Archives December 2010

Eloi, Eloi Lama Sabachthani

From Discovering the Language of Jesus: Hebrew or Aramaic? Click here to listen: Discovering the Language of Jesus Douglas Hamp or El Lenguaje de Jesus

Discovering the Language of Jesus: Hebrew or Aramaic? Click to purchase

Mark 15:34 records some of the last words of Jesus as he was on the cross.  They have been used to support the claim that Jesus spoke Aramaic and not Hebrew.  “And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, ‘Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?’ which is translated, ‘My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?’” These words closely parallel the words in Psalm 22:1 in both the original Hebrew and in the Aramaic Targumim, though His words, as recorded in Mark 15:34 match neither exactly.  Many scholars have glossed over this utterance as Aramaic without even really taking the time to see if it indeed is.

The table below lists Jesus’ phrase according to Mark and Matthew and then gives the text from Psalm 22:1 in the Hebrew original, the Targum (Aramaic) and then the Christian Syriac version (Syriac and Aramaic are basically the same).  Notice that none of the aforementioned texts is exactly the same.  Matthew’s version is exactly the same for the first three words: Eli Eli, lama but then differs with sabachthani.  The Targum of Ps 22:1 has shabachtani like in Mark and Matthew but then differs on the following: Eli Elahi instead of Eli Eli, and metul ma instead of lama.  While these are similar in meaning, it must be conceded that they are significantly different to merit investigation.  The Syriac version is the closest but again, it is not an exact match since lama is written lamna.  It must not be overlooked, however, that the Syriac version was written as a translation to the New Testament and thus cannot be used conclusively to prove one way or the other the exact words of Jesus.  The rest of the table lists the different ways of saying God in Hebrew and Aramaic (Syriac).

Table 3 Eloi, Eloi Lama Sabaktani

Mark 15:34 ᾿Ελωΐ, ᾿Ελωΐ λαμὰ σαβαχθανι Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani
Matthew 27:46 ἠλι ἠλι, λαμὰ σαβαχθανί Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani
Psalm 22:1 Hebrew (original) אלי אלי למה עזבתני Eli eli lama azavtani
Psalm 22:1 Aramaic (Targum Psalms) אלי׳אלהי מטול מה שבקתני Eli elahi metul ma shabaktani
Syriac (Aramaic) Mark 15:34 ܐܠܗܝ ܐܠܗܝ ܠܡܢܐ ܫܒܩܬܢܝ Elahi elahi, lamna shabaktani
Syriac (Aramaic) Matthew 27:46 ܐܠܝ ܐܠܝ ܠܡܢܐ ܫܒܩܬܢܝ Eli eli, lamna shabaktani
Hebrew God אלהים /אלוה / אל Elohim / Eloah / El
Aramaic God אלה / אל Elah / El
Hebrew/Aramaic My God אלי Eli
Hebrew (only) My God אלהי elohai
Aramaic (only) My God אלהי Elahi
Septuagint Judges 5:5 my God Ελωι Eloi


We have some interesting evidence in the New Testament given that the original words of Jesus have been recorded by two of his disciples – Matthew and Mark (according to early church tradition, Mark received his Gospel from the testimony of Peter).  It is interesting to note that Matthew’s version is slightly different from Mark’s.  Matthew records, in 27:46 that Jesus said Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? (resembling Psalm 22:1 in Hebrew eli, eli lama azavtani) while Mark’s account says Eloi Eloi.  I believe that we can safely assume that Jesus did not say it one way for Matthew and another for the writer of Mark while on the cross.  Matthew’s version – Eli Eli is what we would expect in Hebrew or even in Aramaic.  Eloi, however, is a mystery. Which way he said it has to do with the issue of transliteration and will be answered in the course of our search.

We know what Eloi means, due to the convenient translation in the text, that is my God.  The question of course, is whether it is Hebrew or Aramaic.  The truth is, as such, it is neither Hebrew nor Aramaic.  While it is close to the Hebrew form of אלהים elohim, it falls short.  Its form is not found even once in the Hebrew Bible and since elohim is such a common word, not finding it there forces us to conclude that it is not Hebrew. However, it is not Aramaic either.  If Eloi were Aramaic, as is assumed, then why don’t we see at least one example of its use in the OT since in both Daniel 4:5, and 6:22, which were plainly written in Aramaic, the words “my God” are not Eloi but אלהי elahi.  The form spoken by Jesus as recorded in Mark is conspicuously absent!  Furthermore, the Targumim translate my God as elahi just as the Aramaic does from the time of Daniel.  Targum Psalm 22:1, has אלי אלהי eli elahi (Targum Psalms). Moreover, the Syriac (Aramaic) version of the New Testament (written about 200 AD) actually translates the Greek text of Mark 15:34 (my God) ὁ Θεός μου  (ho Theos mou) as elahi and not Eloi!  Apparently the Aramaic speakers didn’t consider it to be Aramaic either since they wrote Elahi.  Considering that this text was written after the time of Jesus just further serves to demonstrate that Eloi is not Aramaic.

If Eloi is neither Hebrew nor Aramaic, then what is it?  There are three ways to say God in Hebrew:אלהים  Elohim (2605 times) only in Hebrew, used most often to refer to the God of Israel,  אל El (242 times), both Hebrew and Aramaic, more often used of foreign gods, though nevertheless, used in reference to the true God of Israel, and אלוה Eloah (56 times) used only in Hebrew texts (primarily in Job).  All of them have a general meaning of mighty one – really just a title, which can theoretically, be applied to any one who “is mighty”. [1] Elohim, unlike el and Eloah, is the plural form meaning gods.  Whenever used of the one true God of Israel, however, the verb related to it is always singular. [2] To say my God with el simply requires that one add the letter yud to the end of the word.  Thus, El becomes Eli.  To add my to plural masculine nouns like Elohim, however, basically requires adding the vowel a and dropping the mem (mem makes a masculine noun plural).  Elohim therefore, becomes Elohai.  To make the first person possessive of Eloah is similar, though, unfortunately, the first person singular my is not found in the pages of the Bible.  There is, however, one passage in Habbakuk 1:11 which does have the possessive pronoun suffix his אלהו – Eloho.  Thus, according to the conventions of Hebrew grammar, the way to say my God would be Elohi.  (Gallagher, personal correspondence)   Aramaic has two ways to say God, El, which is exactly the same as the Hebrew counterpart and the other way is אלה Elah. To say my God is Eli and Elahi similar to the Hebrew forms.

Thus in either Hebrew or Aramaic, we should see one of four forms: Elohai or Elohi (only Hebrew), Eli (both Hebrew and Aramaic) or Elahi (only Aramaic).  There are no other possibilities and Eloi is simply not one of the options.  In order to discover which language Jesus spoke, we will limit our discussion to Mark’s Eloi since Eli could be either Hebrew or Aramaic.  We will essentially address two questions:

  1. What happened to the letter he in the middle of the word (equivalent to the letter H)?
  2. Are there any occurrences of Eloi in the Septuagint?

Without Eli we have limited our focus to three candidates for the mysterious Eloi, the two Hebrew words Elohai, Elohi and the Aramaic Elahi.  We don’t have the actual Hebrew or Aramaic word written in the Hebrew/Aramaic [3] script but the Greek transliteration, which can sometimes be tricky.  Some languages don’t have the rough breathing sound that the letter H makes.  English, for example, can make the sound at the beginning and middle of words but not at the end (this seems normal to us; however, Hebrew can do all three!).  Greek is able to produce the H sound at the beginning of words, but not in the middle or end. [4] So, how would one transliterate any of the three from either Hebrew or Aramaic to Greek?  There is, in fact, no way to transliterate the words other than by transliterating them without the rough breathing sound, which would yield three different options: Eloai, Eloi and Elai.

To prove the theory, we will select words which we know have the letter ה (letter H) in the middle and then compare them to the Greek transliterations (in the Septuagint) where, if the theory is correct, there should be the absence of a rough breathing mark (like the letter H).  For example, Abraham in the Septuagint is Αβραάμ (Abraam).

Table 4 Loss of the ה(H) Sound in Greek

Verse Hebrew Bible Transliteration of Hebrew Septuagint Transliteration of Greek
Genesis 17:5 אברהם Abraham Αβραάμ Abraam
Exodus 4:14 אהרן Aharon Ααρων Aaron
Judges 3:15 אהוד Ehud Αωδ Aod
I Sam 1:1 אליהוא Elihu Ηλιου Eliu
II Sam 8:16 יהושׁפט Jehoshaphat Ιωσαφατ Josaphat
I Kings 16:1 יהוא Jehu Ιου You
II Kings 23:34 יהויקים Jehoiakim Ιωακιμ Yoakim

Notice from the table that the Hebrew words lose the H in the Greek (and English transliteration).  As expected, the Greek version cannot reproduce the H and so it was left out in the transliteration.  Therefore, the word Eloi is not necessarily Aramaic simply based on the lack of the letter H. However it is too early to conclude that it is Hebrew.  Clearly, the Hebrew letter he or H was lost due to transliteration, but was the original Hebrew or Aramaic?  The loss of the letter he in the Greek transliteration leaves us with the following three possibilities: Eloai, Eloi, and Elai.

Clearly Eloi fits perfectly what Mark recorded and fortunately we have an example of this in the Septuagint.  Judges 5:5 “The mountains gushed before the LORD, this Sinai before the LORD God of Israel” κυρίου Ελωι, τοῦτο Σινα ἀπὸ προσώπου κυρίου θεοῦ Ισραηλ (kuriou Eloi touto Sina apo prosopou kuriou theou Israel).  Notice that they translated the word LORD (YHWH in Hebrew) into Greek as kuriou (Lord) and then added the word Eloi (my God), which is not in the Hebrew text.  There are two things that must not be missed here.  First of all, the mysterious word in Mark is attested in the Septuagint with exactly the same spelling.  Secondly, the Septuagint was translated into Greek from Hebrew and not Aramaic.  Thus when looking at Mark 15:34 we have solid evidence of how Elohi was transliterated from Hebrew (not Aramaic!) in to Greek.  If Mark had been transliterating from Aramaic, he would probably not have written Eloi ᾿Ελωΐ [5] with the letter omega (ω) since the Aramaic is distinctly elahi and would have better transliterated it as ᾿Ελaΐ with the letter alpha.

In summary, we see that there is no way to actually write the Hebrew Elohai, Elohi, or the Aramaic Elahi except by dropping the letter he.  Of the three, Elohi fits perfectly and is attested once in the Septuagint – ᾿Ελωΐ Eloi – the exact same spelling and meaning as what is in Mark 15:34.  Furthermore, if Mark had been transliterating Aramaic, it most likely would have appeared as Elai and not Eloi. Our findings may explain the difference between Matthew and Mark since Matthew records Eli, Eli – which has the same meaning but does not present any problems of transliteration. Perhaps knowing this, we might conclude that Matthew simply wrote Eli Eli and not Eloi knowing that Greek letters could not reproduce the word Elohi and since Eli, Eli is how the Hebrew text of Psalm 22:1 reads. And it would seem that Mark opted to write the specific literal words, even though they could not be written exactly in Greek.


Lama למה, meaning why, is an extremely common word and is used least 145 times in the Hebrew OT in almost every book. It is seen in every phase in Hebrew – from proto Hebrew to Standard Biblical Hebrew to Late Biblical Hebrew and numerous times in the Mishnah.  So, we should not be surprised to see it here in Jesus’ day as well.  The root letters lamed, mem and he are also found in Aramaic, though it should be noted that the vocalization (the vowels) are slightly different than what is recorded in Mark 15:34.  The Aramaic word is lema. [6] It is possible that Mark was transliterating the Aramaic lema as λαμα (lama) – although we cannot be dogmatic about the issue, he could have more accurately written it with the Greek letter epsilon (λεμα) if that were the case. [7] However, as the historical sources indicate, it would seem that Mark was simply writing in Hebrew. Moreover, the word lama does not appear in the (Aramaic) Targum of Psalm 22:1.  Even though lema exists in Aramaic, the translators of this Targum used two words metul ma, also meaning why.  Thus, not only does the Hebrew lama fit better than the Aramaic lema but even the Targum doesn’t use the word.  Only the Hebrew text has the word that Jesus used while enduring our sins on the cross.


Shabachtani[8] שׁבקתני appears to be a word of Aramaic origin.  It means to leave, leave alone, entrust, bequeath, divorce, permit, forgive, abandon and forsake.  It is used a total of five times in the Old Testament, all of which are found in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra.  However, given that there was a limited amount of Aramaic influence exerted on the Hebrew language after the return from the Babylonian captivity, we later see the root shabak [9] שׁבק attested in Jewish writings such as the Jerusalem Talmud, which is where the Mishna is found.

Of the seven occurrences of shabak in the Mishnah, four are clearly couched in Hebrew prose.  A passage from the Jerusalem Talmud (31:5:1), is an especially good example of the words surrounding shabak. The text contains certain grammatical structures and vocabulary which occur only in Hebrew and not Aramaic.  A few examples are the use of the letter ה he found at the beginning of words which means the (Aramaic has א – aleph at the end of words).  Also the word שׁ Shay, that, (used only Hebrew) versus די di [10] (used only in Aramaic).  Thus the word shabak, which Jesus spoke on the cross, we find situated in the midst of Mishnaic Hebrew words and grammar, and therefore, we can safely conclude that while this was originally a loan word from Aramaic, by Jesus’ day, it had become common place in the Hebrew language.  We should actually expect there to be some loan words in the language.

Consider for example, if you live in France and you hear someone say that he intends to do “le jogging” you should not conclude that he is actually speaking English!  Likewise, consider the dramatic influence French had on English – we use without any thought words such as pork and beef not knowing that these words are not originally English.  This does not lead us to the conclusion that Americans are speaking French, though it does imply that there was some French influence upon the English language.  In fact, pork and beef have become so common that we are often surprised to learn that they are French.  Nevertheless, though pork and beef are clearly French, the way they are spelled (vs. porc and boeuf) shows that they have been completely assimilated into the English language. [11] And so it is with Shabaktani – the word seems to have come originally from Aramaic but was completely assimilated into (Mishnaic) Hebrew as attested by its usage in the writings of the Mishnah, which as pointed out already, was the final stage of ancient Hebrew before its demise around 200 AD [12].  Also, the ending of the word “ta+ni” is exactly what we would expect in Biblical Hebrew [13] viz. shabakta=you forsook +ni=me.

[1] Jesus makes reference to this word in John 10:34 of the leaders and judges of Israel.

[2] A beautiful example of the Trinity in the Old Testament (first occurring in Genesis 1:26).

[3] Both Hebrew and Aramaic were written in what was known as Aramaic script just like how English is written using Latin letters.

[4] My lovely wife, Anna, pointed this out to me!

[5] Mark includes the breathing marks and accents making it even clearer that it is to be pronounced Elo-i demonstrating that the Hebrew letter he has been dropped.

[6] The e is written with a shewa which is a very short sound.

