to believe Stephen Wise’s report, “The corpses of the murdered victims used for the manufacture of soap and artificial fertilizer. Please do best to arouse American intervention.” [Feingold 170]            See Nov

 

October                       — Italy: First NAZI action against Jews…begin round ups

[Dawidowicz 370]. See Oct. 1

 

7        — U.S. newspapers page one stories praise FDR for establishing

Wednesday  War Crime Commission” [Morse 28]. FDR is ineffective to meaningfully address the “Jewish Question” issue . . . instead he uses symbolism while millions die! The moral leader of the Western World is bankrupt of leadership. See Spring 1943

 

23        — Norway: Jews are Hunted for the assassination of a Quisling

Friday      frontier guard by two Jews, which served as a flimsy pretext to persecute Jews. [Dawidowicz 372] See Nov

 

November                   One boat load of Norwegian Jews sent from Oslo to Stettin then to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 372] See Feb’43

– Palestinian Jewish citizens repatriated from Europe inform Jewish Agency leaders of Jewish Holocaust. Jewish leaders are unwilling to accept the written evidence gathered by experienced observers, but were ready to believe the accounts delivered by chance arrivals in face-to-face meetings.

NAZIs Systematic Extermination of European Jewry is Finally

Made Public. [Niewyk 216]

President Roosevelt receives authenticated intelligence of

NAZI atrocities. [Niewyk 216]

Roosevelt Refuses To Act For Fourteen Months (!) (until March

1944), then acts only because of political pressure of a possible public scandal over symbolic administration rescue policies. [Niewyk 216)         See March 28,’43

 

December       11        — After NAZIs occupy all of France they begin deportations of

Friday      Jews in territories and Italy [Dawidowicz 362] See Aug. 24,’44

 

16        — Gypsies rounded up and sent to Auschwitz for extermination.

Wednesday    (Niewyk xiv)

 

 

1943

 

Vatican protests deportations of Jews. Deportations stopped for a short period. See April’44 & June 25,’44

 

January                      — Leaflets Of The White Rose: “A CALL TO ALL GERMANS!” states, Hitler could not win the war, that it was “leading the German people  into the abyss . . . The guilt of Hitler and his minions exceeds all bounds. Retribution comes closer and closer. But what are the


German people doing? They will not see and will not listen. Blindly they follow their seducers into ruin . . .”   (Jens 265) See Jan 13

 

13        — “Don’t Go to University, Give the Fuhrer a Child! . . . [for the

Tuesday    least pretty girls, NAZI leader Paul Giesler promised to assign each one to one of his adjutants] and I can promise each one a thoroughly enjoyable experience . . .” So were the words on the

470th anniversary of Munich University, at an assembly in the German Museum. Furious at this insult, some women students stood up and angrily rushed the exit only to be arrested by the SS .

Within minutes the men exploded in fury against the NAZIs, some of the protesters were from Die Weisse Rose. The women were later released.  First open rebellion of students at Munich University. The NAZI terrorists became more and more anxious. [Vinke144-145]

See Feb 3

 

18        — First resistance against the deportations in the Warsaw, Poland

Monday    ghetto [Klee 309]. See Oct 3

 

Spring              Sonderkommando ‘1005’ starts its activities in the East. The bodies of murdered Jews are dug up and burned. The mass graves are filled in and leveled off (Klee 309).

U.S. State Department refuses to apply pressure on Axis satellites to release Jews as condition of Axis surrender during negotiations [Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungry and Slovakia].

See Mar 28’43

February                     Second boatload of Norwegian Jews from internment camps

deported to Auschwitz and in smaller numbers to Germany. Only 23

Jews survive the deportation. Some 900 Jews, or half the Jewish population evaded arrest and internment with the help of the Norwegian resistance movement they fled over the border to Sweden. Norway became emptied of Jews. [Dawidowicz 372]

See Sept 1

Oral agreements reached between SS-Obersturmfuhrer Theodore Dannecker and Alexander Belev, an attorney who writes plan for “final solution”, now head of Bulgaria conspire to deport 20,000

Jews.  See Mar 2

Dieter Wisliceny, Eichmann’s SS Deputy arrives at Salonika, Greece starts the process for deportations to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 393]     See March 15

 

3        —  NAZIs Defeated At Stalingrad! Out of 420,000 German troops,

Wednesday  90,000 remained. After enormous casualties, germans surrendered

(Jens 274). See Feb 16

Slogans Appear at Munich University: “DOWN WITH HITLER!”, “LONG LIVE FREEDOM!”, “FREEDOM” are found painted on Munich University buildings. [Vinke 167]

— “White Rose” Responds. Christl Probst writes the final draft

leaflet for distribution of the White Rose. It will cost him his life. (Jens 322; Vinke 156). See Feb 4

—  Belev telegraphs all representatives of the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs to draw up lists of Jews in their areas by: sex, age, occupations and addresses.  See Oct 3


4        — “FREEDOM” and “DOWN WITH HITLER” — are painted with tar

Thursday   paint on the walls of Munich’s university quarter by White Rose leafleteers Alexander Schmorell and Hans Scholl in the early morning hours. [Jens 275; Vinke 149] See Feb 16

 

16        — “KOMMILITONEN! KOMMILITONINNEN!” [FELLOW STUDENTS –

Tuesday    MEN and WOMEN!] The White Rose leaflet began: “Shaken and broken, our people behold the loss of the men of Stalingrad. Three hundred and thirty thousand German men have been senselessly and irresponsibly driven to death and destruction by the inspired strategy of our World War I Private First Class. Fuhrer, we thank you! . . . “We have grown up in a state where all free expression has been ruthlessly gagged. In the most fertile, young years of our lives Hitler Youth, SA, and SS have endeavored to standardize, condition, and anesthetize us. ‘Philosophical education’ they called their contemptible method of suffocating nascent free thought in a fog of empty phrases. An inconceivably diabolic and at the same time narrow-minded leader-selection program trains future party leaders to become godless, shameless, unscrupulous exploiters and killers, blindly and stupidly following their Fuhrer! . . .

“Freedom and Honor! For ten long years Hitler and his lackies have drained, vulvarized, and distorted those two glorious German worlds ad nauseam, the way only amateurs can when they cast the highest values of a nation before swine. For ten long years, destroying all material and spiritual freedom and all the moral substance of the German nation, they have blatantly shown how little freedom and honor mean to them. The German name will remain disgraced forever unless German youth arise[s] and, avenging and atoning at the same time, smashes its tormentors and build a new spiritual Europe. . .

“Students! The German nation is watching us! . . . Bravely on, students! The beacons are aflame! Our nation sounds the march against Nationa Socialism’s enslavement of Europe. There will be newly impassioned faith in freedom and honor.!” [Jens 277; Venke 155-156]

Anti-NAZI Riots at Universitat of Munchen, Germany break out. Hans And Sophie Scholl leave substancial numbers of final

White Rose leaflets outside the doors of the various institutes, on the stairs, or in cloakrooms of Munich University.  See Feb 18

 

18        — White Rose members spotted by a janitor, who witnesses Sophie

Thursday   and Hans flinging a few copies of the handbills down the balustrade of the atrium into the court yard below. They are captured by a janitor, Jakob Schmid and handed over to the Gestapo. They are arrested for treason. [Jens 277, 278 & 280; Scholl; Vinke 160, 162] See Feb 22

 

22        — Bulgaria-German agreement is signed by Belev and Dannecker,

Monday     preparations for deportation is set in motion. See Mar 2

Three Members of Die Weisse Rose Student Restance Movement in Munich tried in “People’s Court” and Executed by Guillotine! (Vinke 185, 188). Hans, 24 and Sophie Scholl, 21 and Christl Probst, 23 are executed. [Jens 280-281] See Feb 23

Sophie Scholl was the first to die. The Warden of dreaded Stadel-

heim Prison reports that, “She went without batting an eyelash. None


of us could understand how such a thing was possible. The executioner said he had never seen anyone die like that!”  [Vinke 188]

Hans Scholl’s last words before placing his head on the block of

the guillotine were, “LONG LIVE FREEDOM!” were heard reverberating  through the large prison courtyard. [Jens 280-281; Vinke 185, 188]

– Christl Probst drafter of the last leaflet of the Die Weisse Rose is baptised into the Roman Catholic church on the verge of his death by guillotine. [Jens 322] He is reported as saying by the warden, “I did not know that dying was so easy, in a few moments we meet again in eternity.”  [Jens 322; Vinke 188] See Feb 23

 

23        — “Death Sentences for Conspiracy to Commit High Treason”,

Tuesday  declares the newspaper Munchener Neueste Nachrichten which carried the death notices. [Vinke 188-189]

– 80 Die Weisse Rose members arrested and sentenced in

Munich and other southern and western German cities.

[Vinke 189]      See Apr 19

 

March                         Polish-Jewish ghetto at Krakow is liquidated by SS.

 

2         — Bulgarian-German anti-Jewish deportation written agreement

Tuesday                       confirmed by cabinet. Result: Thracian and Macedonian Jews are rounded, and instructions issued to prepare for deportation of Jews from Bulgaria. A total of 11,384 Jews are sent to Treblinka and other death camps. See May

 

15        — Start of deportations of Greek Jews to Auschwitz (Niewyk xiv).

Monday

28        — Congressman Cellar and a committee of Jewish congressmen

Sunday     meet with Roosevelt “off the record” to lodge a strong protest against Brenkinridge and the State Department for the continued sabotage of rescue efforts made to save Jewry. Roosevelt refers the congressmen to Brenkinridge Long and the State Department. Roosevelt remain passive on the Jewish issue.      See Nov

 

April                 5         — Dietrich Bonhoeffer arrested for disloyalty and incarcerated in

Monday            the Tegel military prison in Berlin. See April 9, 1945

 

7         — Chelmno, Poland extermination camp discontinues activities.

Wednesday    The traces of the extermination are eliminated (Klee 309).

See April 19-May 16

 

Early April           — Warsaw Ghetto groups dispatched with urgent appeals for help to London, New York and Jerusalem with the message, “Storm heaven and earth for help!” HELP NEVER COMES! The failure to comprehend the horror about to descend upon the ghetto. [Dawidowicz 336]

 

19        — On Hitler’s 54th birthday Warsaw ghetto in Poland is

Monday    attached by SS. Against 3 to 1 odds; 750 Jewish fighters resist extermination by 2,000 crack SS troops under the command of General Jurgen Stroop (See Oct 3).  [Bauer 262; Klee 309; Stroop]


—  “ A few good young men and women” Almost every fighter had a revolver, and there were possibly two or three light machine guns, a number of hand grenades, and fourteen rifles; whereas, the German SS was heavily equip with arms of every type, including artillery and tanks. [Bauer 262] See May 16

Die Weisse Rose members sentenced! Professor Kurt Huber, Willi Graf, and Alexander Schmorell sentenced to death and executed a few months later. Eugen Grimminger to life in prison, Traute Lafrenz, Katharina Schuddekopt, Gisela Scherting, and Susanne Hirzel each sentenced to ten years in prison. Hans Hirzel to five years. [Vinke 189]                              See July 13

 

April 19-May 16        — “WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING”. This incident was the only

Mon-Sun               resistance by victims to the ensuing genocide that cost as many as

15 million lives of Jews and Gentiles. There was little resistance by victims to the ensuing genocide that cost as many as 15 million lives. The victims had been deprived of the means for effective resistance by the earlier gun control statues (Klee 309; Niewyk xiv; Smith, Jay). This is the result, of the naive who think their government will protect them from tyranny. The nature of government is at best, “is a tiger which must be watched every moment with a whip and gun.” See May 16

 

 

May Berlin declared: “Juden rein”, free of Jews.– Kallay, head of Hungarian government, in a public speech,
rejects NAZI demands for “resettlement” of the Jews as a “final
 

 

 

 

16

solution,” so long as Germans are unable to satisfy questions ofwhere Jews are to be settled.– King Boris of Bulgaria orders resettlement of Sofia Jews in provincial towns, despite protests from Jews and Bulgarians.

See Sept

SS is triumphant in burning down the entire Warsaw ghetto

Sunday thereby exterminating its inhabitants. Of the 750 Jewish fighters
only 100 escaped capture and survived to fight with “the resistance.”The size of the ghetto was 300 X 1000 yards approximately. See Aug
June Himmler orders liquidation of Polish and Russian ghettos. Lwow ghetto    liquidated (Niewyk xiv). See Aug 2
July 13 Third Trial of Die Weisse Rose Members! “People’s Court” tries
Tuesday and sentenced Josef Soehngen, Wilhelm Geyer, and Manfred
Eickemeyer are given three months. [Vinke 189]– Die Weisse Rose Crushed! Hamburg branch is discovered also.50 people are discovered, arrested; eight received death sentences. [Vinke 189]

Die Wiesse Rose was comprised of 130 or more, primarily young adults, out of a German population of millions, they were a flickering brilliant light of HOPE for a few months, yet Die Weisse Rose has glowed HOPE for countless of people desiring to remain and be free, to this very day! “You are the light of the world” . . . “You are a city on a hill!” said Jesus the Messiah. Jesus’ followers are that light of Hope and Freedom may we never forget, nor stop shining His light! That light can never be hidden or tyranny will follow.                                                 See 1934 & 1935


 

August Goebbels declares Berlin: “Juden rein”, free of Jews!Germans to liquidate the surviving remnants of slave labor ghettos in USSR beginning with Bialystok. See Nov
Lodz, Polish ghetto, last and longest 70,000 Jewish forced-labor workers deported to killing camps. 50,000-70,000 Polish Jews survived, 1 million have been murdered. [Bauer 302] See Aug
2 Uprising of prisoners in Treblinka, Poland extermination camp
Monday [Klee 309; Niewyk xiv]. See Oct 14
29 Denmark: NAZIs institute military rule, takes King prisoner and
Sunday disarms symbolic Danish army. [Bauer 294] See Sept 28

 

September                  Russian ghettos of Minsk, Lida, and Vilna are liquidated by

NAZIs.              See November & July 1944

7,500 Danish Jews rescued (Niewyk xiv) See Sept 28

Bulgarian Jews must wear yellow Star of David; orders expulsion from cities for unemployed Jews, confiscate Jewish property and sent to special quarters in Sofia. See Aug ‘44

Croatian, Bosnian and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia) Jews was deported on a constant basis through 1944, even those who have taken refuge in the Italian zone are sent to Auschwitz. Jewish losses  for all of Yugoslavia estimated at 60,000.

 

1        — 13th Fuehrer Order Supplementing Reich Citizenship Law of

Wednesday  September 16, 1935 denies protection of the courts for Jews and are to be surrendered to the Gestapo.

 

23        Norwegian “Quisling” frontier guard is assassinated. Killers (2)

Thursday     identified as Jews. Quisling order under the assassination pretext to confiscate all Jewish property owned in Norway. As the result of the murder half the Jewish population are taken as hostages and erned or imprisoned.