[7] Some manuscripts do contain the variants λεμα lema, λιμα lima, –  see The Robinson/Pierpont Byzantine Greek New Testament.  However, the Textus Receptus and the Vulgate have λαμμα lamma or λαμα lama respectively.

[8] The Aramaic word is actually Shabachtani – Greek does not have the “sh” sound which is why the NT text has transliterated it as Sabachtani.

[9] The last root letter is like the letter K as in kite.  Again this is a matter of transliteration.

[10] The other uses are: זאת zot, בן ben, אני ani, את et – these words are specifically Hebrew.  The Aramaic counterpart is different enough so that we can conclude that these words are Hebrew and not Aramaic.  Ben and bar (in a later chapter), however, are often interchangeable.

[11] Perhaps even more surprising is discovering that the word sack is in fact a Hebrew word – it is found 17 times in the Old Testament.  It has been so completely assimilated that few people ever give it a second thought.  It is indeed English, but was originally (and still is!) Hebrew.

[12] Hebrew essentially died as a spoken language but was still in use in Jewish life up until the establishment of Modern Hebrew.

[13] The form, though, is the same in Aramaic.

Knowing the Creator

If you are already a Christian, then be encouraged that God loves you, and He rejoices in your resolve to believe His Word to the fullest.  He has many wonderful promises in store for you that are written in the pages of the Bible.

Your Creator Loves You

If you have come to the conclusion that God’s Word is faithful and accurate in all that it says but are not a Christian, then I would like to invite you to enter into a relationship with the God who created everything.  God is awesome and mighty – just imagine how He made everything in only six days!  Nevertheless, even more amazing is that He paid for our sins in less than one day!  Jesus paid the price that our original parents, Adam and Eve, brought upon the world through their disobedience.  But He also paid for your and my personal sin.  Put your trust in Him now and receive a new life.  You can trust the word that He speaks to you:

For the love of Christ compels us, because we judge thus: that if One died for all, then all died; and He died for all, that those who live should live no longer for themselves, but for Him who died for them and rose again […] Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new. Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation, that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation.  Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God.  For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. (2 Corinthians 5:14-21, emphasis mine)

Jesus Himself also invites you to believe in Him: “Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life.  He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live.  And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die.  Do you believe this?’” (John 11:25-26).

If you believe that Jesus died for your sins, as the Scriptures clearly say, then you can have eternal life.  I invite you to receive His gift of life to you and then to rest in the promise that you are a new creation and will live forever with Christ.  If you would like pray or to speak with me one on one, please don’t hesitate to write!

Evidence of Men and Dinosaurs Articles

Still soft and stretchy

Dinosaur soft tissue find—a stunning rebuttal of “millions of years”

by Dr Carl Wieland, AiG–Australia

25 March 2005

We previously announced the discovery of what seemed to be microscopic red blood cells (and immunological evidence of hemoglobin) in dinosaur bone (see Sensational dinosaur blood report! and response to critic).1 Now a further announcement, involving the same scientist (Montana State University’s Dr Mary Schweitzer2) stretches (pun intentional) the long-age paradigm beyond belief.

Not only have more blood cells been found, but also soft, fibrous tissue, and complete blood vessels. The fact that this really is unfossilized soft tissue from a dinosaur is in this instance so obvious to the naked eye that any scepticism directed at the previous discovery is completely “history”.

T Rex Soft Tissue

Science via AP

A: The arrow points to a tissue fragment that is still elastic.  It beggars belief that elastic tissue like this could have lasted for 65 million years.
B: Another instance of “fresh appearance” which similarly makes it hard to believe in the “millions of years”.
C: Regions of bone showing where the fibrous structure is still present, compared to most fossil bones which lack this structure.  But these bones are claimed to be 65 million years old, yet they manage to retain this structure.

One description of a portion of the tissue was that it is “flexible and resilient and when stretched returns to its original shape”.3

The exciting discovery was apparently made when researchers were forced to break open the leg bone of a Tyrannosaurus rex fossil to lift it by helicopter. The bone was still largely hollow and not filled up with minerals as is usual. Dr Schweitzer used chemicals to dissolve the bony matrix, revealing the soft tissue still present.4

She has been cited as saying that the blood vessels were flexible, and that in some instances, one could squeeze out their contents. Furthermore, she said, “The microstructures that look like cells are preserved in every way.” She also is reported as commenting that “preservation of this extent, where you still have this flexibility and transparency, has never been seen in a dinosaur before.”

It appears that this sort of thing has not been found before mainly because it was never looked for. Schweitzer was probably alert to the possibility because of her previous serendipitous discovery of T. rex blood cells. (It appears that the fossils were sent to her to look for soft tissues, prior to preservative being applied, because of her known interest.) In fact, Schweitzer has since found similar soft tissue in several other dinosaur specimens!

CREDIT: M. H. Schweitzer

Will they now be convinced?

Unfortunately, the long-age paradigm is so dominant that facts alone will not readily overturn it. As philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn pointed out,5 what generally happens when a discovery contradicts a paradigm is that the paradigm is not discarded but modified, usually by making secondary assumptions, to accommodate the new evidence.

That’s just what appears to have happened in this case. When Schweitzer first found what appeared to be blood cells in a T. Rex specimen, she said, “It was exactly like looking at a slice of modern bone. But, of course, I couldn’t believe it. I said to the lab technician: “The bones, after all, are 65 million years old. How could blood cells survive that long?’”6 Notice that her first reaction was to question the evidence, not the paradigm. That is in a way quite understandable and human, and is how science works in reality (though when creationists do that, it’s caricatured as non-scientific).

So will this new evidence cause anyone to stand up and say there’s something funny about the emperor’s clothes? Not likely. Instead, it will almost certainly become an “accepted” phenomenon that even “stretchy” soft tissues must be somehow capable of surviving for millions of years. (Because, after all, we “know” that this specimen is “70 million years old”.) See how it works?

Schweitzer’s mentor, the famous “Dinosaur Jack” Horner (upon whom Sam Neill’s lead character in the Jurassic Park movies was modeled) is already urging museums to consider cracking open some of the bones in their existing dinosaur fossils in the hope of finding more such “Squishosaurus” remains. He is excited about the potential to learn more about dinosaurs, of course. But—nothing about questioning the millions of years—sigh!

I invite the reader to step back and contemplate the obvious. This discovery gives immensely powerful support to the proposition that dinosaur fossils are not millions of years old at all, but were mostly fossilized under catastrophic conditions a few thousand years ago at most.7

NC State scientist finds soft tissue in T. rex bones

Contact: Tracey Peake
North Carolina State University retrieved October 6, 2006

Conventional wisdom among paleontologists states that when dinosaurs died and became fossilized, soft tissues didn’t preserve – the bones were essentially transformed into “rocks” through a gradual replacement of all organic material by minerals. New research by a North Carolina State University paleontologist, however, could literally turn that theory inside out.

Dr. Mary Schweitzer, assistant professor of paleontology with a joint appointment at the N.C. Museum of Natural Sciences, has succeeded in isolating soft tissue from the femur of a 68-million-year-old dinosaur. Not only is the tissue largely intact, it’s still transparent and pliable, and microscopic interior structures resembling blood vessels and even cells are still present.

In a paper published in the March 25 edition of the journal Science, Schweitzer describes the process by which she and her technician, Jennifer Wittmeyer, isolated soft organic tissue from the leg bone of a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex.

Schweitzer was interested in studying the microstructure and organic components of a dinosaur’s bone. All bone is made up of a combination of protein (and other organic molecules) and minerals. In modern bone, removing the minerals leaves supple, soft organic materials that are much easier to work with in a lab. In contrast, fossilized bone is believed to be completely mineralized, meaning no organics are present. Attempting to dissolve the minerals from a piece of fossilized bone, so the theory goes, would merely dissolve the entire fossil.

But the team was surprised by what actually happened when they removed the minerals from the T. rex femur fragment. The removal process left behind stretchy bone matrix material that, when examined microscopically, seemed to show blood vessels, osteocytes, or bone building cells, and other recognizable organic features.

Since current data indicates that living birds are more closely related to dinosaurs than any other group, Schweitzer compared the findings from the T. rex with structures found in modern-day ostriches. In both samples, transparent branching blood vessels were present, and many of the small microstructures present in the T. rex sample displayed the same appearance as the blood and bone cells from the ostrich sample.

Schweitzer then duplicated her findings with at least three other well-preserved dinosaur specimens, one 80-million-year-old hadrosaur and two 65-million-year-old tyrannosaurs. All of these specimens preserved vessels, cell-like structures, or flexible matrix that resembled bone collagen from modern specimens.

Current theories about fossil preservation hold that organic molecules should not preserve beyond 100,000 years. Schweitzer hopes that further research will reveal exactly what the soft structures isolated from these bones are made of. Do they consist of the original cells, and if so, do the cells still contain genetic information? Her early studies of the material suggest that at least some fragments of the dinosaurs’ original molecular material may still be present.

“We may not really know as much about how fossils are preserved as we think,” says Schweitzer. “Our preliminary research shows that antibodies that recognize collagen react to chemical extracts of this fossil bone. If further studies confirm this, we may have the potential to learn more not only about the dinosaurs themselves, but also about how and why they were preserved in the first place.”

The research was funded by NC State, the N.C. Museum of Natural Sciences and the National Science Foundation.

Note to editors: An abstract of the paper follows.

“Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex”
Authors: Mary H. Schweitzer and Jennifer L. Wittmeyer, North Carolina State University; John R. Horner, Montana State University; Jan B. Toporski, Carnegie Institution of Washington Geophysical Laboratory Published: March 25, 2005, in Science

Abstract: Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft tissues may retain some of their original flexibility, elasticity and resilience.

Nile Mosaic of Palestrina

Evidence of Men and Dinosaurs Living Together

The following page is taken in whole from Please visit their site for more amazing out of place artifacts that challenge the evolutionary/old earth paradigm.
Palestrina Mosaic.


In this article will once again, (as we’ve tried to do on more than 50 pages of this section), provide visual evidence that dinosaurs and humans did in fact coexist; this time in the art of the 1st century. In this article we will seek to show that not just dinosaurs but that other fauna said by science to have become extinct millions of years ago were still living up to at least the time of the 1st century A.D.

I was in the library this week poring over literally thousands of pages of early Roman art, including the art of 1st century Pompeii. I spent this time in the library after spending weeks trying to find more copies and higher resolution photos of the pieces being presented here online.

If and when I did find them, in the great majority of cases the representations of the art had been cropped so that the “offending details” had been eliminated. Other companion works were often shown in their entirety and often in higher resolution, but these were not.

Although these art masterpieces should be easy to find—they are not. As you look at the evidence presents here, remember that the keepers of the evolutionary paradigm did everything overtly or subtlety possible to keep us from seeing them. That might tend to lend them additional credibility as evidence supporting interaction since there would be no need to surpress or deny information which does not threaten the paradigm.

The Nile Mosaic of Palestrina and the hunting mosaic from the “House of the Physician” are incredible works that should be well known to the public in their entirety, but if in fact they were well known, they would be very controversial with respect to the evolutionary timeline.

What we really wonder about is; with respect to the powers that be who conspire to keep this information out of the public eye, do they themselves manage to maintain the belief that dinosaurs and man never coexisted—or is it just the great unwashed true believers out there who have the pure religion? Is the power of denial really that strong?

What we do know is that whatever we do stumble upon here at or whatever anyone else discovers is just the tip of the iceberg.

The Nile is not just a river in Egypt.

The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching northwards for approximately 4,000 miles from East Africa to the Mediterranean. In addition to Egypt, it flows through the African countries of Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, DR Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia,. Nilotic art like the first century Nile Mosaic of Palestrina detailed life along the Nile.

“The vast Nilotic mosaic (21.3 x 17.3 feet) set into the floor of the apsidal hall adjacent to the sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste (Palestrina) provides important evidence for what Roman triumphal paintings using topographical conventions may have looked like.

On the mosaic, the Nile winds past vignettes representing exotic landscapes and settlements; the more recondite details are carefully labeled in Greek, underscoring the Alexandrian source of the genre. The precise nature of the relationship between the mosaic and cartographic practices is controversial.

Recently the Palestrina mosaic has been interpreted as an actual topographic map of the Nile: the upper part of the mosaic represents Ethiopia, the upper zone of the lower section represents Egypt, and the foreground represents the Delta, top to bottom understood as south to north, the standard convention for ancient maps.

More likely, however, the mosaic provides a large, coherent landscape composition of the Nile during the flood season, nevertheless dependent on topographical conventions”.( Meyboom )

Dinosaur Art From the House of the Physician-Mid First Century A.D.

“Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the commune of Pompei. It was destroyed during a catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius on 24 August 79 AD.

The volcano buried the city under many metres of ash and it was lost for 1,600 years before its accidental rediscovery in 1748. Since then, its excavation has provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city at the height of the Roman Empire”……Wikipedia

IMAGES: Both of the images on the left are from the “Hunt” mosaic discovered in the House of the physician in Pompeii, Rome.

When the images are discussed, it is within academia, not with the general public. The apology given for the oversized reptiles is that they are simply nile crocodiles. This is not the case. As we will show, the crocodiles on these Nile works were rendered realistically and accurately as shown in this rendering from the Nile Mosaic on the right.

Note that in the image on the left, and in the complete mural below a man is battling a reptile taller than himself with a shield and a spear. Compare the man, the dinosaur and the building at the center of the image.

The creature on the right has a dermal ridge, unlike a crocodile but exactly like certain dinosaur types which might be safer to sit astride as we will explore below.


There are many armored dinosaur types that fit this reptile portrayal at least as well as the crocodile. Most of them had “low slung” bodies with heights of six feet high or less. One can make up his/her own mind but the hunter astride the reptile is between “plates” on its bck. In addition to the examples shown here, other candidates can be seen by following this link.

Another denial tactic is to label the dark skinned peoples in these mosaics as pygmies (to account for reptile towering over native). However, authorities on Roman art note that its not just blacks who are made diminutive in Roman art but that it was a way of making the Romans seem superior.

African-Roman hercules
African-Roman Hero, Hercules. Fresco, Imperial Roman Pompeii. Hercules stands beside the enthroned Lydian Queen Omphale

Not only blacks were diminutive in the pieces, white or light skinned persons were dwarfed as well. As a matter of fact, Snowden, in his book “Before Color Prejudice” makes note of the egalitarian nature of the Roman civilization, and apparent lack of color discrimination, using examples from ancient Roman Art; many works showing scenes involving both dark skinned and light skinned citizens.

With respect to the three pieces found at the House of the Physician, all portray light skinned and dark skinned dwarves.

This includes “Judgment of Solomon”, (NOT SHOWN) which depicts the Jews as dwarfed and as both dark skinned and light skinned peoples.

The work below is also first century, from the House of the Physician at Pompeii.

Dinosaurs In Literature, History and Art: Part 2

Suppressed Evidence of Human, Dinosaur and Other “Extinct” Fauna Interaction in First Century Roman, Nilotic Art

Extinct Fauna on First Century Roman “Palestrina” Mosaic & Other Works?