 

28        — Danish Social Democratic leaders receive intelligence that under

Tuesday    martial law SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Karl Werner Best [acting as Reich Plenpotentiary] plans to roundup Jews remaining not already deported to Theresienstadt will use German shipping industry to transport them to concentration camps.[Dawidowicz 373] See Oct 1

 

29        — Last major roundup of about 5,000 Dutch Jews, including

Wednesday    heads of Joodsche Raad deported to Westerbrook. Only diamond workers and Jewish partners in mixed marriages. Most of these were deported in early 1944. [Dawidowicz 368]

110,000 Dutch Jews deported to Auschetz-Sobibor, and in small numbers, to other camps. About 5,000 survived the death camps. Seventy-five percent of Dutch Jewry perished. [Dawidowicz 368]

 

October                       —  NAZI occupied Italy roundup 1,000 of 8,000 Roman Jews for deportation to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 370-371]                                See Nov. 23


1        — NAZIs attempt to roundup and deport Danish Jews not already

Friday      at Theresienstadt, but in an extraordinary operation involving the whole of Denmark and by agreement with the Swedish government, all the remaining 7,000 Jews were hidden and remain safe until the end of the war. [Dawidowicz 373]

3        — SS General Jurgen Stroop, Athens, orders anti-Jewish decrees:

Sunday  defining Jews and ordering registration within five days; if Jews do not register they are shot dead on sight. Anyone providing shelter to Jews are to be shot without trial. [Dawidowicz 374] See Nov 19

 

14        — Uprising of prisoners in Sobibor extermination camp (Klee 310;

Thursday   Niewyk xiv). See Oct 19

 

19        — Lublin SS und Polizeifuhrer, Globocnik, announces the “Aktion

Tuesday      Reinhard” declared complete (Niewyk xiv) and dissolution of the camps Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Maidanek cease functioning (Klee 310).

— Most SS personnel involved in “Aktion Reinhard” are transferred to the Adriatic coastal operation zone to fight the partisans, select, and deport the Jews in that area (rapid deployment forces).

 

 

 

 

November                   Russian ghetto of Riga is liquidated by NAZIs. See July 1944.

Breckinridge Long testifies to U.S. Congressional House Foreign Affairs Committee reason State Department is issuing few visas. “In December 1941 most neutral shipping disappeared from the seas. . . There just is not any transportation.” In reality, ample shipping existed.                     See Mar 31’44

 

23       — Italian NAZI puppet regime issue police order to roundup all

Thursday Jews to be sent to concentration camps and to confiscate all Jewish property for the state. Jews flee into hiding. Police manage to hunt down 7,000 Jews and are sent to assembly centers Folloli di Carpi (near Modena) and Bolzano for final destination of Auschwitz and Birkenau. Many Jews were jailed in Italian prisons like San Vittorio in Milan where torture and murder were common. About 8,000

Italian Jews were murdered. [Dawidowicz 370-371]

 

December       15        — Bonhoeffer Writes From Tegel Prison, “Sometimes I think I

Wednesday     really have life more or less behind me now and that what remains for me to do would be to finish my Ethics”, (a book which he partially completed)      [Bonhoeffer: Ethics 10]

 

 

1944

 

U.S. War Department rejects numerous appeals to bomb railroads leading to Auschwitz and its gas chambers [Gilbert 580; Niewyk 217]. See Spring

U.S. Supreme Court concedes that Japanese deportations are legal [Korematsu v. United States].


Early in 1944 NAZIs round up Greek Jews from Athens, islands of Corfu, Crete, Rhodes, and etc. 60,000 Greek Jews are murdered, most by deportation to Auschwitz.

 

March             19        — Germany’s seizure of power in Hungary and installation of

Sunday Arrow Cross Chief Szalsi, leads to immediate steps of listing, segregation, and deportation of the largest surviving group of Jews in central Europe, approximately 750,000. Adolf Eichmann himself arrives in Budapest with a contingent of SS officers to take over Jewish affairs. See March 20

 

20        — Eichmann demands that Hungarian Jewish leaders establish

Monday    “Judenrat” to carry out NAZI orders by noon. See March 21

 

21        — By 5 PM, Hungarian Jewish leaders [Judenrat] in Budapest

Tuesday    must prepare list of all Jewish organizations and agencies with names of their leaders for approval of IV.B.4. section of the Gestapo by 5 PM [Gabor 19]. See March 22

 

22        — Eichmann appoints Dome Szalsi, Prime Minister of Hungary.

Wednesday              See March 29

 

29        — New Hungarian laws virtually eliminate Jews from professions;

Wednesday  order registration of all property and establishes procedures for instant deportation. Eichmann divides Hungary into 6 zones and

systematically deports Jews zone by zone. See March 31

 

31        — Hungarian orders all Jews to identify themselves and register with

Friday      government by April 5.  See Apr 15

 

Spring              Roosevelt personally informs Robert Pehle, Vice Director of IGC [Intergovernmental Committee on Political Refugees], that Navy could bring refugees to U.S. on returning troopships. War Shipping Administration could use Liberty ships because they need ballast. While State Department claimed transportation for refugees unavailable. IGC is planned by Roosevelt to become the “International Refugee Organization” of the United Nations after the war.           See Aug 21’44

 

April                            Hungarian Catholic Bishops, led by Cardinal Primate, Seredi, were conservative nationalist who were skeptical of the Vatican’s Nuncio, Msgr. Rotta intervention with mitigation’s of degrees passed against the Jews by the Hungarian new Fascist government under Dome Szalsi.

— Hungarians change only certain modifications of deportation in favor of  baptized Jews the rest of the 750,000 Jews are to be deported for extermination to Auschwitz, Poland. See Apr 5 & June 25

 

5         — Deadline for Jews to be identified, must wear yellow Star of David,

Wednesday     school closed in Hungary due to heavy bombing [Gabor 19].

See Apr. 7

 

7        — Hungarian Regal government decree No.6163/1944, deportation

Friday    of Jews to concentration camps [Gabor 68].     See Apr. 23


 

23        — Hungarian Jews weekly and daily food rationed by decree of

Sunday            government [Gabor 22]. See Apr 25

 

25        — Adolf Eichmann orders Joel Brand, Zionist Va’adah from

Tuesday    Budapest to appear before him. He offers to release 1 Million Jews (i.e., not only Jews in Hungry) in return for war material and other goods. In subsequent meetings ransom is specific: 10,000 trucks and quantities of tea, coffee, sugar, and soap. Negotiations are to be through Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Western Allies, plan fails.  See May 19.

 

27        — Start of deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz

Thursday  [Niewyk xiv].  See May 1

 

May                   1        — Hungarian government decrees food rations are cut in half for

Monday    Jews: Weekly – 10 oz. cooking oil, 3 oz. beef or horse meat. Daily –

8 oz. milk for infants and pregnant women (Gabor 22). See May 14

 

14        — Hungarian Jewish deportations to Auschwitz begin.

Sunday See May 16

 

16        — “Hungarian Action” starts in Auschwitz concentration camp (by

Tuesday    July 8, 1944, 476,000 Hungarian Jews have been deported) [Klee 310].     See June 5

 

19        — Joel Brand and Andor (Bandi) Grosz, a quadruple Jewish agent

Friday      [German military secret-service (the Abwehr), Hungarian counter- espionage, American OSS and British Intelligence Service] arrive in Istanbul, Turkey.

— Jewish Agency for Palestine barred from entering Turkey. Negotiation plan fails.  See June 1

 

June                  1        — Bandi Grosz is only effective German contact with Western

Thursday   intelligence agencies who is to negotiate with Joel Brand will defect to British in Istanbul. See June 6

 

5        — Hungarians Jews can shop between 11am-1pm as decreed.