As we noted in Part 1 of this article, it has turned out to be extremely difficult to obtain detailed, complete or higher resolution images of both the Palestrina Mosaic as well as the works from the House of the Physician at Pompeii.

In this part of the article using the resources we have, we will attempt to show that there were a number of fauna represented in first or second century ancient Roman art, including several creatures that we now call dinosaurs. These tentative identifications will be made more difficult by the lower resolutions that we have available to us here at we have only been able to study a sample of the fauna represented o the work. If you have access to exclusive academic sources like JSTOR or MUSE, let us know.

Nile Mosaic detail
The Nile mosaic of Palestrina is an ancient mosaic depicting the Nile from Ethiopia to the Mediterranean. It is dated to around 100 BCE, and is thought to have been the work of Demetrius the Topographer, a Greek artist from Ptolemaic Egypt who visited Rome.

The mosaic is located in the city of Palestrina. It contains detailed depictions of Ptolemaic greeks, black Ethiopians in hunting scenes, and various animals of the Nile river.

Wikipedia References:Finley, The Light of the Past, 1965, p93. In this detail, we’ve circled some of the fauna we’re going to highlight in this part of our article…

Readers will of course be free to decide for themselves whether or not we’ve been able to make correct observations. Of course we could be wrong about all of them. “Science” would claim that all the dry land creatures are actually crocodiles just as dead sea monster identifications are basking sharks. Those evolutionary believers down at the bottom of the “food chain” will likely agree.

Perhaps they are correct.

However, remember that science also told us that there were primitive “cavemen” called Neanderthal man and the slightly less primitive caveman, Cro-Magnon. These fables and images have permeated our culture for over 100 years.

In order to preserve and promote evolutionary theories of man, as recently as this year science has insisted that Neanderthal; could not speak but could only grunt not having a language, never mated with “modern” man, (but may have mated with apes) did not bury their dead etc, etc.

In November of this year, scientists were able to sequence the DNA of a man they called a “Neanderthal”. His DNA turned out to match “modern humans” to 99.99%. Everyone living today has DNA that matches other humans to 99.99%. This means that your DNA is as close to Neanderthals as it is to Richard Dawkins’, the famous evolutionist at Harvard. Exit caveman.

Oh, and what about the “Gap theorists”. This is a group of Christians so distressed about what science said about primitive man that they invented pre-adamic races to account for “cave men”, doubting the Bible from the first chapter of Genesis, it’s first book? No doubt they will cling to the Gap theory just as evolutionists will cling to evolution and to cave men.

We know that no matter how much evidence is provided, “rationalists” and evolutionists will refuse to accept the evidence of their own eyes. Romans 1 says that what may be known about God is from evidence that can be “seen”. Denial is not just a river…

Science was wrong about Neanderthal. Maybe science is wrong about dinosaurs and when they lived as well.

Palestrina Mosaic Dinosaurs?

Iguanodon? See top photo for location on mosaic under the tiger representation.

Several years ago, we came across an image of the Palestrina Mosaic in used book store in a book entitled “The Light of the Past”, by Finley. In that one book we found several things that shouldn’t be there if the evolution paradigm were true. We found evidence that ancient man had lived with dinosaurs.

As it turns out, the high resolution portion of the mosaic featured in that book represented only a small portion of the complete mosaic. Just off to the left of the “dinosaur” being hunted that we featured on the first page of this section was another dinosaur representation we had not seen.


We believe it represents a dinosaur similar to iguanodon. We regret that we don’t have a higher resolution photo of this section of the mosaic. It appears here after having tried several filters to make it appear as clearly as possible.

Iguanodon according to science

“(meaning “Iguana tooth”) is the name given to a genus of ornithopod dinosaurs, which lived roughly halfway between the early hypsilophodontids and their ultimate culmination in the duck-billed dinosaurs.

They lived between 120 to 140 million years ago, in the Barremian to Valanginian ages of the Early Cretaceous Period, although one dubious species is from the Late Jurassic. Iguanodon’s most distinctive feature was a large razor-sharp ‘thumb spike’, probably used for defense against predators.

Iguanodon was the first dinosaur recognized and the second dinosaur formally named, described in 1822 by English geologist Gideon Mantell. Together with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, it was one of the three originally used to define the new classification, Dinosauria.


The various Iguanodon species are bulky herbivores, ranging from 6 to 11 metres (20 to 36 feet) in length, and averaging about 5 tonnes (5.5 tons) in weight. Iguanodon’s thumb spikes were perpendicular to the three main digits.

In early restorations, the spike was placed on the animal’s nose. Later fossils revealed the true nature of the thumb spikes, although their exact purpose is still debated. It could have been used for defense, or for foraging for food…..Wikipedia.

Dinosaur Depiction on Roman Mosaic at Sepphoris?

Detail from floor mosaic discovered at Sepphoris. This is a nilotic scene incorporated into the Dionysos Mosaic.

The mosaic is dated between the first and third centuries. A great earthquake destroyed Sepphoris in 363 A.D.

Note that here warriors/hunters battle the “large reptile” using shields and large rocks.

Palestrina Mosaic Entelodont:? Dinohyus?


Photo:Dinohyus is just our speculation but it appears to be a enteledont rather than a hippo.

Dinohyus (meaning “terrible pig”) was a large, warthog-like hoofed mammal that lived during the early Miocene, roughly 24 million years ago. This herbivore (it ate plants, including roots) had a long skull (over 1 m = 3 feet long), a small braincase, a pair of knob-like protrusions on the back of the lower jaw (in the cheek area), blunt incisors, and wide, strong canine teeth.

Its long legs probably made it a fast runner. The neck was short and stout and there was a hump on the shoulders formed by spines along the backbone. It was about 6 feet (2 m) tall at the shoulders and was the biggest and among the last of the Entelodonts.

Fossils have been found in western North America (including Battle Creek, South Dakota, USA).

Classification: Class Mammalia (mammals), Order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), Family Entelodontidae (large, pig-like mammals from the Oligocene to early Miocene, including Archaeotherium, Megachoerus, Dinohyus, Entelodon and Eoentelodon), Genus Dinohyus

Source: Metareligion

Palestrina Mosaic Camelops-Extinct Camel?


Camelops is an extinct genus of camels that once roamed western North America, where it appeared about 45 million years ago. It migrated to Eurasia and Africa around 2 to 3 million years ago, contrary to various other animals that migrated to North America. Its name is derived from the Greek κάμελος (camel) + ὀψ (face), thus “camel-face.”

Camelops first appeared during the Late Pliocene period and became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene. The reason for its extinction is poorly understood but was part of a larger North American die-off in which native horses, camelids and mastodons also died out.

Because soft tissues are generally not preserved in the fossil record, it is not certain if camelops possessed a hump, like modern camels, or lacked one, like its modern llama relatives….Wikipedia

Palestrina Mosaic -Extinct Horse?


Photo: The tiny horse in the mosaic could represent any of the small tiny horses science believes were ancestors to modern horses. In reality, they were simply part of the genetic variation God built into all creatures, just as there are large and small dogs.

“Grandfather” to the modern horse, Pliohippus appears to be the source of the latest radiation in the horse family. It is believed to have given rise to Hippidion and Onohippidion, genera that thrived for a time in South American, and to Dinohippus which in turn led to Equus.

Where & When? Fossils of Pliohippus are found at many late Miocene localities in Colorado, the Great Plains of the US (Nebraska and the Dakotas) and Canada. Species in this genus lived from 12-6 million years ago.

Did Pliohippus live during the Pliocene? Or, how do you manage to miss an entire epoch? As incredible as it may sound, recent research shows that Pliohippus and the Pliocene have shrunk in duration so that they completely missed each other!

The problem is twofold. First of all, the epochs like the Pliocene and Miocene are all compared to marine sediments in Europe. It is difficult, although not impossible, to compare the ages of horses with British invertebrate fossils.

Over the years, refinements in our understanding of the Pliocene have resulted in the shrinking of that epoch. It is now believed to have covered a period ranging from about 5.3 to 1.75 million years ago. It formerly included North American land mammals ages that are now regarded as being late Miocene.

Our concept of the genus Pliohippus has also shrunk. In essence, Pliohippus has been split into two genera. Pliohippus now includes horses with large facial depressions in front of their eyes. These lived during the Miocene. The second genus, Dinohippus, includes horses with smaller facial depressions which lived into the Pliocene. (Equus lacks these depressions.)

The shrinking of the Pliocene and Pliohippus has resulted in the unhappy complication that the namesake of the Pliocene did not live during this time period”…..Florida Museum of Natural History

Palestrina Mosaic -Smilodon?

Smilodon (IPA: /smailəʊdɑn/, a bahuvrihi from Greek: σμιλη “knife” and (Ionic) οδων “tooth”) is an extinct genus of large machairodontine saber-toothed cats that are understood to have lived between approximately 3 million to 10,000 years ago in North and South America. .

They are the only known successors to Machairodus. Smilodon means knife tooth, an entirely appropriate name given its enormous fangs. The smilodon species are also known as Saber-Toothed Cats or Saber-Toothed Tigers.

As many as six species of Smilodon are known to have existed:

  • Smilodon fatalis, 1.6 million-10,000 years ago
  • Smilodon gracilis, 2.5 million-500,000 years ago
  • Smilodon populator, 1 million-10,000 years ago
  • Smilodon neogaeus, 3 million-500,000 years ago
  • Smilodon floridus, may be a subspecies of Smilodon fatalis
  • Smilodon californicus, may be a subspecies of Smilodon fatalis.

A fully-grown Smilodon weighed approximately 200 kilograms (450 pounds) and had a short tail, powerful legs and a large head. About the size of a lion, smilodon was extremely powerful. Its jaws could open 120 degrees. Its fangs were about 17 cm (7 inches) long.

Many Smilodon fossils have been unearthed at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles. The Smilodon is the prehistoric cat that researchers know the most about….Wiipedia

Creation Resources and Links


  • Bones of Contention, Marvin L. Lubenow
  • Buried Alive, Jack Cuozzo
  • Darwin on Trial, Phillip E. Johnson
  • Darwin’s Black Box, Michael J. Behe
  • Footprints in the Ash, John Morris & Steven A. Austin
  • In the Beginning, Walt Brown
  • Starlight and Time, D. Russell Humphreys
  • Thousands Not Billions, Dr. Don DeYoung
  • What Darwin Didn’t Know, Geoffery Simmons


  • A Question of Origins, Eternal Productions
  • Dinosaurs and Creation, Mace Baker
  • Scientific Evidence for Noah’s Flood, Mace Baker
  • Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution (Three part series), Exploration Films
  • Mount St. Helens, ICR
  • Thousands Not Billions, ICR
  • The Privileged Planet, Illustra Media
  • Unlocking the Mystery of Life, Illustra Media
  • Where Does the Evidence Lead? Illustra Media


Other useful links

Quotes From (Early) Church Fathers

Below you will find quotes of the all the early Church Fathers that I could find that spoke on the topic of creation in six days.  I have not changed the quotes in any way.  The quotes are taken directly from:

Roberts, A. & J. Donaldson, eds. (1885). Translations Of The Writings Of The Fathers Down To A.D. 325. Buffalo: The Christian Literature Publishing Company.  The Word Bible Software.

I have highlighted and put in bold places that I thought were significant.  They are arranged roughly in chronological order. – Douglas


The Epistle of Barnabas

Chap. XV. — The False and the True Sabbath.

Further,145 also, it is written concerning the Sabbath in the Decalogue which [the Lord] spoke, face to face, to Moses on Mount Sinai, “And sanctify ye the Sabbath of the Lord with clean hands and a pure heart.” (Exo_20:8; Deu_5:12) And He says in another place, “If my sons keep the Sabbath, then will I cause my mercy to rest upon them.” (Jer_17:24, Jer_17:25) The Sabbath is mentioned at the beginning of the creation [thus]: “And God made in six days the works of His hands, and made an end on the seventh day, and rested on it, and sanctified it.”146 Attend, my children, to the meaning of this expression, “He finished in six days.” This implieth that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is147 with Him a thousand years. And He Himself testifieth,148 saying, “Behold, to-day149 will be as a thousand years.” (Psa_90:4; 2Pe_3:8) Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. “And He rested on the seventh day.” This meaneth: when His Son, coming [again], shall destroy the time of the wicked man,150 and judge the ungodly, and change the sun, and the moon,151 and the stars, then shall He truly rest on the seventh day. Moreover, He says, “Thou shalt sanctify it with pure hands and a pure heart.” If, therefore, any one can now sanctify 147 the day which God hath sanctified, except he is pure in heart in all things,152 we are deceived.153 Behold, therefore:154 certainly then one properly resting sanctifies it, when we ourselves, having received the promise, wickedness no longer existing, and all things having been made new by the Lord, shall be able to work righteousness.155 Then we shall be able to sanctify it, having been first sanctified ourselves.156 Further, He says to them, “Your new moons and your Sabbath I cannot endure.” (Isa_1:13) Ye perceive how He speaks: Your present Sabbaths are not acceptable to Me, but that is which I have made, [namely this,] when, giving rest to all things, I shall make a beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning of another world. Wherefore, also, we keep the eighth day with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead.157 And158 when He had manifested Himself, He ascended into the heavens.


Introductory Note to the Spurious Epistles of Ignatius.

Chap. IX. — Duties of Husbands, Wives, Parents, and Children.

Let the husbands love their wives, remembering that, at the creation, one woman, and not many, was given to one man. Let the wives honour their husbands, as their own flesh; and let them not presume to address them by their names. (Comp. 1Pe_3:6) Let them also be chaste, reckoning their husbands as their only partners, to whom indeed they have been united according to the will of God. Ye parents,

Justin Martyr

Dialogue with Trypho

Chap. LXXIX. — He Proves Against Trypho That the Wicked Angels Have Revolted from God.

On this, Trypho, who was somewhat angry, but respected the Scriptures, as was manifest from his countenance, said to me, “The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God.”

And I, wishing to get him to listen to me, answered in milder tones, thus: “I admire, sir, this piety of yours; and I pray that you may entertain the same disposition towards Him to whom angels are recorded to minister, as Daniel says; for [one] like the Son of man is led to the Ancient of days, and every kingdom is given to Him for ever and ever. But that you may know, sir,” continued I, “that it is not our audacity which has induced us to adopt this exposition, which you reprehend, I shall give you evidence from Isaiah himself; for he affirms that evil angels have dwelt and do dwell in Tanis, in Egypt. These are [his] words: ‘Woe to the rebellious children! Thus saith the Lord, You have taken counsel, but not through Me; and [made] agreements, but not through My Spirit, to add sins to sins; who have sinned188 in going down to Egypt (but they have not inquired at Me), that they may be assisted by Pharaoh, and be covered with the shadow of the Egyptians. For the shadow of Pharaoh shall be a disgrace to you, and a reproach to those who trust in the Egyptians; for the princes in Tanis189 are evil angels. In vain will they labour for a people which will not profit them by assistance, but [will be] for a disgrace and a reproach [to them].’ (Isa_30:1-5) And, further, Zechariah tells, as you yourself have related, that the devil stood on the right hand of Joshua the priest, to resist him; and [the Lord] said, ‘The Lord, who has taken190 Jerusalem, rebuke thee.’ (Zec_3:1) And again, it is written in Job, (Job_1:6) as you said yourself, how that the angels came to stand before the Lord, and the devil came with them. And we have it recorded by Moses in the beginning of Genesis, that the serpent beguiled Eve, and was cursed. And we know that in Egypt there were magicians who emulated191 the mighty power displayed by God through the faithful servant Moses. And you are aware that David said, ‘The gods of the nations are demons.’” (Psa_96:5) 239

Chap. LXXX. — The Opinion of Justin with Regard to the Reign of a Thousand Years. Several Catholics Reject It.