Monday  [Gabor 27] See June 6

 

6        —Normandy Invassion of France: D-Day. Allies land with

Tuesday  155,000 Troops on first day! [+ Gilbert 354]

Himmler continues to make efforts to negotiate with West for ransoming of Jews.Joel Brand negotiation mission fails, can not return to Hungry because he would be killed, defects to British in Istanbul.

 

7        — Hungarian zones I and II cleared of nearly 290,000 Jews deported

Wednesday     to Auschwitz, Poland for extermination. See June 30.

 

25        — Pontiff personally speaks out. Sends an open telegram to the

Sunday      Hungarian Regent, Admiral Horthy, calling for an end to the sufferings of the Jews, and on the same day demanded a public


 

intervention by the Bishops on behalf of Christian principles for those “urgently afflicted by the racial regulations.”
30 Hungarian zone III and IV cleared of approximately 92,000
Friday Jews, all deported to Auschwitz for extermination. See July 7-8.
June – Aug 

July

Chelmno, Poland concentration camp resumes activities (more than 7,000 Jewish victims) [Klee 310]. See July-Dec– Last of Russian ghettos of Kovno and Shavli are liquidated by
NAZIs. Jewish losses are over 1 million, possibly as high as 1.3
million. In the Baltic Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia] about 90percent are murdered. In Russia proper losses are 100,000. In White Russia about 66 percent and in the Ukraine about 60 percent of all Jews are massacred.
7-8 Hungarian Jews numbering nearly 476,000, including 50,000
Fri-Sat from Budapest are cleared from zones V and VI deported to

Auschwitz for extermination. See July-Dec

 

July – Dec                    — Transports and Death Marches Evacuate Auschwitz

[Niewyk xiv]. See Aug

 

 

August                        Last Jewish ghetto, Lodz. . .Liquidated [Niewyk xiv]. See Aug 20

 

20        — Birkenau is passed up for bombing by Allies for “higher priority

Sunday    targets” in favor of synthetic oil refineries. [+ Gilbert 580; Lawliss 126]     See Jan 27’45

21        — WRB [War Refugee Board] agreed to negotiate [British refused]

Monday  with NAZIs intending to drag on discussion in hopes of saving lives until Allied victory comes. See August 22.

Bern, Switzerland. Saly Mayer, a Swiss citizen, represents JDC in Switzerland .  Roswell D. McClelland, State Department diplomat states the United States “cannot enter into or authorize ransom transactions of the nature indicated by German authorities. If it was felt that a meeting between Mayer and the German authorities

would result in gaining time, the WRB has no objections to such a meeting”. Mayer could not offer goods or money, nor could he speak in the name of the JDC.

22        — Zionist official, Joseph Liston delivers a plan of death camp at

Tuesday    Birkenau to British Foreign Office from Jerusalem. Plan had been compiled from reports of four escapees. See Nov 5

24        — After liberation of Paris, Drancy Internment camp is liberated.

Thursday   90,000 Jews were executed by Germans, mostly foreign-born. [Dawidowicz 363]

Bulgarian government abolishes Commissariat for Jewish Affairs at the negotiations with Ira Hirschmann of the United States War Refugee Board [WRD]. WRD negotiate to evacuate Jews to Palestine via Turkey. See Aug 29

 

25        — Himmler orders deportations from Budapest, Hungary stopped

Friday      as a “goodwill” token to maintain negotiations to save Jews — Allied air reconnaissance aircraft again fly over Auschwitz from base in Italy. Photos show Jews on the way from a train to a gas chamber and crematorium.


 

29         —  Bulgarian Cabinet Votes To Abolish All anti-Jewish Tuesday   Legislation; decree is published Monday, September 5, 1944 thereby saving 50,000 Bulgarian Jews. See Nov 5

 

Sept-May 6           — Allied Liberation beings in Netherlands. German begin policy of starvation and terrorism including bombing of Rotterdam and Amsterdam until liberated. [Dawidowicz 366-367]

 

October

5

Thursday

Bonhoeffer is Transferred from Tegal to main Gestapo Prison inPrinz Albrechtstrasse in Berlin. He had refused to escape when
arrangements were made because it would endanger his family andfriends (Bonhoeffer 20 & 26-’63).See February 1945

7

Uprising of Jewish prisoners belonging to a Sonderkommando in
Saturday crematorium IV in Auschwitz-Birkenau. The prisoners blow up the

26

crematorium. The uprising is suppressed (Klee 310; Niewyk xiv).See Jan 18– 35,000 Hungarian Jews have been rounded up to be used for

Thursday slave laborers, because Auschwitz has been closed to new arrivals.

Railway transports unavailable because of war, Germans march off

27,000 Jews for 100 miles to Austria, Szalasi stops marches because of high death rate.

 

November        5         — Mayer, arranges meeting with NAZI Col. Kurt Becher and

Sunday  American diplomat McClelland in Zurich, demands that NAZIs halt all killings, release orphans, and agree to the intervention of the Red Cross to take over all “civilian: internment camps, Jewish and non-Jewish” (i.e., slave labor, concentration, and death camps). Negotiations succeed in saving more lives. See Jan 15

 

7        — FDR re-elected unprecedented 4th and final term of President.

Tuesday

8        — Death March of Approximately 40,000 Jews from Budapest,

Wednesday      Austria

27        — Himmler orders end of gassings [Niewyk xiv].

Monday

 

December       31        — Alger Hiss writes United Nations Charter [Bishop 213;

Sunday   Valerian 59].

 

 

 

1945

 

– Cornelius Rhodes receives Legion of Merit for establishing chemical warfare labs in Maryland, Utah and Panama. Is appointed to experiments on unwitting prisoners, hospital patients and

soldiers [Valerian 59].

– Germany secret chemical weapon discovered in ammunition dump. British ship shell to Britain [Valerian 59].

United States: “Operation Paperclip”, imports 642 NAZI specialist in all technical areas until 1973, after an initial phase which will end in 1952. Germans involved in mind- control research in concentration camps are also are immigrated through OSS (Office


of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA under Dulles) [Bower; Hunt; Lasby; Valerian 59].

– Americans establish Concentration Death Camps for German “Prisoners of War” in post-war Germany. Records reveal death rate is 33 percent [Valerian 59]!

Eisenhower redesignates the German POWs (protected by Geneva Convention) to “disarmed enemy forces” (without protected status) [Valerian 59].

Interpol reorganized, new headquarters will be in Paris, France

[Valerian 59].

The “doctors” trial will begin in Nuremberg. It is disclosed during the trial, that many experiments done on concentration camp prisoners followed precedent-setting one done in the United States

on civilian population earlier in the decade [Valerian 59].

 

January          15        — Himmler desperately attempts to negotiate with American

Monday     government through JDC (Joint Distribution Committee, an American Jewish aid agency). Contrary to wishes of extreme SS faction, Ernst Kaltenbrunner head of the security services, Eichmann, and others — Himmler wanted to keep some Jews alive to serve as hostages.                     See Apr 11

 

18        — Evacuation of Auschwitz Concentration Camp begins

Thursday  [+ Gilbert 631; Klee 310].

 

27        — Auschwitz is Liberated by Soviet troops [Klee 310; Kiewyk xiv].

Saturday

From Jan                     — Evacuation of most concentration camps to the ‘interior of the

Reich’. Innumerable exhausted prisoners die during transports

and at overcrowded reception centers or are shot at the roadside by

SS guards if they cannot march fast enough (Klee 310).