And Trypho to this replied, “I remarked to you sir, that you are very anxious to be safe in all respects, since you cling to the Scriptures. But tell me, do you really admit that this place, Jerusalem, shall be rebuilt; and do you expect your people to be gathered together, and made joyful with Christ and the patriarchs, and the prophets, both the men of our nation, and other proselytes who joined them before your Christ came? or have you given way, and admitted this in order to have the appearance of worsting us in the controversies?”

Then I answered, “I am not so miserable a fellow, Trypho, as to say one thing and think another. I admitted to you formerly,192 that I and many others are of this opinion, and [believe] that such will take place, as you assuredly are aware;193 but, on the other hand, I signified to you that many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think otherwise. Moreover, I pointed out to you that some who are called Christians, but are godless, impious heretics, teach doctrines that are in every way blasphemous, atheistical, and foolish. But that you may know that I do not say this before you alone, I shall draw up a statement, so far as I can, of all the arguments which have passed between us; in which I shall record myself as admitting the very same things which I admit to you.194 For I choose to follow not men or men’s doctrines, but God and the doctrines [delivered] by Him. For if you have fallen in with some who are called Christians, but who do not admit this [truth],195 and venture to blaspheme the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; who say there is no resurrection of the dead, and that their souls, when they die, are taken to heaven; do not imagine that they are Christians, even as one, if he would rightly consider it, would not admit that the Sadducees, or similar sects of Genistae, Meristae,196 Gelilaeans, Hellenists,197 Pharisees, Baptists, are Jews (do not hear me impatiently when I tell you what I think), but are [only] called Jews and children of Abraham, worshipping God with the lips, as God Himself declared, but the heart was far from Him. But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years198 in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and enlarged, [as] the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.

Justin Martyr (Cont.)

Justin’s Hortatory Address to the Greeks. (Cont.)

Chap. XXXIII. — Plato’s Idea of the Beginning of Time Drawn from Moses.

And from what source did Plato draw the information that time was created along with the heavens? For he wrote thus: “Time, accordingly, was created along with the heavens; in order that, coming into being together, they might also be together dissolved, if ever their dissolution should take place.” Had he not learned this from the divine history of Moses? For he knew that the creation of time had received its original constitution from days and months and years. Since, then, the first day which was created along with the heavens constituted the beginning of all time (for thus Moses wrote, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,” and then immediately subjoins, “And one day was made,” as if he would designate the whole of time by one part of it), Plato names the day “time,” lest, if he mentioned the “day,” he should seem to lay himself open to the accusation of the Athenians, that he was completely adopting the expressions of Moses. And from what source did he derive what he has written regarding the dissolution of the heavens? Had he not learned this, too, from the sacred prophets, and did he not think that this was their doctrine?

Iraneus Against Heresies Book 1

Chap. XVIII. — Passages from Moses, Which the Heretics Pervert to the Support of Their Hypothesis.

1. And while they affirm such things as these concerning the creation, every one of them generates something new, day by day, according to his ability; for no one is deemed “perfect,” who does not develop among them some mighty fictions. It is thus necessary, first, to indicate what things they metamorphose [to their own use] out of the prophetical writings, and next, to refute them. Moses, then, they declare, by his mode of beginning the account of the creation, has at the commencement pointed out the mother of all things when he says, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth;” (Gen_1:1) for, as they maintain, by naming these four, — God, beginning, heaven, and earth, — he set forth their Tetrad. Indicating also its invisible and hidden nature, he said, “Now the earth was invisible and unformed.” (Gen_1:2) They will have it, moreover, that he spoke of the second Tetrad, the offspring of the first, in this way — by naming an abyss and darkness, in which were also water, and the Spirit moving upon the water. Then, proceeding to mention the Decad, he names light, day, night, the firmament, the evening, the morning, dry land, sea, plants, and, in the tenth place, trees. Thus, by means of these ten names, he indicated the ten Aeons. The power of the Duodecad, again, was shadowed forth by him thus: — He names the sun, moon, stars, seasons, years, whales, fishes, reptiles, birds, quadrupeds, wild beasts, and after all these, in the twelfth place, man. Thus they teach that the Triacontad was spoken of through Moses by the Spirit. Moreover, man also, being formed after the image of the power above, had in himself that ability which flows from the one source. This ability was seated in the region of the brain, from which four faculties proceed, after the image of the Tetrad above, and these are called: the first, sight, the second, hearing, the third, smell, and the fourth,156 taste. And they say that the Ogdoad is indicated by man in this way: that he possesses two ears, the like number of eyes, also two nostrils, and a twofold taste, namely, of bitter and sweet. Moreover, they teach that the whole man contains the entire image of the Triacontad as follows: In his hands, by means of his fingers, he bears the Decad; and in his whole body the Duodecad, inasmuch as his body is divided into twelve members; for they portion that out, as the body of Truth is divided by them — a point of which we have already spoken.157 But the Ogdoad, as being unspeakable and invisible, is understood as hidden in the viscera.

2. Again, they assert that the sun, the great light-giver, was formed on the fourth day, with a reference to the number of the Tetrad. So also, according to them, the courts158 of the tabernacle constructed by Moses, being composed of fine linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, pointed to the same image. Moreover, they maintain that the long robe of the priest failing over his feet, as being adorned with four rows of precious stones, (Exo_28:17) indicates the Tetrad; and if there are any other things in the Scriptures which can possibly be dragged into the number four, they declare that these had their being with a view to the Tetrad. The Ogdoad, again, was shown as follows: — They affirm that man was formed on the eighth day, for sometimes they will have him to have been made on the sixth day, and sometimes on the eighth, unless, perchance, they mean that his earthly part was formed on the sixth day, but his fleshly part on the eighth, for these two things are distinguished by them. Some of them also hold that one man was formed after the image and likeness of God, masculo-feminine, and that this was the spiritual man; and that another man was formed out of the earth.

3. Further, they declare that the arrangement made with respect to the ark in the Deluge, by means of which eight persons were saved, (Gen_6:18; 1Pe_3:20) most clearly indicates the Ogdoad which brings salvation. David also shows forth the same, as holding the eighth place in point of age among his brethren. (1Sa_16:10) Moreover, that circumcision which took place on the eighth day, (Gen_17:12) represented the circumcision of the Ogdoad above. In a word, whatever they find in the Scriptures capable of being referred to the number eight, they declare to fulfil the mystery of the Ogdoad. With respect, again, to the Decad, they maintain that it is indicated by those ten nations which God promised to Abraham for a possession. (Gen_15:19) The arrangement also made by Sarah when, after ten years, she gave (Gen_16:2) her handmaid Hagar to him, that by her he might have a son, showed the same thing. Moreover, the servant of Abraham who was sent to Rebekah, and presented her at the well with ten bracelets of gold, and her 344 brethren who detained her for ten days; (Gen_24:22, Gen_24:25) Jeroboam also, who received the ten sceptres (1Ki_11:31) (tribes), and the ten courts (Exo_26:1, Exo_36:8) of the tabernacle, and the columns of ten cubits (Exo_36:21) [high], and the ten sons of Jacob who were at first sent into Egypt to buy corn, (Gen_42:3) and the ten apostles to whom the Lord appeared after His resurrection, — Thomas (Joh_20:24) being absent, — represented, according to them, the invisible Decad.

Iraneus Against Heresies book 2

4. This manner of speech may perhaps be plausible or persuasive to those who know not God, and who liken Him to needy human beings, and to those who cannot immediately and without assistance form anything, but require many instrumentalities to produce what they intend. But it will not be regarded as at all probable by those who know that God stands in need of nothing, and that He created and made all things by His Word, while He neither required angels to assist Him in the production of those things which are made, nor of any power greatly inferior to Himself, and ignorant of the Father, nor of any defect or ignorance, in order that he who should know Him might become man.6 But He Himself in Himself, after a fashion which we can neither describe nor conceive, predestinating all things, formed them as He pleased, bestowing harmony on all things, and assigning them their own place, and the beginning of their creation. In this way He conferred on spiritual things a spiritual and invisible nature, on super-celestial things a celestial, on angels an angelical, on animals an animal, on beings that swim, a nature suited to the water, and on those that live on the land one fitted for the land — on all, in short, a nature suitable to the character of the life assigned them — while He formed all things that were made by His Word that never wearies.

5. For this is a peculiarity of the pre-eminence of God, not to stand in need of other instruments for the creation of those things which are summoned into existence. His own Word is both suitable and sufficient for the formation of all things, even as John, the disciple of the Lord, 362 declares regarding Him: “All things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made.” (Joh_1:3) Now, among the “all things” our world must be embraced. It too, therefore, was made by His Word, as Scripture tells us in the book of Genesis that He made all things connected with our world by His Word. David also expresses the same truth [when he says] “For He spake, and they were made; He commanded, and they were created.” (Psa_33:9, Psa_148:5) Whom, therefore, shall we believe as to the creation of the world — these heretics who have been mentioned that prate so foolishly and inconsistently on the subject, or the disciples of the Lord, and Moses, who was both a faithful servant of God and a prophet? He at first narrated the formation of the world in these words: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth,” (Gen_1:1) and all other things in succession; but neither gods nor angels [had any share in the work].

Now, that this God is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Paul the apostle also has declared, [saying,] “There is one God, the Father, who is above all, and through all things, and in us all.”7 I have indeed proved already that there is only one God; but I shall further demonstrate this from the apostles themselves, and from the discourses of the Lord. For what sort of conduct would it be, were we to forsake the utterances of the prophets, of the Lord, and of the apostles, that we might give heed to these persons, who speak not a word of sense?

Iraneus Against Heresies book 5 Chpt 28

3. For in as many days as this world was made, in so many thousand years shall it be concluded. And for this reason the Scripture says: “Thus the heaven and the earth were finished, and all their adornment. And God brought to a conclusion upon the sixth day the works that He had made; and God rested upon the seventh day from all His works.” (Gen_2:2) This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is a prophecy of what is to come. For the day of the Lord is as a thousand years; (2Pe_3:8) and in six days created things were completed: it is evident, therefore, that they will come to an end at the sixth thousand year.

The Writings of Tertullian

Part Second – Anti-Marcion (Cont.)

Chap. XXI. – The Law of the Sabbath-Day Explained. The Eight Days’ Procession Around Jericho. The Gathering of Sticks a Violation.

Similarly on other points also, you reproach Him with fickleness and instability for contradictions in His commandments, such as that He forbade work to be done on Sabbath-days, and yet at the siege of Jericho ordered the ark to be carried round the walls during eight days; in other words, of course, actually on a Sabbath. You do not, however, consider the law of the Sabbath: they are human works, not divine, which it prohibits. (Exo_20:9, Exo_20:10) For it says, “Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the Sabbath of 314 the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work.” What work? Of course your own. The conclusion is, that from the Sabbath-day He removes those works which He had before enjoined for the six days, that is, your own works; in other words, human works of daily life. Now, the carrying around of the ark is evidently not an ordinary daily duty, nor yet a human one; but a rare and a sacred work, and, as being then ordered by the direct precept of God, a divine one. And t might fully explain what this signified, were it not a tedious process to open out the forms206 of all the Creator’s proofs, which you would, moreover, probably refuse to allow. It is more to the point, if you be confuted on plain matters207 by the simplicity of truth rather than curious reasoning. Thus, in the present instance, there is a clear distinction respecting the Sabbath’s prohibition of human labours, not divine ones. Accordingly, the man who went and gathered sticks on the Sabbath-day was punished with death. For it was his own work which he did; and this208 the law forbade. They, however, who on the Sabbath carried the ark round Jericho, did it with impunity. For it was not their own work, but God’s, which they executed, and that too, from His express commandment.

The Writings of Tertullian

Part Second – Anti-Marcion (Cont.)

Chap. XXIX. – The Gradual Development of Cosmical Order out of Chaos in the Creation, Beautifully Stated.

God, indeed, consummated all His works in a due order; at first He paled them out,218 as it were, in their unformed elements, and then He arranged them219 in their finished beauty. For He did not all at once inundate light with the splendour of the sun, nor all at once temper darkness with the moon’s assuaging ray.220 The heaven He did not all at once bedeck221 with constellations and stars, nor did He at once fill the seas with their teeming monsters.222 The earth itself He did not endow with its varied fruitfulness all at once; but at first He bestowed upon it being, and then He filled it, that it might not be made in vain.223 For thus says Isaiah: “He created it not in vain; He formed it to be inhabited.” (Isa_45:18) Therefore after it was made, and while awaiting its perfect state,224 it was “without form, and void:” “void” indeed, from the very fact that it was without form (as being not yet perfect to the sight, and at the same time unfurnished as yet with its other qualities);225 and “without form,” because it was still covered with waters, as if with the rampart of its fecundating moisture,226 by which is produced our flesh, in a form allied with its own. For to this purport does David say:227 “The earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof; the world, and all that dwell therein: He hath rounded it upon the seas, and on the streams hath He established it.” (Psa_24:1) It was when the waters were withdrawn into their hollow abysses that the dry land became conspicuous,228 which was hitherto covered with its watery envelope. Then it forthwith becomes “visible,”229 God saying, “Let the water be gathered together into one mass,230 and let the dry land appear.” (Gen_1:9) “Appear,” says He, not “be made.” It had been already made, only in its invisible condition it was then waiting231 to appear. “Dry,” because it was about to become such by its severance from the moisture, but yet “land.” “And God called the dry land Earth,” (Gen_1:10) not Matter. And so, when it afterwards attains its perfection, it ceases to be accounted void, when God declares, “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed after its kind, and cording to its likeness, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit, whose seed is in itself, after its kind.” (Gen_1:11) Again: “Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth, after their kind.” (Gen_1:24) Thus the divine Scripture accomplished its full order. For to that, which it had at first described as “without form (invisible) and void,” it gave both visibility and completion. Now no other Matter was “without form (invisible) and void.” 494

Henceforth, then, Matter will have to be visible and complete. So that I must232 see Matter, since it has become visible. I must likewise recognize it as a completed thing, so as to be able to gather from it the herb bearing seed, and the tree yielding fruit, and that living creatures, made out of it, may minister to my need. Matter, however, is nowhere,233 but the Earth is here, confessed to my view. I see it, I enjoy it, ever since it ceased to be “without form (invisible), and void.” Concerning it most certainly did Isaiah speak when he said, “Thus saith the Lord that created the heavens, He was the God that formed the earth, and made it.” (Isa_45:18) The same earth for certain did He form, which He also made. Now how did He form234 it? Of course by saying, “Let the dry land appear.” (Gen_1:9) Why does He command it to appear, if it were not previously invisible? His purpose was also, that He might thus prevent His having made it in vain, by rendering it visible, and so fit for use. And thus, throughout, proofs arise to us that this earth which we inhabit is the very same which was both created and formed235 by God, and that none other was “Without form, and void,” than that which had been created and formed. It therefore follows that the sentence, “Now the earth was without form, and void,” applies to that same earth which God mentioned separately along with the heaven.236

Chap. XXX. – Another Passage in the Sacred History of the Creation, Released from the Mishandling of Hermogenes.