 

February                     Bonhoeffer transferred to Flossenburg from SS prison in Berlin, because of allied bombing destroys Gestapo prison (Bonhoeffer

21-’63)    See April 9

German SS High Command relocates scientific research/ testing centers west from Grossendorf to Sulzheim, where rocket studies are being done [Valerian 59]. See Apr 8

 

4-11     — FDR at Yalta Conference with Stalin and Churchill. Eastern

Sun-Sun           Europe handed over to Communists. Millions relocated at the Yalta Accord signed by FDR with Alger Hiss at his side and Averill Harriman, among others     [Bishop 297, 374; Valerian 59].

 

April                 2         — Hitler prophecies world’s eternal gratefulness for having

Monday    instigated the stamping out of the Jews.

15        — Belsen Concentration Camp Liberated by Allies! [Gilbert+ 672]

Tuesday

8         — Rocket studies resume at Sulzheim [Valerian 59].

Sunday

9         — Dietrich Bonhoeffer Hanged Naked at Flossenburg

Monday    Concentration Camp by the Black Guard SS between 5 and 6 o’clock in the morning. Dr. Bonhoeffer was never tried for any crime. Execution specially ordered by Himmler himself. His last


recorded words at his farewell were, “O God, this is the end – – – for me, the beginning of life.”  [Bonhoeffer 20, 21, 32-‘63]. See 1934;

1935; Early May 1942

Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s most influential works: Cost of Discipleship (1937; trans. 1949), Life Together (1939; trans. 1954), and the posthumously edited Letters And Papers From Prison (1951; trans 1953). Dr. Bonhoeffer was motivated on the importance of ecumenism, his work towards world peace and a tenacious challenge to make the “Gospel” and “Christian” community relevant in a modern world.

Bonhoeffer, a Christian anti-Semite? Despite his consistent

and heroic opposition to Nazism, there is no evidence that he repudiated the concept of a ‘divine curse’ over the centuries on the Jewish people. As an example, he wrote in 1933, “The church has never lost sight of the thought that the ‘chosen people’ . . . must            bear the curse for its action through a long history of suffering . . .” (Fletcher 25)

 

11        — Buchenwald is first concentration camp in Germany to be

Wednesday  liberated by the Allies [Niewyk xiv].

 

12        — Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States dies

Thursday  at 3:35 P.M.[Bishop 540] “ . . . deceased by reason of a massive cerebral hemorrhage.” [Bishop 548]

 

23        — Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s brother Klau and Albiecht Haushofer

Wednesday  executed as conspirators against Hitler and the Reich. [+Gilbert 672]

 

29        — Dachu Liberated! 2539 Jews among 33,000 survivors. Of these

Tuesday    survivors, 2466 die within the next month and half! [+Gilbert 678]

 

30        — Hitler commits suicide at 3:30 PM – Berlin Bunker by single

Wednesday      shot through mouth.  [+Gilbert 681]

 

May                  7         — NAZI unconditional capitulation of Germany [Niewyk xiv].

Monday    End of war in Europe [Klee 310; Niewyk xiv].

 

 

 

NOTE:                                                         1946

 

 

March

5

Tuesday

Winston Churchill Announces the Beginning of the Cold War. His announcement occurs during his speech at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. He speaks of the “Iron Curtain” of the Stalin’s Soviet Union.
June 42 Jewish Holocaust survivors who returned to Kielce, Poland to reclaim their property are killed by polish mob! “. . . the Polish government is trying to mend relations with Jews on the50th anniversary of the June Riots. President Aleksander Kwansniewaki met with leaders the World Jewish Congress to discuss returning property that once belonged to 3 million Polish Jews, most of


whom were murdered in Germany occupation.” [ National & International Religion Report.  Vo.10, No.5, p. 8. February 19, 1996]


R E S O U R C E S

 

Library Search

 

Topics                         Catalog Numbers          [Dewey / Library of Congress]

Example:

Anti-Semitism                                                 305.892 /   DS 145

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945)                      940.5315 /  D 810

 

Anti-Nazi Movement – Germany

Concentration Camps Holocaust (Christian Theology) Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945)

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Addresses, essays, lectures Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Anniversaries, etc. Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Biography

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Causes Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Censorship Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Dictionaries Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Drama Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Fiction Holocaust Survivors

Jews – Persecutions – History

O’swi’ecim (Concentration camps) Righteous Gentiles in the Holocaust

Weisse Rose (White Rose) [Resistence group] World War, 1939-1945 – Jews

 

Specific Sources (Note: most of these citations are available from your local, college and university libraries)

 

Books [catalogue No.]

 

 

Anti-Semitism

 

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins Of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich,

1973.  [321.9 / JC 481.A6]

*Bratton, Fred Gladstone. The Crime Of Christendom: The Theological Sources Of Christian

Anti-Semitism. New York: Beacon Press, 1989. [261.2 / BM 535.B67]

Bulkin, Elly. Yours In Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives On Anti-Semitism And Racism.

New York: Haul Press, 1994c. [320.56 / DS 146.U6 B85]

Chaitkin, Anton. Treason In America. New York: New Benjamin Franklin House, 1984. [305.52 /]

Fleischner, Eva. Judaism In German Christian Theology Since 1945: Christianity And Israel Considered In Terms Of Mission. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press & The American Theological Library Assoc., 1972c, 1975. [261.2 / BM 535.F56]

“Eugenics,” Microsoft ® Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c)

1994 Funk &  Wagnalls Corporation.

*Flannery, Edward H. The Anguish Of The Jews: Twenty-three Centuries Of Anti-Semitism.

Mahwah: Paulist Press /Macmillan, 1965c, 1985 Rev Ed. [301.45209 / DS 145.F6] Glock, Charles Y.; Stark, Rodney. Christian Beliefs And Anti-Semitism. New York: Harper &

Row, 1966.       [261.2 / DS 145.G56]


*Grosser, Paul; E.; Halperin, Edwin G. Anti-Semitism: Causes And Effects. New York: Philosophical  Library, Inc., 1978c, Rev Ed. [305.8924 / DS 145.G763]

Isaac, Jules. Has Anti-Semitism Roots In Christianity? New York: National Conference of

Christians and Jews, 1961. [305.8924 / DS 145.I8]

                 . The Christian Roots Of Anti-Semitism. London: Council of Christians and Jews,

1960.  [305.8924 / DS 145.I73aE]

Kirsch, Paul J. We Christians And Jews.  Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975. [305.8924 / BM 535.K48]

Lapide, Pinchas. Three Popes And The Jews. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967. [261.2 / BM 535.L3]

Littel, Franklyn Harmlin. The Crucifixion Of The Jews. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. [201.8 /]

*Morse, Arthur D. While 6 Million Died: A Chronicle Of American Apathy. New York: Random

House, 1968c.  [940.531 / D 810]

*Parkes, James W. The Conflict Of The Church And The Synagogue: A study In The Origins

Of Anti-Semitism. Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1964. [305.8924 / DS 141.P36]

*              . The Jewish Problem In The Modern World. Oxford: Thornton Butterworth Ltd.,

1939.  [305.8924 / DS 141.P37]

*Poliakov, Leon. The Aryan Myth: A History Of Racist And Nationalist Ideas Of Europe. New

York: Basic Books, 1974. [ / GN 539.P7513]

*              . Harvest of Hate: The Nazi Program For The Destruction Of The Jews Of Europe.