The following words will in like manner apparently corroborate the conjecture of Hermogenes, “And darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the water; (Gen_1:2) as if these blended237 substances, presented us with arguments for his massive pile of Matter.238 Now, so discriminating an enumeration of certain and distinct elements (as we have in this passage), which severally designates” darkness,” “the deep” “the Spirit of God,” “the waters,” forbids the inference that anything confused or (from such confusion) uncertain is meant. Still more, when He ascribed to them their own places,239 “darkness on the face of the deep,” “the Spirit upon the face of the waters,” He repudiated all confusion in the substances; and by demonstrating their separate position,240 He demonstrated also their distinction. Most absurd, indeed, would it be that Matter, which is introduced to our view as “without form,” should have its “formless” condition maintained by so many words indicative of form,241 without any intimation of what that confused body242 is, which must of course be supposed to be unique,243 since it is without form.244 For that which is without form is uniform; but even245 that which is without form, when it is blended together246 from various component parts,247 must necessarily have one outward appearance;248 and it has not any appearance, until it has the one appearance (which comes) from many parts combined.249 Now Matter either had those specific parts250 within itself, from the words indicative of which it had to be understood – I mean “darkness,” and “the deep,” and “the Spirit,” and “the waters” – or it had them not. If it had them, how is it introduced as being “without form?”251 If it had them not, how does it become known?252

Chap. XXXI. – A Further Vindication of the Scripture Narrative of the Creation, Against a Futile View of Hermogenes.

But this circumstance, too, will be caught at, that Scripture meant to indicate of the heaven only, and this earth of yours,253 that God made it in the beginning, while nothing of the kind is said of the above-mentioned specific parts;254 and therefore that these, which are not described as having been made, appertain to unformed Matter. To this point255 also we must give an answer. Holy I Scripture would be sufficiently explicit, if it had declared that the heaven and the earth, as the very highest works of creation, were made by God, possessing of course their own special appurtenances,256 which might be understood to be implied in these highest works themselves. Now the appurtenances of the heaven and the earth, made then in the beginning, were the darkness and the deep, and the spirit, and the waters. For the depth and the darkness underlay the earth. Since 495 the deep was under the earth, and the darkness was over the deep, undoubtedly both the darkness and the deep were under the earth. Below the heaven, too, lay the spirit257 and the waters. For since the waters were over the earth, which they covered, whilst the spirit was over the waters, both the spirit and the waters were alike over the earth. Now that which is over the earth, is of course under the heaven. And even as the earth brooded over the deep and the darkness, so also did the heaven brood over the spirit and the waters, and embrace them. Nor, indeed, is there any novelty in mentioning only that which contains, as pertaining to the whole,258 and understanding that which is contained as included in it, in its character of a portion.259 Suppose now I should say the city built a theatre and a circus, but the stage260 was of such and such a kind, and the statues were on the canal, and the obelisk was reared above them all, would it follow that, because I did not distinctly state that these specific things261 were made by the city, they were therefore not made by it along with the circus and the theatre? Did I not, indeed, refrain from specially mentioning the formation of these particular things because they were implied in the things which I had already said were made, and might be understood to be inherent in the things in which they were contained? But this example may be an idle one as being derived from a human circumstance; I will take another, which has the authority of Scripture itself. It says that “God made man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” (Gen_2:7) Now, although it here mentions the nostrils,262 it does not say that they were made by God; so again it speaks of skin263 and bones, and flesh and eyes, and sweat and blood, in subsequent passages, (see Gen_2:21, Gen_2:23; Gen_3:5, Gen_3:19; Gen_4:10) and yet it never intimated that they had been created by God. What will Hermogenes have to answer? That the human limbs must belong to Matter, because they are not specially mentioned as objects of creation? Or are they included in the formation of man? In like manner, the deep and the darkness, and the spirit and the waters, were as members of the heaven and the earth. For in the bodies the limbs were made, in the bodies the limbs too were mentioned. No element but what is a member of that element in which it is contained. But all elements are contained in the heaven and the earth.

Chap. XXXII. – The Account of the Creation in Genesis a General One. Corroborated, However, by Many Other Passages of the Old Testament, Which Give Account of Specific Creations. Further Cavillings Confuted.

This is the answer I should give in defence of the Scripture before us, for seeming here to set forth264 the formation of the heaven and the earth, as if (they were) the sole bodies made. It could not but know that there were those who would at once in the bodies understand their several members also, and therefore it employed this concise mode of speech. But, at the same time, it foresaw that there would be stupid and crafty men, who, after paltering with the virtual meaning,265 would require for the several members a word descriptive of their formation too. It is therefore because of such persons, that Scripture in other passages teaches us of the creation of the individual parts. You have Wisdom saying, “But before the depths was I brought forth,” (Pro_8:24) in order that you may believe that the depths were also “brought forth” – that is, created – just as we create sons also, though we “bring them forth.” It matters not whether the depth was made or born, so that a beginning be accorded to it, which however would not be, if it were subjoined266 to matter. Of darkness, indeed, the Lord Himself by Isaiah says, “I formed the light, and I created darkness.” (Isa_45:7) Of the wind267 also Amos says, “He that strengtheneth the thunder,268 and createth the wind, and declareth His Christ268 unto men;” (Amo_4:13) thus showing that that wind was created which was reckoned with the formation of the earth, which was wafted over the waters, balancing and refreshing and animating all things: not (as some suppose) meaning God Himself by the spirit,269 on the ground that “God is a Spirit,” (Joh_4:24) because the waters would not be able to bear up their Lord; but He speaks of that spirit of which the winds consist, as He says by Isaiah, “Because my spirit went forth from me, and I made every blast.”270 In like manner the 496 same Wisdom says of the waters, “Also when He made the fountains strong, things which271 are under the sky, I was fashioning272 them along with Him.” (Pro_8:28) Now, when we prove that these particular things were created by God, although they are only mentioned in Genesis, without any intimation of their having been made, we shall perhaps receive from the other side the reply, that these were made, it is true,273 but out of Matter, since the very statement of Moses, “And darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God moved on the face of the waters,” (Gen_1:2) refers to Matter, as indeed do all those other Scriptures here and there,274 which demonstrate that the separate parts were made out of Matter. It must follow, then,275 that as earth consisted of earth, so also depth consisted of depth, and darkness of darkness, and the wind and waters of wind and waters. And, as we said above, (chap. xxx., towards the end.) Matter could not have been without form, since it had specific parts, which were formed out of it – although as separate things276 – unless, indeed, they were not separate, but were the very same with those out of which they came. For it is really impossible that those specific things, which are set forth under the same names, should have been diverse; because in that case277 the operation of God might seem to be useless,278 if it made things which existed already; since that alone would be a creation,279 when things came into being, which had not been (previously) made. Therefore, to conclude, either Moses then pointed to Matter when he wrote the words: “And darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God moved on the face of the waters;” or else, inasmuch as these specific parts of creation are afterwards shown in other passages to have been made by God, they ought to have been with equal explicitness280 shown to have been made out of the Matter which, according to you, Moses had previously mentioned;281 or else, finally, if Moses pointed to those specific parts, and not to Matter, I want to know where Matter has been pointed out at all.

Chap. XXXIII. – Statement of the True Doctrine Concerning Matter. Its Relation to God’s Creation of the World.

But although Hermogenes finds it amongst his own colourable pretences282 (for it was not in his power to discover it in the Scriptures of God), it is enough for us, both that it is certain that all things were made by God, and that there is no certainty whatever that they were made out of Matter. And even if Matter had previously existed, we must have believed that it had been really made by God, since we maintained (no less) when we held the rule of faith to be,283 that nothing except God was uncreated.284 Up to this point there is room for controversy, until Matter is brought to the test of the Scriptures, and fails to make good its case.285 The conclusion of the whole is this: I find that there was nothing made, except out of nothing; because that which I find was made, I know did not once exist. Whatever286 was made out of something, has its origin in something made: for instance, out of the ground was made the grass, and the fruit, and the cattle, and the form of man himself; so from the waters were produced the animals which swim and fly. The original fabrics287 out of which such creatures were produced I may call their materials,288 but then even these were created by God.

Chap. V. – The Evolution of the Son or Word of God from the Father by a Divine Procession. Illustrated by the Operation of the Human Thought and Consciousness.

But since they will have the Two to be but One, so that the Father shall be deemed to be the same as the Son, it is only right that the whole question respecting the Son should be examined, as to whether He exists, and who He is and the mode of His existence. Thus shall the truth itself24 secure its own sanction25 from the Scriptures, and the interpretations which guard26 them. There are some who allege that even Genesis opens thus in Hebrew: “In the beginning God made for Himself a Son.”27 As there is no ground for this, I am led to other arguments derived from God’s own dispensation,28 in which He existed before the creation of the world, up to the generation of the Son. For before all things God was alone being in Himself and for Himself universe, and space, and all things. Moreover, He was alone, because there was nothing external to Him but Himself. Yet even not then was He alone; for He had with Him that which He possessed in Himself, that is to say, His own Reason. For God is rational, and Reason was first in Him; and so all things were from Himself. This Reason is His own Thought (or Consciousness)29 which the Greeks call λόγος, by which term we also designate Word or Discourse30 and therefore it is now usual with our people, owing to the mere simple interpretation of the term, to say that the Word31 was in the beginning with God; although it would be more suitable to regard Reason as the more ancient; because God had not Word32 from the beginning, but He had Reason33 even before the beginning; because also Word itself consists of Reason, which it thus proves to have been the prior existence as being its own substance.34 ….

Theophilus of Antioch (Cont.)

Theophilus to Autolycus. (Cont.)

Book II. (Cont.)

Chap. XIII. — Remarks on the Creation of the World.

Moreover, his [Hesiod’s] human, and mean, and very weak conception, so far as regards God, is discovered in his beginning to relate the creation of all things from the earthly things here below. For man, being below, begins to build from the earth, and cannot in order make the roof, unless he has first laid the foundation. But the power of God is shown in this, that, first of all, He creates out of nothing, according to His will, the things that are made. “For the things which are impossible with men are possible with God.” (Luk_18:27) Wherefore, also, the prophet mentioned that the creation of the heavens first of all took place, as a kind of roof, saying: “At the first God created the heavens” — that is, that by means of the “first” principle the heavens were made, as we have already shown. And by “earth” he means the ground and foundation, as by “the deep” he means the multitude of waters; and “darkness” he speaks of, on account of the heaven which God made coveting the waters and the earth like a lid. And by the Spirit which is borne above the waters, 100 he means that which God gave for animating the creation, as he gave life to man,43 mixing what is fine with what is fine. For the Spirit is fine, and the water is fine, that the Spirit may nourish the water, and the water penetrating everywhere along with the Spirit, may nourish creation. For the Spirit being one, and holding the place of light,44 was between the water and the heaven, in order that the darkness might not in any way communicate with the heaven, which was nearer God, before God said, “Let there be light.” The heaven, therefore, being like a dome-shaped covering, comprehended matter which was like a clod. And so another prophet, Isaiah by name, spoke in these words: “It is God who made the heavens as a vault, and stretched them as a tent to dwell in.” (Isa_40:22) The command, then, of God, that is, His Word, shining as a lamp in an enclosed chamber, lit up all that was under heaven, when He had made light apart from the world.45 And the light God called Day, and the darkness Night. Since man would not have been able to call the light Day, or the darkness Night, nor, indeed, to have given names to the other things, had not he received the nomenclature from God, who made the things themselves. In the very beginning, therefore, of the history and genesis of the world, the holy Scripture spoke not concerning this firmament [which we see], but concerning another heaven, which is to us invisible, after which this heaven which we see has been called “firmament,” and to which half the water was taken up that it might serve for rains, and showers, and dews to mankind. And half the water was left on earth for rivers, and fountains, and seas. The water, then, covering all the earth, and specially its hollow places, God, through His Word, next caused the waters to be collected into one collection, and the dry land to become visible, which formerly had been invisible. The earth thus becoming visible, was yet without form. God therefore formed and adorned it46 with all kinds of herbs, and seeds and plants.

Chap. XIV. — The World Compared to the Sea.

Consider, further, their variety, and diverse beauty, and multitude, and how through them resurrection is exhibited, for a pattern of the resurrection of all men which is to be. For who that considers it will not marvel that a fig-tree is produced from a fig-seed, or that very huge trees grow from the other very little seeds? And we say that the world resembles the sea. For as the sea, if it had not had the influx and supply of the rivers and fountains to nourish it, would long since have been parched by reason of its saltness; so also the world, if it had not had the law of God and the prophets flowing and welling up sweetness, and compassion, and righteousness, and the doctrine of the holy commandments of God, would long ere now have come to ruin, by reason of the wickedness and sin which abound in it. And as in the sea there are islands, some of them habitable, and well-watered, and fruitful, with havens and harbours in which the storm-tossed may find refuge, — so God has given to the world which is driven and tempest-tossed by sins, assemblies47 — we mean holy churches48 — in which survive the doctrines of the truth, as in the island-harbours of good anchorage; and into these run those who desire to be saved, being lovers of the truth, and wishing to escape the wrath and judgment of God. And as, again, there are other islands, rocky and without water, and barren, and infested by wild beasts, and uninhabitable, and serving only to injure navigators and the storm-tossed, on which ships are wrecked, and those driven among them perish, — so there are doctrines of error — I mean heresies48 — which destroy those who approach them. For they are not guided by the word of truth; but as pirates, when they have filled their vessels,49 drive them on the fore-mentioned places, that they may spoil them: so also it happens in the case of those who err from the truth, that they are all totally ruined by their error.

Chap. XV. — Of the Fourth Day.

On the fourth day the luminaries were made; because God, who possesses foreknowledge, knew the follies of the vain philosophers, that they were going to say, that the things which grow on the earth are produced from the heavenly bodies, so as to exclude God. In order, therefore, that the truth might be obvious, the plants and seeds were produced prior to the heavenly bodies, for what is posterior cannot produce that which is prior. And these contain the pattern and type of a great mystery. For the sun is a type of God, and the moon of man. And as the sun far surpasses the moon in power and glory, so far does God surpass man. And as the sun remains ever full, never becoming less, so does God always abide perfect, being full of all power, and understanding, and wisdom, and immortality, and all good. But the moon wanes monthly, and in a manner dies, being a type of man; then it is born again, and is crescent, for a pattern of the future resurrection. In like manner also the 101 three days which were before the luminaries,50 are types of the Trinity,51 of God, and His Word, and His wisdom.52 And the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, wisdom, man. Wherefore also on the fourth day the lights were made. The disposition of the stars, too, contains a type of the arrangement and order of the righteous and pious, and of those who keep the law and commandments of God. For the brilliant and bright stars are an imitation of the prophets, and therefore they remain fixed, not declining, nor passing from place to place. And those which hold the second place in brightness, are types of the people of the righteous. And those, again,, which change their position, and flee from place to place, which also are called planets,53 they too are a type of the men who have wandered from God, abandoning His law and commandments.

Chap. XVI. — Of the Fifth Day.

On the fifth day the living creatures which proceed from the waters were produced, through: which also is revealed the manifold wisdom of God in these things; for who could count their multitude and very various kinds? Moreover, the things proceeding from the waters were blessed by God, that this also might be a sign of men’s being destined to receive repentance and remission of sins, through the water and laver of regeneration, — as many as come to the truth, and are born again, and receive blessing from God. But the monsters of the deep and the birds of prey are a similitude of covetous men and transgressors. For as the fish and the fowls are of one nature, — some indeed abide in their natural state, and do no harm to those weaker than themselves, but keep the law of God, and eat of the seeds of the earth; others of them, again, transgress the law of God, and eat flesh, and injure those weaker than themselves: thus, too, the righteous, keeping the law of God, bite and injure none, but live holily and righteously. But robbers, and murderers, and godless persons are like monsters of the deep, and wild beasts, and birds of prey; for they virtually devour those weaker than themselves. The race, then, of fishes and of creeping things, though partaking of God’s blessing, received no very distinguishing property.

Chap. XVII. — Of the Sixth Day.

And on the sixth day, God having made the quadrupeds, and wild beasts, and the land reptiles, pronounced no blessing upon them, reserving His blessing for man, whom He was about to create on the sixth day. The quadrupeds, too, and wild beasts, were made for a type of some men, who neither know nor worship God, but mind earthly things, and repent not. For those who turn from their iniquities and live righteously, in spirit fly upwards like birds, and mind the things that are above, and are well-pleasing to the will of God. But those who do not know nor worship God, are like birds which have wings, but cannot fly nor soar to the high things of God. Thus, too, though such persons are called men, yet being pressed down with sins, they mind grovelling and earthly-things. And the animals are named wild beasts [θηρία], from their being hunted [θηρεύεσθαι], not as if they had been made evil or venomous from the first — for nothing was made evil by God,54 but all things good, yea, very good, — but the sin in which man was concerned brought evil upon them. For when man transgressed, they also transgressed with him. For as, if the master of the house himself acts rightly, the domestics also of necessity conduct themselves well; but if the master sins, the servants also sin with him; so in like manner it came to pass, that in the case of man’s sin, he being master, all that was subject to him sinned with him. When, therefore, man again shall have made his way back to his natural condition, and no longer does evil, those also shall be restored to their original gentleness.

Chap. XIX. — Man Is Placed in Paradise.

God having thus completed the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and all that are in them, on the sixth day, rested on the seventh day from all His works which He made. Then holy Scripture gives a summary in these words: “This is the book of the generation of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and every green thing of the field, before it was made, and every herb of the field before it grew. For God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.” (Gen_2:4, Gen_2:5) By this He signifies to us, that the whole earth was at that time watered by a divine fountain, and had no need that man should till it; but the earth produced all things spontaneously by the command of God, that man might not be wearied by tilling it. But that the creation of man might be made plain, so that there should not seem to be an insoluble problem existing among men, since God had said, “Let Us make man;” and since His creation was not yet plainly related, Scripture teaches us, saying: “And a fountain went up out of the earth, and watered the face of the whole earth; and God made man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.”55 Whence also by most persons the soul is called immortal.56 And after the formation of man, God chose out for him a region among the places of the East, excellent for light, brilliant with a very bright atmosphere, [abundant] in the finest plants; and in this He placed man.

Chap. XXIII. — The Truth of the Account in Genesis.

Man, therefore, God made on the sixth day, and made known this creation after the seventh day, when also He made Paradise, that he might be in a better and distinctly superior place. And that this is true, the fact itself proves. For how can one miss seeing that the pains which women suffer in childbed, and the oblivion of their labours which they afterwards enjoy, are sent in order that the word of God may be fulfilled, and that the race of men may increase and multiply?63 And do we not see also the judgment of the serpent, — how hatefully he crawls on his belly and eats the dust, — that we may have this, too, for a proof of the things which were said aforetime?

Chap. XXVIII. — Why Eve Was Formed of Adam’s Rib.

And Adam having been cast out of Paradise, in this condition knew Eve his wife, whom God had formed into a wife for him out of his rib. And this He did, not as if He were unable to make his wife separately, but God foreknew that man would call upon a number of gods. And having this prescience, and knowing that through the serpent error would introduce a number of gods which had no existence, — for there being but one God, even then error was striving to disseminate a multitude of gods, saying, “Ye shall be as gods;” — lest, then, it should be supposed that one God made the man and another the woman, therefore He made them both; and God made the woman together with the man, not only that thus the mystery of God’s sole government might be exhibited, but also that their mutual affection might be greater. Therefore said Adam to Eve, “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh.” And besides, he prophesied, saying, “For this cause shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they two shall be one flesh;” 69 which also itself has its fulfilment in ourselves. For who that marries lawfully does not despise mother and father, and his whole family connection, and all his household, cleaving to and becoming one with his own wife, fondly preferring her? So that often, for the sake of their wives, some submit even to death. This Eve, on account of her having been in the beginning deceived by the serpent, and become the author of sin, the wicked demon, who also is called Satan, who then spoke to her through the serpent, and who works even to this day in those men that are possessed by him, invokes as Eve.70 And he is called “demon” and “dragon,” on account of his [ἀποδεδρακέναι] revolting from God. For at first he was an angel. And concerning his history there is a great deal to be said; wherefore I at present omit the relation of it, for I have also given an account of him in another place.

Theophilus to Autolycus. (Cont.)

Book III. (Cont.)

Chap. XXIII. – Prophets More Ancient than Greek Writers.

And that we may give a more accurate exhibition of eras and dates, we will, God helping us, now give an account not only of the dates after the deluge, but also of those before it, so as to reckon the whole number of all the years, as far as possible; tracing up to the very beginning of the creation of the world, which Moses the servant of God recorded through the Holy Spirit. For having first spoken of what concerned the creation and genesis of the world, and of the first man, and all that happened after in the order of events, he signified also the years that elapsed before the deluge. And I pray for favour from the only God, that I may accurately speak the whole truth according to His will, that you and every one who reads this work may be guided by His truth and favour. I will then begin first with the recorded genealogies, and I begin my narration with the first man.113

Chap. XXIV. – Chronology from Adam.

Adam lived till he begat a son,114 230 years. And his son Seth, 205. And his son Enos, 190. And his son Cainan, 170. And his son Mahaleel, 165. And his son Jared, 162. And his son Enoch, 165. And his son Methuselah, 167. And his son Lamech, 188. And Lamech’s son was Noah, of whom we have spoken above, who begat Shem when 500 years old. During Noah’s life, in his 600th year, the flood came. The total number of years, therefore, till the flood, was 2242. And immediately after the flood, Shem, who was 100 years old, begat Arphaxad. And Arphaxad, when 135 years old, begat Salah. And Salah begat a son when 130. And his son Eber, when 134. And from him the Hebrews name their race. And his son Phaleg begat a son when 130. And his son Reu, when 132 And his son Serug, when 130. And his son Nahor, when 75. And his son Terah, when 70. And his son Abraham, our patriarch, begat Isaac when he was 100 years old. Until Abraham, therefore, there are 3278 years. The fore-mentioned Isaac lived until he begat a son, 60 years, and begat Jacob. Jacob, till the migration into Egypt, of which we have spoken above, lived 130 years. And the sojourning of the Hebrews in Egypt lasted 430 years; and after their departure from the land of Egypt they spent 40 years in the wilderness, as it is called. All these years, therefore, amount to 3,938. And at that time, Moses having died, Jesus the sun of Nun succeeded to his rule, and governed them 27 years. And after Jesus, when the people had transgressed the commandments of God, they served the king of Mesopotamia, by name Chusarathon, 8 years. Then, on the 119 repentance of the people, they had judges: Gothonoel, 40 years; Eglon, 18 years; Aoth, 8 years. Then having sinned, they were subdued by strangers for 20 years. Then Deborah judged them 40 years. Then they served the Midianites 7 years. Then Gideon judged them 40 years; Abimelech, 3 years; Thola, 22 years; Jair, 22 years. Then the Philistines and Ammonites ruled them 18 years. After that Jephthah judged them 6 years; Esbon, 7 years; Ailon, 10 years; Abdon, 8 years. Then strangers ruled them 40 years. Then Samson judged them 20 years. Then there was peace among them for 40 years. Then Samera judged them one year; Eli, 20 years; Samuel, 12 years.

Chap. XXV. – From Saul to the Captivity.

And after the judges they had kings, the first named Saul, who reigned 20 years; then David, our forefather, who reigned 40 years. Accordingly, there are to the reign of David [from Isaac] 496 years. And after these kings Solomon reigned, who also, by the will of God, was the first to build the temple in Jerusalem; he reigned 40 years. And after him Rehoboam, 17 years; and after him Abias, 7 years; and after him Asa, 41 years; and after him Jehoshaphat, 25 years; and after him Joram, 8 years; and after him Ahaziah, 1 year; and after him Athaliah, 6 years; and after her Josiah, 40 years; and after him Amaziah, 39 years; and after him Uzziah, 52 years; and after him Jotham, 16 years; and after him Ahaz, 17 years; and after him Hezekiah, 29 years; and after him Manasseh, 55 years; and after him Amon, 2 years; and after him Josiah, 31 years; and after him Jehoahaz, 3 months; and after him Jehoiakim, 11 years. Then another Jehoiakim, 3 months 10 days; and after him Zedekiah, 11 years. And after these kings, the people, continuing in their sins, and not repenting, the king of Babylon, named Nebuchadnezzar, came up into Judaea, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah. He transferred the people of the Jews to Babylon, and destroyed the temple which Solomon had built. And in the Babylonian banishment the people passed 70 years. Until the sojourning in the land of Babylon, there are therefore, in all, 4954 years 6 months and 10 days. And according as God had, by the prophet Jeremiah, foretold that the people should be led captive to Babylon, in like manner He signified beforehand that they should also return into their own land after 70 years. These 70 years then being accomplished, Cyrus becomes king of the Persians, who, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah, issued a decree in the second year of his reign, enjoining by his edict that all Jews who were in his kingdom should return to their own country, and rebuild their temple to God, which the fore-mentioned king of Babylon had demolished. Moreover, Cyrus, in compliance with the instructions of God, gave orders to his own bodyguards, Sabessar and Mithridates, that the vessels which had been taken out of the temple of Judaea by Nebuchadnezzar should be restored, and placed again in the temple. In the second year, therefore, of Darius are fulfilled the 70 years which were foretold by Jeremiah.

Chap. XVIII. — Errors of the Greeks About the Deluge.

For Plato, as we said above, when he had demonstrated that a deluge had happened, said that it extended not over the whole earth, but only over the plains, and that those who fled to the highest hills saved themselves. But others say that there existed Deucalion and Pyrrha, and that they were preserved in a chest; and that Deucalion, after he came out of the chest, flung stones behind him, and that men were produced from the stones; from which circumstance they say that men in the mass are named “people.”103 Others, again, say that Clymenus existed in a second flood. From what has already been said, it is evident that they who wrote such things and philosophized to so little purpose are miserable, and very profane and senseless persons. But Moses, our prophet and the servant of God, in giving an account of the genesis of the world, related in what manner the flood came upon the earth, telling us, besides, how the details of the flood came about, and relating no fable of Pyrrha nor of Deucalion or Clymenus; nor, forsooth, that only the plains were submerged, and that those only who escaped to the mountains were saved.

Chap. XIX. — Accurate Account of the Deluge.

And neither does he make out that there was a second flood: on the contrary, he said that never again would there be a flood of water on the world; as neither indeed has there been, nor ever shall be. And he says that eight human beings were preserved in the ark, in that which had been prepared by God’s direction, not by Deucalion, but by Noah; which Hebrew word means in English104 “rest,” as we have elsewhere shown that Noah, when he announced to the men then alive that there was a flood coming, prophesied to them, saying, Come thither, God calls you to repentance. On this account he was fitly called Deucalion.105 And this Noah had three sons (as we mentioned in the second book), whose names 117 were Shem, and Ham, and Japhet; and these had three wives, one wife each; each man and his wife. This man some have surnamed Eunuchus. All the eight persons, therefore, who were found in the ark were preserved. And Moses showed that the flood lasted forty days and forty nights, torrents pouring from heaven, and from the fountains of the deep breaking up, so that the water overtopped every high hill 15 cubits. And thus the race of all the men that then were was destroyed, and those only who were protected in the ark were saved; and these, we have already said, were eight. And of the ark, the remains are to this day to be seen in the Arabian mountains. This, then, is in sum the history of the deluge.

Clement of Alexandria

The Stromata, Or Miscellanies

Book VI.

The Fourth Commandment.

And the fourth136 word is that which intimates that the world was created by God, and that He gave us the seventh day as a rest, on account of the trouble that there is in life. For God is incapable of weariness, and suffering, and want. But we who bear flesh need rest. The seventh day, therefore, is proclaimed a rest – abstraction from ills – preparing for the Primal Day,137 our true rest; which, in truth, is the first creation of light, in which all things are viewed and possessed. From this day the first wisdom and knowledge illuminate us. For the light of truth – a light true, casting no shadow, is the Spirit of God indivisibly divided to all, who are sanctified by faith, holding the place of a luminary, in order to the knowledge of real existences. By following Him, therefore, through our whole life, we become impossible; and this is to rest.138

Wherefore Solomon also says, that before heaven, and earth, and all existences, Wisdom had arisen in the Almighty; the participation of which – that which is by power, I mean, not that by essence – teaches a man to know by apprehension things divine and human. Having reached this point, we must mention these things by the way; since the discourse has turned on the seventh and the eighth. For the eighth may possibly turn out to be properly the seventh, and the seventh manifestly the sixth, and the latter properly the Sabbath, and the seventh a day of work. For the creation of the world was concluded in six days. For the motion of the sun from solstice to solstice is completed in six months – in the course of which, at one time the leaves fall, and at another plants bud and seeds come to maturity. And they say that the embryo is perfected exactly in the sixth month, that is, in one hundred and eighty days in addition to the two and a half, as Polybus the physician relates in his book On the Eighth Month, and Aristotle the philosopher in his book On Nature. Hence the Pythagoreans, as I think, reckon six the perfect number, from the creation of the world, according to the prophet, and call it Meseuthys139 513 and Marriage, from its being the middle of the even numbers, that is, of ten and two. For it is manifestly at an equal distance from both.