New York: Holocaust Library – Schocken Books, 1979. [ / D810.J4P6148.I34]

                 . The History Of Anti-Semitism. New York: Vanguard Press, 1965. [301.451 / DS 145.P4613]

Roth, John K. A Consuming Fire: Encounters With Elie Wiesel And The Holocaust. Atlanta: John     Knox    Press, 1979c. [940.5315 / PQ 2683.I32.Z86]

Runes, Dagobert D. The Jew And The Cross. New York: Philosophical Library, 1965. [305.8924 / DS 145.R85]

Selznick, Gertrude Jaeger; Steinberg, Stephen. The Tenacity Of Prejudice: Ante-Semitism In

Contemporary America. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. [305.8924 . DS 146.U6.S4] Yascen, Leonard C. The Jesus Connection: To Triumph Over Anti-Semitism. New York:

Crossroads Books, 1985. [296.3872 /BM 620.Y37]

 

 

Holocaust

 

Bauer, Yehuda; Keren, Nili. A History Of The Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.B315823]

Bayles, William David. Seven Were Hanged: An Authentic Account Of The Student Revolt In

Munich University. London: V. Gollanez Ltd., 1945. [943.085 / DD 256.3 B] Block, Gay; Drucker, Malka. Rescuers: Portraits Of Moral Courage In The Holocaust. New

York: Holmes and Meier, 1992. [940.5318 / D 804.B57]

Blum, Howard. WANTED! The Search For Nazi In America.. New York: Quadrangle / The

New York Times Book Co., 1977. [364.1380924 / D 804.G4.B57]

*Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Ethics. New York: Collier Books, 1949c, 1986 paper Ed. [241 / BJ 1231.B7]

                 .Letters & Papers From Prison. New York: Colliers Books, 1953c, 1971 enlarged

Ed.       [284.086 / BX 4827.B641]

                 . The Cost Of Discipleship. New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1949c, 2nd ed. 1963. [248.4 / BT 380.B66]

“Bonhoeffer, Dietrich,” Microsoft ® Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright (c)   1994 Funk & Wagnalls.


Brietman, Richard. The Architect Of Genocide: Himmler And The Final Solution. New York: Random House, 1991. [943.086 / DD 247.H4.B74]

*Conway, J(ohn) S.  The Nazi Persecution Of The Churches 1933-1945. New York: Basic

Books, 1969. [ / BR 856.C6710]

*Davidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against The Jews 1930-1945. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1975. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.D33]

*Dumbach, Annette E.; Newborn, Jud.  Shattering The German Night: The Story Of The

White  Rose. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986. [943.086 / DD 256.3 D825]

*Ebenstein, William. The Nazi State. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1943. [943.086 / DD 253.E5]

Eisner, Jack. The Survivor. New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1980. [943.086 / D 810.J4.E385]

Epstein, Helen. Children Of The Holocaust: Conversation With Sons And Daughters Of

Survivors. New York: Putman, 1979. [940.531503924 /]

Epstein, Leslie. King Of The Jews. New York: McCann and Geoghegan, 1979. [ / PS3555.P655 K5]

*Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration And The Holocaust,

19381945. New York: Holocaust Library, 1970. [940.531 / D 810.J4.F38] Fleming, Gerald. Hitler And The Final Solution. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1984.

[940.5315 / D 810.J4]

Fogelman, Eva. Conscience And Courage: Rescuers Of Jews During The Holocaust. New

York: Anchor Book, 1994. [940.5318 / D 804.3.F64]

*Frank, Anne. Anne Frank: ”Diary Of A Young Girl”. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1955. [940.5481 / D 810.J4.F7813]

Friedman, Chaim Shlomo. Dare To Survive. New York: C.I.S. Publishers, 1992. [943.84 /] Gabor, Georgia M.  My Destiny: Survivor Of The Holocaust. Arcadia: Amen Pub. House, 1981.  [940.5315 / DS 135.H9]

*Frydland, Rachmiel. When Being Jewish Was A Crime. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc., Publishers, 1978. [940.531503924-B / DS 135.P63F783]

George, Amy. Good-bye Is Not Forever. Eugene: Harvest House, 1996. [ / ]

*Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz And The Allies. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981. [940.5316 / D 810.J4.G48]

*              . The Holocaust: A History Of The Jews Of Europe During The Second World War.

Holt,     Rinehart, and Winston, 1985. [940.5315 / D 810.J4.G522]

*              .  The Macillan Atlas Of The Holocaust. New York: Macmillan, 1982. [ / G 1797.21.E29.G48]

+              . The Second World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1989. [940.53 / D 743.G6334]

*Hallie, Philip P. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. [944.815 / DS 135.F85.L434]

Hanser, Richard. A Noble Treason: The Revolt Of The Munich Students Against Hitler.

New York: Putman, 1979. [943.086 / DD 256.3 H35]

Heck, Alfons. A Child Of Hitler: Germany In The Days When God Wore A Swastika.

Frederick: Renaissance House, Div. of Jende-Hagan, Inc., 1985. [943.086’092’4 / DD 247.H354.A34]

Hilberg, Raul; Staron, Stanislaw; Kermisz, Josef. The Warsaw Diary Of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude To Doom. New York: Stein & Day Pub., 1982. [943.84 / DS 35.P62.W2613]

Hoffman, Judy. Joseph And Me: In The Days Of The Holocaust. New York: National Conference of Christians and Jews – KTAR Publishing House, Inc., 1979. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.H62]

*Hoffman, Peter. The History Of The German Resistence 1933-1945. Cambridge: MIT Press,  1977. [/]


Hohne, Heinz. The Order Of The Death’s Head; The Story Of Hitler’s SS. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. [940.5318 / DD 253.6.H613]

Gun, Nerin E. The Day Of The Americans. New York: Fleet Pub. Co., 1966. [940.547 / D 805.G3.G95]

*Jens, Ingle, ed.; Scholl, Hans; Scholl, Sophie. At The Heart Of The White Rose: Letters And

Diaries Of Hans And Sophie Scholl. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. [943.086’0922

/ DD 247.S375 A4]

Karski, Jan. Story Of A Secret State. Boston, Houghton Mifllin Co., 1944. [943.8 / D 802. P6K3]

Keneally, Philip P. Schindler’s List. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982c. [FIC-Ken / PR 9619.3.K4653]

Kern, Alice. Tapestry Of Hope; Survivor Of Auschwitz And Bergen-Belsen. Cathedral City, Limited Edition Books, 1988. [940.5315 / D 810.J4.K]

Kerstan, Reinhold. Blood And Honor. Illinois: David C. Cook Publishing Co., 1980c, Spl Ed

World  Wide.  [070.924 /DD 253.5.K37]

Klee, Ernst – ed.; Dressen, Willi; Riess, Volker. “The Good Old Days”: The Holocaust As

Seen By Its Perpetrators And Bystanders. New York, Free Press – Macmillan, Inc.,

1991.  [940.5318 / D804.3.S3613]

Kubar, Zofia S.  Double Identity: A Memoir. New York: Hill and Wang [Div. of Farrar, Strauss

& Giroux], 1988. [940.5315’0392404384 / DS 135.P62 W279]

Lawliss, Charles. “…and God Cried: The Holocaust Remembered”. North Dighton: JG Press

World  Publisher, 1994. [940.5318 / D 810.J4]

*Le Hallie, Philip Paul. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story Of The Village Of Le Chambon, And How Goodness Happened There. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. [944.815 /DS 135.F85.L434]

Levi, Alan. The Wiesenthal File. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1994. [940.5318092 / DS 135.A93.W534]

Levi, Primo. Moments Of Reprieve. New York: Summit Books, 1986.  [940.531 / PQ 4872.E8 Z4713]

                 .  Survival In Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault On Humanity. New York: Collier,

1959c, 1993. [940.5315 / D 804.G3 L48E]

                 . The Drowned And The Saved. New York: Summit Books, 1988. [940.5313 / D 810.J4 L453131]

Linder, Bert. Condemned Without Judgement: The Three Lives Of A Holocaust Survivor.