And as marriage generates from male and female, so six is generated from the odd number three, which is called the masculine number, and the even number two, which is considered the feminine. For twice three are six.

Such, again, is the number of the most general motions, according to which all origination takes place – up, down, to the right, to the left, forward, backward. Rightly, then, they reckon the number seven motherless and childless, interpreting the Sabbath, and figuratively expressing the nature of the rest, in which “they neither marry nor are given in marriage any more.” (Luk_20:35) For neither by taking from one number and adding to another of those within ten is seven produced; nor when added to any number within the ten does it make up any of them.

And they called eight a cube, counting the fixed sphere along with the seven revolving ones, by which is produced “the great year,” as a kind of period of recompense of what has been promised.

Thus the Lord, who ascended the mountain, the fourth,140 becomes the sixth, and is illuminated all round with spiritual light, by laying bare the power proceeding from Him, as far as those selected to see were able to behold it, by the Seventh, the Voice, proclaimed to be the Son of God; in order that they, persuaded respecting Him, might have rest; while He by His birth, which was indicated by the sixth conspicuously marked, becoming the eighth, might appear to be God in a body of flesh, by displaying His power, being numbered indeed as a man, but being concealed as to who He was. For six is reckoned in the order of numbers, but the succession of the letters acknowledges the character which is not written. In this case, in the numbers themselves, each unit is preserved in its order up to seven and eight. But in the number of the characters, Zeta becomes six and Eta seven.

And the character141 having somehow slipped into writing, should we follow it out thus, the seven became six, and the eight seven.

Wherefore also man is said to have been made on the sixth day, who became faithful to Him who is the sign (τῷ ἐπισήμῳ142), so as straightway to receive the rest of the Lord’s inheritance. Some such thing also is indicated by the sixth hour in the scheme of salvation, in which man was perfected. Further, of the eight, the intermediates are seven; and of the seven, the intervals are shown to be six. For that is another ground, in which seven glorifies eight, and “the heavens declare to the heavens the glory of God.” (Psa_19:1)

The sensible types of these, then, are the sounds we pronounce. Thus the Lord Himself is called “Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end,” (Rev_21:6) “ by whom all things were made, and without whom not even one thing was made.” (Joh_1:3) God’s resting is not, then, as some conceive, that God ceased from doing. For, being good, if He should ever cease from doing good, then would He cease from being God, which it is sacrilege even to say. The resting is, therefore, the ordering that the order of created things should be preserved inviolate, and that each of the creatures should cease from the ancient disorder. For the creations on the different days followed in a most important succession; so that all things brought into existence might have honour from priority, created together in thought, but not being of equal worth. Nor was the creation of each signified by the voice, inasmuch as the creative work is said to have made them at once. For something must needs have been named first. Wherefore those things were announced first, from which came those that were second, all things being originated together from one essence by one power. For the will of God was one, in one identity. And how could creation take place in time, seeing time was born along with things which exist.

And now the whole world of creatures born alive, and things that grow, revolves in sevens. The first-born princes of the angels, who have the greatest power, are seven.143 The mathematicians also say that the planets, which perform their course around the earth, are seven; by which the Chaldeans think that all which concerns mortal life is effected through sympathy, in consequence of which they also undertake to tell things respecting the future.

And of the fixed stars, the Pleiades are seven. And the Bears, by the help of which agriculture and navigation are carried through, consist of seven stars. And in periods of seven days the moon undergoes its changes. In the first week she becomes half moon; in the second, full moon; and in the third, in her wane, again half moon; and in the fourth she disappears. Further, as Seleucus the mathematician lays down, she has seven phases. First, from being invisible she becomes crescent-shaped, then half 514 moon, then gibbous and full; and in her wane again gibbous, and in like manner half moon and crescent-shaped.

“On a seven-stringed lyre we shall sing new hymns,”

writes a poet of note, teaching us that the ancient lyre was seven-toned. The organs of the senses situated on our face are also seven – two eyes, two passages of hearing, two nostrils, and the seventh the mouth.

And that the changes in the periods of life take place by sevens, the Elegies of Solon teach thus : –


Origen Against Celsus. (Cont.)

Book VI. (C0nt.)

Chap. L.

In the next place, Celsus, after heaping together, simply as mere assertions, the varying opinions of some of the ancients regarding the world, and the origin of man, alleges that “Moses and the prophets, who have left to us our books, not knowing at all what the nature of the world is, and of man, have woven together a web of sheer nonsense.”177 If he had shown, now, how it appeared to him that the holy Scriptures contained “sheer nonsense,” we should have tried to demolish the arguments which appeared to him to establish their nonsensical character; but on the present occasion, following his own example, we also sportively give it as our opinion that Celsus, knowing nothing at all about the nature of the meaning and language of the prophets,178 composed a work which contained “sheer nonsense,” and boastfully gave it the title of a “true discourse.” And since he makes the statements about the “days of creation” ground of accusation, – as if he understood them clearly and correctly, some of which elapsed before the creation of light and heaven, and sun, and moon, and stars, and some of them after the creation of these, – we shall only make this observation, that Moses must then have forgotten that he had said a little before, “that in six days the creation of the world had been finished,” and that in consequence of this act of forgetfulness he subjoins to these words the following: “This is the book of the creation of man, in the day when God made the heaven and the earth!” But it is not in the least credible, that after what he had said respecting, the six days, Moses should immediately add, without a special meaning, the words, “in the day that God made the heavens and the earth;” and if any one thinks that these words may be referred to the statement, “In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth,” let him observe that before the words, “Let there be light, and there was light,” and these, “God called the light day,” it has been stated that “in the beginning God made the heaven and the earth.”

Chap. LI.

On the present occasion, however, it is not our object to enter into an explanation of the subject of intelligent and sensible beings,179 nor of the manner in which the different kinds180 of days were allotted to both sorts, nor to investigate the details which belong to the subject, for we should need whole treatises for the exposition of the Mosaic cosmogony; and that work we had already performed, to the best of our ability, a considerable time before the commencement of this answer to Celsus, when we discussed with such measure of capacity as we then possessed 597 the question of the Mosaic cosmogony of the six days. We must keep in mind, however, that the Word promises to the righteous through the mouth of Isaiah, that days will come181 when not the sun, but the Lord Himself, will be to them an everlasting light, and God will be their glory. (cf. Isa_60:19) And it is from misunderstanding, I think, some pestilent heresy which gave an erroneous interpretation to the words, “Let there be light,” as if they were the expression of a wish182 merely on the part of the Creator, that Celsus made the remark: “The Creator did not borrow light from above, like those persons who kindle their lamps at those of their neighbours.” Misunderstanding, moreover, another impious heresy, he has said: “If, indeed, there did exist an accursed god opposed to the great God, who did this contrary to his approval, why did he lend him the light?” So far are we from offering a defence of such puerilities, that we desire, on the contrary, distinctly to arraign the statements of these heretics as erroneous, and to undertake to refute, not those of their opinions with which we are unacquainted, as Celsus does, but those of which we have attained an accurate knowledge, derived in part from the statements of their own adherents, and partly from a careful perusal of their writings.


The Refutation of All Heresies. (Cont.)

Book IV. (Cont.)

Chap. XLVIII. – Invention of the Lyre; Allegorizing the Appearance and Position of the Stars; Origin of the Phoenicians; the Logos Identified by Aratus with the Constellation Canis; Influence of Canis on Fertility and Life Generally.

And (Aratus) says that (the constellations) Lyra and Corona have been placed on both sides near him, – now I mean Engonasis, – but that he bends the knee, and stretches forth both hands, as if making a confession of sin. And that the lyre is a musical instrument fashioned by Logos while still altogether an infant, and that Logos is the same as he who is denominated Mercury among the Greeks. And Aratus, with regard to the construction of the lyre, observes: –

“Then, further, also near the cradle,150

Hermes pierced it through, and said, Call it Lyre.”151

It consists of seven strings, signifying by these seven strings the entire harmony and construction of the world as it is melodiously constituted. For in six days the world was made, and (the Creator) rested on the seventh. If, then, says (Aratus), Adam, acknowledging (his guilt) and guarding the head of the Beast, according to the commandment of the Deity, will imitate Lyra, that is, obey the Logos of God, that is, submit to the law, he will receive Corona that is situated near him. If, however, he neglect his duty, he shall be hurled downwards in company with the Beast that lies underneath, and shall have, he says, his portion with the Beast. And Engonasis seems on both sides to extend his hands, and on one to touch Lyra, and on the other Corona – and this is his confession; – so that it is possible to distinguish him by means of this (sidereal) configuration itself. But Corona nevertheless is plotted against, and forcibly drawn away by another beast, a smaller Dragon, which is the offspring of him who is guarded by the foot152 of Engonasis. A man also stands firmly grasping with both hands, and dragging towards the space behind the Serpent from Corona; and he does not permit the Beast to touch Corona, though making a violent effort to do so. And Aratus styles him Anguitenens, because he restrains the impetuosity of the Serpent in his attempt to reach Corona. But Logos, he says, is he who, in the figure of a man, hinders the Beast from reaching Corona, commiserating him who is being plotted against by the Dragon and his offspring simultaneously.

These (constellations), “The Bears,” however, he says, are two hebdomads, composed of seven stars, images of two creations. For the first creation, he affirms, is that according to Adam in labours, this is he who is seen “on his knees” (Engonasis). The second creation, however, is that according to Christ, by which we are regenerated; and this is Anguitenens, who struggles against the Beast, and hinders him from reaching Corona, which is reserved for the man. But “The Great Bear” is, he says, Helice,153 symbol of a mighty world towards which the Greeks steer their course, that is, for which they are being disciplined. And, wafted by the waves of life, they follow onwards, (having in prospect) some such revolving world or discipline or wisdom which conducts those back that follow in pursuit of such a world. For the term Helice seems to signify a certain circling and revolution towards the same points. There is likewise a certain other “Small Bear” (Cynosuris), as it were some image of the second creation – that formed according to God. For few, he says, there are that journey by the narrow path.154 But they assert that Cynosuris is narrow, towards which Aratus155 says that the Sidonians 44 navigate. But Aratus has spoken partly of the Sidonians, (but means) the Phoenicians, on account of the existence of the admirable wisdom of the Phoenicians. The Greeks, however, assert that they are Phoenicians, who have migrated from (the shores of) the Red Sea into this country where they even at present dwell, for this is the opinion of Herodotus.156 Now Cynosura, he says, is this (lesser) Bear, the second creation; the one of limited dimensions, the narrow way, and not Helice. For he does not lead them back, but guides forward by a straight path, those that follow him being (the tail) of Canis. For Canis is the Logos,157 partly guarding and preserving the flock, that is plotted against by the wolves; and partly like a dog, hunting the beasts from the creation, and destroying them; and partly producing all things, and being what they express by the name “Cyon” (Canis), that is, generator. Hence it is said, Aratus has spoken of the rising of Canis, expressing himself thus: “When, however, Canis has risen, no longer do the crops miss.” This is what he says: Plants that have been put into the earth up to the period of Canis’ rising, frequently, though not having struck root, are yet covered with a profusion of leaves, and afford indications to spectators that they will be productive, and that they appear full of life, (though in reality) not having vitality in themselves from the root. But when the rising of Canis takes place, the living are separated from the dead by Canis; for whatsoever plants have not taken root, really undergo putrefaction. This Canis, therefore, he says, as being a certain divine Logos, has been appointed judge of quick and dead. And as (the influence of) Canis is observable in the vegetable productions of this world, so in plants of celestial growth – in men – is beheld the (power of the) Logos. From some such cause, then, Cynosura, the second creation, is set in the firmament as an image of a creation by the Logos. The Dragon, however, in the centre reclines between the two creations, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the great creation to the small creation; and in guarding those that are fixed in the (great) creation, as for instance Engonasis, observing (at the same time) how and in what manner each is constituted in the small creation. And (the Dragon) himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens. This image, he affirms, is fixed in heaven, being a certain wisdom to those capable of discerning it. If, however, this is obscure, by means of some other image, he says the creation teaches (men) to philosophize, in regard to which Aratus has expressed himself thus: –

“Neither of Cepheus Iasidas are we the wretched brood.”158

Chap. VII. – Monoïmus on the Sabbath; Allegorizes the Rod of Moses; Notion Concerning the Decalogue.

The world, then, as Moses says, was made in six days, that is, by six powers, which (are inherent) in the one tittle of the iota. (But) the seventh (day, which is) a rest and Sabbath, has been produced from the Hebdomad, which is over earth, and water, and fire, and air. And from these (elements) the world has been formed by the one tittle. For cubes, and octahedrons, and pyramids, and all figures similar to these, out of which consist fire, air, water, (and) earth, have arisen from numbers which are comprehended in that simple tittle of the iota. And this (tittle) constitutes a perfect son of a perfect man. When, therefore, he says, Moses mentions that the rod was changeably brandished for the (introduction of the) plagues throughout Egypt (Exo_7:1-25, Exo_8:1-32) – now these plagues, he says, are allegorically expressed symbols of the creation21 – he did not (as a symbol) for more plagues than ten shape the rod. Now this (rod) constitutes one tittle of the iota, and is (both) twofold (and) various. This succession of ten plagues is, he says, the mundane creation. For all things, by being stricken, bring forth and bear fruit, just like vines. Man, he says, bursts forth, and is forcibly separated from man by being severed by a certain stroke. (And this takes place) in order that (man) may be generated, and may declare the law which Moses ordained, who received (it) from God. Conformably22 with that one tittle, the law constitutes the series of the ten commandments which expresses allegorically the divine mysteries of (those) precepts. For, he says, all knowledge of the universe is contained 122 in what relates to the succession of the ten plagues and the series of the ten commandments. And no one is acquainted with this (knowledge) who is (of the number) of those that are deceived concerning the offspring of the woman. If, however, you say that the Pentateuch constitutes the entire law, it is from the Pentad which is comprehended in the one tittle. But the entire is for those who have not been altogether perfected in understanding a mystery, a new and not antiquated feast, legal, (and) everlasting, a passover of the Lord God kept unto our generations, by those who are able to discern (this mystery), at the commencement of the fourteenth day, which is the beginning of a decade from which, he says, they reckon. For the monad, as far as fourteen, is the summary of that one (tittle) of the perfect number. For one, two, three, four, become ten; and this is the one tittle. But from fourteen until one-and-twenty, he asserts that there is an Hebdomad which inheres in the one tittle of the world, and constitutes an unleavened creature in all these. For in what respect, he says, would the one tittle require any substance such as leaven (derived) from without for the Lord’s Passover, the eternal feast, which is given for generation upon generation? [Exo_12:17. Compare 1Co_5:7, 1Co_5:8] For the entire world and all causes of creation constitute a passover, (i.e.,) a feast of the Lord. For God rejoices in the conversion of the creation, and this is accomplished by ten strokes of the one tittle. And this (tittle) is Moses’ rod, which was given by God into the hand of Moses. And with this (rod Moses) smites the Egyptians, for the purpose of altering bodies, – as, for instance, water into blood; and the rest of (material) things similarly with these, – (as, for example,) the locusts, which is a symbol of grass. And by this he means the alteration of the elements into flesh; “for all flesh,” he says, “is grass.” (Isa_40:6) These men, nevertheless receive even the entire law after some such manner; adopting very probably, as I think, the opinions of those of the Greeks who affirm that there are Substance, and Quality, and Quantity, and Relation, and Place, and Time, and Position, and Action, and Possession, and Passion.