New York: S.P.I. Books, 1995. [940.5318092 / ]

Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying The Holocaust: The Growing Assault On Truth And Memory. New

York: Penguin Books, 1994. [940.5318 / D 804.35.L51]

Littel, Marcia Sacks – ed. Liturgies On The Holocaust. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press

(Anne Frank Institute of Philadelphia), 1986. [291.38 / D 810.J4L553]

*Lutzer, Erwin W. Hitler’s Cross. Chicago: Moody Press, 1995. [940.5482 /]

Marks, Jane. The Hidden Children: The Secret Survivors Of The Holocaust. New York: Ballatine Books, Fawcett Combine Books, 1933. [940.5315 / D 804.3.M368]

Mermelstein, Mel. By Bread Alone; The Story of A-4605: Survivor Of The NAZI Holocaust.

Huntington Beach: Auschwitz Study Foundation, 1979. [940.5472 / D 810.J4.M426]

*Niewyk, Donald L. ed. The Holocaust: Problems And Perspectives Of Interpretation.

Lexington: DC Heath & Co., 1992. [940.5315 / D 810.J]

*Office of Counsel for Prosecutions of Axis Criminality. Nazi Conspiracy And Aggression Opinion And Judgment / Office of United States Chief Of Counsel For Prosecution Of Axis Criminality. Washington DC: United States Printing Office Documents, 10 vols., 1947.   [940.54 / D 804.G42.A42)

Opdyke, Irene Gut & Elliot, Jeffrey M.  Into The Flames: The Story Of A Righteous Gentile.

San Bernardino: R. Reginald, The Bongo Press, 1992. [940.5318 / D 804.3063]


Rosenberg, David ed. Testimony; Contemporary Writers Make The Holocaust Personal.  New

York: TIME Books / Random House, 1989. [940.5318 / D 804.3 T47]

*Rothchild, Sylvia. Voices From The Holocaust. New York: Meridian Books, 1982. [940.5315’03924024 / D 810.J4 V63]

*Scholl, Inge. The White Rose: Munich, 1942-1943. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, distributed by New York: Harper & Row, 1983, 2ed. [943.086 / DD 256.3 S3362]

                 .  Six Against Tyranny.  London: Murray, 1955. [943.086 / DD 256.3 S] Senger, Valentin. No.12 Kaiserhof-strasse: The Story Of An Invisible Jew In Nazi Germany.

New York: E.P. Dutton, 1981. [943.41[B] / DS 135.G5S46713]

Shirer, William L. The Nightmare Years, 1930-1940. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., v.2, 1984. [070.924 /]

*Smith, Danny. Wallenberg: Lost Hero. Springfield: Templegate Publishing, 1987. [940.5315 / D 809.S8.W3276]

*Steenmeijer, Anna G. – ed.; Frank, Otto – collaborator (father of Anne Frank). A Tribute To

Anne Frank. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970. [090 / D 810.J4.S7413]

Stein, George H. The Waffen SS: Hitler’s Elite Guard At War 1939-1945. Ithaca: Cornell

University Press, 1966. [940.5318 / D 757.85.S8]

*Ten Boon, Corrie. The Hiding Place. Washington Depot: Chosen Books, 1971. [940.53 / D 811.5.T427]

Time-Life Books, The Apparatus of Death. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1991. [940.5318 /] Treece, Patricia. A Man For Others: Maximilian Kolbe Saint Of Auschwitz. Huntington: Our

Sunday Visitor. Inc., 1982. / Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., 1982. [940.5472 /

BX 4705.K625.T73]

Tsur, Muki; Yanai, Nathan – eds. The Holocaust. American Zionists Foundation, Inc. (Pamphet 138pp, no date and city)

*United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The History of the Holocaust As Told In The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1993c. [940.9315 / D 804.3.B464]

*Vinke, Herman. The Short Life Of Sophie Scholl. Cambridge: Harper & Row, 1st Amer. Ed.,

1984. [943.086’0924 / DD 256.3 S337]

Wechsberg, Joseph – ed. The Simon Wiesenthal Memories: The Murderers Among Us. New

York:    McGraw Hill Book Co., 1967. [364.12 / D 804.G4.W5]

Wiesel, Elie. Night.  New York: Hill and Wang, 1960. [940.548 / D 811.5.W4923] Wiesenthal, Simon. The Simon Wiesenthal Story.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. [364.12 /

D 804.G4 W54]

Wilder-Smith, Beate. The Day Nazi Germany Died: An Eyewitness Account Of The Russian

And Allied Invasion Of Germany: An Autobiography. Costa Mesa: World For Today,

1982.  [940.5482 / D 811.5.W49]

Wyman, David S.  The Abandonment Of The Jews: America And The Holocaust, 1941-1945.

New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. [ 943.531 / D 810.J4.W95]

Yahil, Levi. The Holocaust: The Fate Of The European Jewry, 1935-1945. New York: Oxford

Univ. Press, 1990. [940.5318 /]

Zuccotti, Susan. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, And Survival. New

York: Basic Books, Inc. Pub., 1987. [940.531503924045 / DS 135.I8.Z83]

 

 

Germany, Politics and Government, 1933-1945

 

Allen, William S. The Nazi Seizure Of Power: The Experience Of A Single German Town,

19301935. New York: New Viewpoints, 1965. [943.085 / DD 256.5.A58]

Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943 (Verlag FRZ.,1925c.) [92 / DD 247.H6A4 ]

                 . My New Order. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941. [940.5318 /DD 247.H5]


Hohne, Heinz. The Order Of The Death’s Head; The Story Of Hitler’s SS. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. [940.5318 / DD 253.6.H613]

Klee, Ernst; Dressen, Willi; Riess, Volker. “The Good Old Days” The Holocaust As Seen By Its Perpetrators And Bystanders. New York: Macmillan, Inc. – Free Press, 1991. [940.5318 / D 804.3.S3613]

Langer, Walter C. The Mind Of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report. New York: Basic

Books, 1972. [943.086 / DD 247.H5.L29]

Mayer, Sydney L. Signal Years Of Triumph 1940-1942: Hitler’s Wartime Picture Magazine.

Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. [940.5343 / D 743.2.S525]

Mosse, George L. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural And Social Life In The Third Reich. New

York: Grosset & Dunlay, 1966. [943.086 / DD 256.5.M38]

*Noakes, J(eremy), Pridham, G(eoffrey), Ed’s. Nazism: A History Of Documents And Eyewitness Accounts, 1919-1945. New York: Schocken Books: Distributed by Pantheon Books, 1990. Reprint: Exeter: Univ of Exeter, v 1-3, 1983-1988. [943.086 / DD 256.N366]

Stein, George H. The Waffen SS: Hitler’s Elite Guard At War 1939-45. Ithaca: Cornell

University, 1966. [940.5318 / D 757.85.S8]

Todias, Fritz. The Reichstag Fire. New York: G.P. Putman’s Sons, 1964.         [943.086 / DD 256.5.T573]

United States. Congress. Joint Committee On Conditions In Concentration Camps In

Germany. Atrocities And Other Conditions In Concentration Camps In Germany. Report Of The Committee Requested By Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Through The Chief Of Staff  Gen. George C. Marshall To The Congress Of The United States Relative To Atrocities And Other Conditions In Concentration Camps In Germany. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office., 1945. [ /DD 253.U583]

 

 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the United States of America

 

Bishop, Jim. FDR’s Last Year, April 1944-April 1945. New York: William Morrow & Co. Inc.,

1974. [973.917 / E 807.B54]

Bower, T.G.T. The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt For The Nazi Scientists. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987. [353.00856 / D 810.S2.B69]

Hunt, Linda. Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, And Project

Paperclip, 1945-1990. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. [ 353.00856 / D 810.S2.H86]

Lasby, Clarence. Project Paperclip; German Scientist And The Cold War. New York: Athenaeum.      1971.  [353.00856 / Q 149.U5.L58]

Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt And The New Deal, 1932-1940. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. [973.917 / E 806.L44]

Manchester, William. The Glory And The Dream: A Narrative History Of America. Boston: Little,  Brown & Co., 1974. [917.30392 / E 806.M34]

Nellis, Micki II; Schroder, Gene. Constitution: Fact or Fiction. Cleburne: Buffalo Creek Press,

1995. (342.73 / JK 560]

Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt And Marshall: Partners In Politics And War. New York: William

Morrow & Co. Inc., 1989. [973.9170922 / E 807.P27]

Peikoff, Leonard. The Ominous Parallels; The End Of Freedom In America.  New York: Stein and Day, 1982. [190 / B 252.P44]

Sanger, Margaret, Editor. International Birth Control Conference. New York: The American

Birth Control  League, 1925-1926. [312 / HQ 766.I6]

                 Editor. Proceedings Of The World Population Conference, Held At The Salle Centrale, Geneva, August 29th To September 3rd, 1927.  London: E. Arnold, 1927. [ / HB 849.W]


Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age Of Roosevelt: The Crisis Of The Old Order, 1919-1933.

Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1957. [973.91 / E 806.S34]

                 The Age Of Roosevelt: The Coming Of The New Deal. Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin  Co., 1958. [973.91 / E 806.S34]

                 The Age Of Roosevelt: The Politics Of Upheaval. Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin

Co., 1960. [973.91 / E 806.S34]

 

Schroder, Gene. War And Emergency Powers: A Special Report On The National Emergency In The United States Of America. Campo: American Agriculture Movement, 1994. [342.73 / JK 560]

Simkin, Jay; Zelman, Aaron; Rice, Alan M. Lethal Law: Gun Control. Milwaukee: Jews For

The Preservation Of Firearms, 1994.

*Sutton, Anthony C. Wall Street And The Rise Of Hitler. Seal Beach: ‘76 Press, 1976. [940.086 /HF 1456.5.G3 S871]

Valerian, Val. article: “Slice of Time, Part Three: 1945”. Culver City: Perceptions Magazine; Nov-Dec, 1995, p59.

 

 

Video-recordings [VHS]

 

Auschwitz and the Allies / BBC-TV [19–]. British Television Documentary / UCLA Film TV – Viewing on premises only / 100 minutes VHS.

*– Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Memories And Perspectives / Gateway Films, 2030 Wentz

Church Road (Box 540) Worcester, PA 19490, c1981. Documentary: interviews with person who survived the Nazis and who knew Dr. Bonhoeffer directly (relatives, students and  friends). Tell of events and ideas under the Nazis / 90 minutes – VHS / B&W.

—  Memory Of The Camps / WGBH, Boston, MA: Public Television Viewer, Documentary Consortium c1995. VHS release of PBS: “Front-line” documentary of news footage of Nazi Germany and each concentration killing camp. Some footage never before seen to date. Some footage taken by Russians. / 60 minutes – VHS / B&W.

*– Schindler’s List / Amblin Entertainment production. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal Home Video, 1994, c1993. VHS release of 1993 motion picture of novel by Thomas Keneally of true story of Oskar Schindler who saved 1,000 Jews during the Holocaust. / 197 minutes – 2 VHS cassettes / B&W & color sequences / closed caption for hearing impaired.

*– SHETETL / WGBH, Boston,MA: Public Television Viewer, Documentary Consortium c1996. VHS release of PBS: “Front-line” documentary of Marian Marzynski’s film profiles the return of two Polish-American Jews to their families’ shtetl (village) in Bransk, Poland where 2,500 Jews lived before most were sent to the gas chamber.

/ 180  minutes – VHS /Color.

The Diary of Anne Frank / Magnetic Video Corp., Mount Kisco, NY : Guidance Associates

[distributor], c1980. VHS release of 1959 motion picture of book, The          Diary Of Anne Frank. A true story based on events recorded in the dairy kept by a                                young Jewish girl during two years of hiding from the Germans in an Amsterdam

attic. / 100 minutes – VHS / B&W.

*– The Dairy of Anne Frank / 20th Century Fox, Beverly Hills, CA: Foxvideo, c1995. VHS release of  motion released by 20th Century – Fox Film Corp., Updated VHS version of 1959 motion picture of above title / 170 minutes – 2 VHS cassettes / B&W / closed caption for hearing impaired.

*– The Hiding Place / World Wide Pictures production. [19–]. VHS release of  1975 motion picture based on autobiographical book, The Hiding Place, by Corrie ten Boom, John and Elizabeth Sherrill which depicts author’s family situations during


Holocaust in Netherlands and at Ravenbruck, Germany Concentration Camp. /

150 minutes    VHS / Color.

The Nightmare Years, 1930-1940 / 1993 VHS release of television mini-series of William

Shirer experiences of Hitler coming to power in Nazi Germany. / 157 minutes – 2

VHS / Color with B&W news footage.

Triumph Of The Will Triumph (Des Willens) / International Historic Films, Inc., 1985 / News footage of various speeches made by Adolf Hitler. Various venues in Germany including Berlin. / 115 minutes – VHS / B&W / Sound (German) with sub-titles.

*– Weapons Of The Spirit /First Run Features / Icarus Films, New York, NY, 1987c. Story of the French village of Le-Chambon-sur-Legion and how it’s Christian populace took in and sheltered 5,000 Jews from the Nazis, as told by Jewish film maker Pierre Sauvage, who himself was born and protected by that defiantly peaceful community. / 90 minutes – VHS / slides, Color with B&W footage. Friends of Le Chambon Foundation 213/650-1774, Fax 213/654-4689, E-mail:fic@earthlink.net.

*– Witnesses To The Holocaust: The Trial Of Adolf Eichman / Lorimar Home Video, Irvine, CA, 1987/ News footage with narration by Joel Grey of the trial of Adolf Eichmann, former head of Reich Security Office which administered the annihilation of European Jewry, was tried in Jerusalem in 1962, charge with crimes against the Jewish people and Crimes against humanity./ 90 minutes VHS / B&W.[940.5316/]

The tide of anti-Semitism and intolerance toward “conservative” Christianity (which wishes to “conserve” traditional Biblical values) is rising and once again GOD’s people everywhere must stand against, . . .  possibly . . .  the darkest period yet ahead of us in the history of Mankind.

This article is the work of my good friend Robert Rico – I have published it with his permission.

 


About Douglas

3 comments

  1. In addition, those thousands who died suffered from typhus. There is no proof whatsoever of gas chambers; you have only to look up Fred Leuchter’s account of his in-depth examination at Auschwitz and elsewhere. There were no gas chambers. Wake up Douglas Hamp.

  2. I would advise you to look into the Holomodor, wherein 40 million+ Christians were slaughtered by the (jewish) Bolsheviks. Also, you would be wise to know that not only did 6 million not die in the Holocaust, less than 500,000 died according to recent Red Cross records released some time ago. Also, that the jewish population was at a great increase in Germany after WW2. I am sick and tired of ignorant Christians spouting things that they know nothing about, saying that Israel is this land in Palestine. Read Romans 8 again, my brother. Do your research on the holocaust. Truth does not fear investigation!

  3. My brother, Doug, thanks for making this available. I am still reeling from the shock and disgust. It brought me to my knees in prayer and so much sadness. I’m kinda speechless right now. Just wanted to thank you for posting this report. Thanks for all you do. Your research and sharing means so much and makes such a huge difference for so many, far and wide. THE LORD bless your efforts. You’re a great blessing in my life.

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