Chap. XIII. – Monoïmus.

But the followers of Monoïmus the Arabian assert that the originating principle of the universe is a primal man and son of man; and that, as Moses states, the things that have been produced were produced not by the primal man, but by the Son of that primal man, yet not by the entire Son, but by part of Him. And (Monoïmus asserts) that the Son of man is iota, which stands for ten, the principal number in which is (inherent) the subsistence of all number (in general, and) through which every number (in particular) consists, as well as the generation of the universe, fire, air, water, and earth. But inasmuch as this is one iota and one tittle, and what is perfect (emanates) from what is perfect, or, in other words, a tittle flows down from above, containing all things in itself; (therefore,) whatsoever things also the man possesses, the Father of the Son of man possesses likewise. Moses, therefore, says that the world was made in six days, that is, by six powers, out of which the world was made by the one tittle. For cubes, and octahedrons, and pyramids, and all figures similar to these, having equal superficies, out of which consist fire, air, water, and earth, have been produced from numbers comprehended in that simple tittle of the iota, which is Son of man. When, therefore, says (Monoïmus), Moses mentions the rod’s being brandished for the purpose of bringing the plagues upon Egypt, he alludes allegorically to the (alterations of the) world of iota; nor did he frame more than ten plagues. If, however, says he, you wish to become acquainted with the universe, search within yourself who is it that says, “My soul, my flesh, and my mind,” and who is it that appropriates each one thing unto himself, as another (would do) for himself. Understand that this is a perfect one arising from (one that is) perfect, and that he considers as his own all so-called nonentities and all entities. These, then, are the opinions of Monoïmus also.

The Extant Works and Fragments of Hippolytus.

4. But that we may not leave our subject at this point undemonstrated, we are obliged to discuss the matter of the times, of which a man should not speak hastily, because they are a light to him. For as the times are noted from the foundation of the world, and reckoned from Adam, they set clearly before us the matter with which our inquiry deals. For the first appearance of our Lord in the flesh took place in Bethlehem, under Augustus, in the year 5500; and He suffered in the thirty-third year. And 6,000 years must needs be accomplished, in order that the Sabbath may come, the rest, the holy day “on which God rested from all His works.”80 For the Sabbath is the type and emblem of the future kingdom of the saints, when they “shall reign with Christ,” when He comes from heaven, as John says in his Apocalypse: for “a day with the Lord is as a thousand years.” (Psa_90:4) Since, then, in six days God made all things, it follows that 6,000 years must be fulfilled. And they are not yet fulfilled, as John says: “five are fallen; one is,” that is, the sixth; “the other is not yet come.” (Rev_17:10)


The Acts of the Disputation with the Heresiarch Manes.

31. Listen also to what I have to say on this other expression which has been adduced, viz., “Christ, who redeemed us from the curse of the law.” (Gal_3:13) My view of this passage is that Moses, that illustrious servant of God, committed to those who wished to have the right vision,220 an emblematic221 law, and also a real law. Thus, to take an example, after God had made the world, and all things that are in it, in the space of six days, He rested on the seventh day from all His works by which statement I do not mean to affirm that He rested because He was fatigued, but that He did so as having brought to its perfection every creature which He had resolved to introduce. And yet in the sequel it, the new law, says: “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.” (Joh_5:17) Does that mean, then, that He is still making heaven, or sun, or man, or animals, or trees, or any such thing? Nay; but the meaning is, that when these visible objects were perfectly finished, He rested from that kind of work; while, however, He still continues to work at objects invisible with an inward mode of action,222 and saves men. In like manner, then, the legislator desires also that every individual amongst us should be devoted unceasingly to this kind of work, even as God Himself is; and he enjoins us consequently to rest continuously from secular things, and to engage in no worldly sort of work whatsoever; and this is called our Sabbath. This also he added in the law, that nothing senseless223 should be done but that we should be careful and direct our life in accordance with what is just and righteous. Now this law was suspended over men, discharging most sharply its curse against those who might transgress it. But because its subjects, too, were but men, and because, as happens also frequently I with us, controversies arose and injuries were inflicted, the law likewise at once, and with the severest equity, made any wrong that was done 204 return upon the head of the wrong-doer;224 so that, for instance, if a poor man was minded to gather a bundle of wood upon the Sabbath, he was placed under the curse of the law, and exposed to the penality of instant death. (Num_15:32) The men, therefore, who had been brought up with the Egyptians were thus severely pressed by the restrictive power of the law, and they were unable to bear the penalties and the curses of the law. But, again, He who is ever the Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ, came and delivered those men from these pains and curses of the law, forgiving them their offences. And He indeed did not deal with them as Moses did, putting the severities of the law in force, and granting indulgence to no man for any offence; but He declared that if any man suffered an injury at the hands of his neighbour, he was to forgive him not once only, nor even twice or thrice, nor only seven times, but even unto seventy times seven; (Mat_18:21) but that, on the other hand, if after all this the offender still continued to do such wrong, he ought then, as the last resource, to be brought under the law of Moses, and that no further pardon should be granted to the man who would thus persist in wrong-doing, even after having been forgiven unto seventy times seven. And He bestowed His forgiveness not only on a transgressor of such a character as that, but even on one who did offence to the Son of man. But if a man dealt thus with the Holy Spirit, He made him subject to two curses, – namely, to that of the law of Moses, and to that of His own law; to the law of Moses in truth in this present life, but to His own law at the time of the judgment: for His word is this: “It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.” (Mat_12:32) There is the law of Moses, thus, that in this world gives pardon to no such person; and there is the law of Christ that punishes in the future world. From this, therefore, mark how He confirms the law, not only not destroying it, but fulfilling it. Thus, then, He redeemed them from that curse of the law which belongs to the present life; and from this fact has come the appellation “the curse of the law.” This is the whole account which needs be given of that mode of speech. But, again, why the law is called the “strength of sin, we shall at once explain in brief to the best of our ability. Now it is written that “the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners.”

Chap. V. – The Sixty Queens: Why Sixty, and Why Queens; the Excellence of the Saints of the First Age.

In addition to these matters, there is this also to be considered, so that nothing may escape us of things which are necessary, why He said that the queens were sixty, and the concubines eighty, and the virgins so numerous as not to be counted from their multitude, but the spouse one. And first let us speak of the sixty. I imagine that He named under the sixty queens, those who had pleased God from the first-made man in succession to Noah, for this reason, since these had no need of precepts and laws for their salvation, the creation of the world in six days being still recent. For they remembered that in six days God formed the creation, and those things which were made in paradise; and how man, receiving a command not to touch89 the tree of knowledge, ran aground, the author of evil having led him astray. (Gen_3:3) Thence he gave the symbolical name of sixty queens to those souls who, from the creation of the world, in succession chose God as the object of their love, and were almost, so to speak, the offspring of the first age, and neighbours of the great six days’ work, from their having been born, as I said, immediately after the six days. For these had great honour, being associated with the angels, and often seeing God manifested visibly, and not in a dream. For consider what confidence Seth had towards God, and Abel, and Enos, and Enoch, and Methuselah, and Noah, the first lovers of righteousness, and the first of the first-born children who are written in heaven, (Heb_11:23) being thought worthy of the kingdom, as a kind of first-fruits of the plants for salvation, coming out as early fruit to God. And so much may suffice concerning these.


The Banquet of the Ten Virgins; or, Concerning Chastity.

Chap. XI. – The Woman with the Male Child in the Wilderness the Church; the Wilderness Belongs to Virgins and Saints; the Perfection of Numbers and Mysteries; the Equality and Perfection of the Number Six; the Number Six Related to Christ; from This Number, Too, the Creation and Harmony of the World Completed.

Moreover, it is evident that the creation of the world was accomplished in harmony with this number, God having made heaven and earth, and the things which are in them, in six days; the word of creative power containing the number six, in accordance with which the Trinity is the maker of bodies. For length, and breadth, and depth make up a body. And the number six is composed of triangles. On these subjects, however, there is not sufficient time at present to enlarge with accuracy, for fear of letting the main subject slip, in considering that which is secondary.

Chap. I. – Chastity the Chief Ornament of the True Tabernacle; Seven Days Appointed to the Jews for Celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles: What They Signify; the Sum of This Septenary Uncertain; Not Clear to Any One when the Consummation of the World Will Be; Even Now the Fabric of the World Completed.

…God, when He appointed to the true Israelites the legal rite of the true feast of the tabernacles, directed, in Leviticus, how they should keep and do honour to the feast; above all things, saying that each one should adorn his tabernacle with chastity. I will add the words themselves of Scripture, from which, without any doubt, it will be shown how agreeable to God, and acceptable to Him, is this ordinance of virginity: “In the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a Sabbath. And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows127 of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths; that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.” (Lev_23:39-42)

Here the Jews, fluttering about the bare letter of Scripture, like drones about the leaves of herbs, but not about flowers and fruits as the bee, fully believe that these words and ordinances were spoken concerning such a tabernacle as they erect; as if God delighted in those trivial adornments which they, preparing, fabricate from trees, not perceiving the wealth of good things to come; whereas these things, being like air and phantom shadows, foretell the resurrection and the putting up of our tabernacle that had fallen upon the earth, which at length, in the seventh thousand of years, resuming again immortal, we shall celebrate the great feast of true tabernacles in the new and indissoluble creation, the fruits of the earth having been gathered in, and men no longer begetting and begotten, but God resting from the works of creation.128

For since in six days God made the heaven and the earth, and finished the whole world, and rested on the seventh day from all His works which He had made, and blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, (Gen_2:1) so by a figure in the seventh month, when the fruits of the earth have been gathered in, we are commanded to keep the feast to the Lord, which signifies that, when this world shall be terminated at the seventh thousand years, when God shall have completed the world, He shall rejoice in us. (Psa_104:31) For now to this time all things are created by His all-sufficient will and inconceivable power; the earth still yielding its fruits, and the waters being gathered together in their receptacles; and the light still severed from darkness, and the allotted number of men not yet being complete; and the sun arising to rule the day, and the moon the night; and four-footed creatures, and beasts, and creeping things arising from the earth, and winged creatures, and creatures that swim, from the water. Then, when the appointed times shall have been accomplished, and God shall have ceased to form this creation, in the seventh month, the great resurrection-day, it is commanded that the Feast of our Tabernacles shall be celebrated to the Lord, of which the things said in Leviticus are symbols and figures, which things, carefully investigating, we should consider 345 the naked truth itself, for He saith, “A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels: to understand a proverb, and the interpretation; the words Of the wise, and their dark sayings.” (Pro_1:5, Pro_1:6)

Wherefore let it shame the Jews that they do not perceive the deep things of the Scriptures, thinking that nothing else than outward things are contained in the law and the prophets; for they, intent upon things earthly, have in greater esteem the riches of the world than the wealth which is of the soul. For since the Scriptures are in this way divided that some of them give the likeness of past events, some of them a type of the future, the miserable men, going back, deal with the figures of the future as if they were already things of the past. As in the instance of the immolation of the Lamb, the mystery of which they regard as solely in remembrance of the deliverance of their fathers from Egypt, when, although the first-born of Egypt were smitten, they themselves were preserved by marking the door-posts of their houses with blood. Nor do they understand that by it also the death of Christ is personified, by whose blood souls made safe and sealed shall be preserved from wrath in the burning of the world; whilst the first-born, the sons of Satan, shall be destroyed with an utter destruction by the avenging angels, who shall reverence the seal of the Blood impressed upon the former.

Methodius (Cont.) Fragments.

IX. He says that Origen, after having fabled many things concerning the eternity of the universe, adds this also: Nor yet from Adam, as some say, did man, previously not existing, first take his existence and come into the world. Nor again did the world begin to be made six days before the creation of Adam. But if any one should prefer to differ in these points, let him first say, whether a period of time be not easily reckoned from the creation of the world, according to the Book of Moses, to those who so receive it, the voice of prophecy here proclaiming: “Thou art God from everlasting, and world without end. . . . For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday: seeing that is past as a watch in the night.” (Psa_90:2, Psa_90:4) For when a thousand years are reckoned as one day in the sight of God, and from the creation of the world to His rest is six days, so also to our time, six days are defined, as those say who are clever arithmeticians. Therefore, they say that an age of six thousand years extends from Adam to our time. For they say that the judgment will come on the seventh day, that is in the seventh thousand years. Therefore, all the days from our time to that which was in the beginning, in which God created the heaven and the earth, are computed to be thirteen days; before which God, because he had as yet created nothing according to their folly, is stripped of His name of Father and Almighty. But if there are thirteen days in the sight of God from the creation of the world, how can Wisdom say, in the Book of the Son of Sirach: “Who can number the sand of the sea, and the drops of rain, and the days of eternity ?” (Ecclus. 1:2) This is what Origen says seriously, and mark how he trifles. 382


The Divine Institutes.

Chap. XIV. – Of the First and Last Times of the World.

Since we have spoken of the immortality of the soul, it follows that we teach how and when it is given to man; that in this also they may see the errors of their perverseness and folly, who imagine that some mortals have become gods by the decrees and dogmas of mortals; either because they had invented arts, or because they had taught the use of certain productions of the earth, or because they had discovered things useful for the life of men, or because they had slain savage beasts. How far these things were from deserving immortality we have both shown in the former books, and we will now show, that it may be evident that it is righteousness alone which procures for man eternal life, and that it is God alone who bestows the reward of eternal life. For they who are said to have been immortalized by their merits, inasmuch as they possessed neither righteousness nor any true virtue, did not obtain for themselves immortality, but death by their sins and lusts; nor did they deserve the reward of heaven, but the punishment of hell, which impends over them, together with all their worshippers. And I show that the time of this judgment draws near, that the due reward may be given to the righteous, and the deserved punishment may be inflicted on the wicked.

Plato and many others of the philosophers, since they were ignorant of the origin of all things, and of that primal period at which the world was made, said that many thousands of ages had passed since this beautiful arrangement of the world was completed; and in this they perhaps followed the Chaldeans, who, as Cicero has related in his first book respecting divination,104 foolishly say105 that they possess comprised in their memorials four hundred and seventy thousand years; in which matter, because they thought that they could not be convicted, they believed that they were at liberty106 to speak falsely. But we, whom the Holy Scriptures instruct to the knowledge of the truth, know the beginning and the end of the world, respecting which we will now speak in the end of our work, since we have explained respecting the beginning in the second book. Therefore let the philosophers, who enumerate thousands of ages from the beginning of the world, know that the six thousandth year is not yet completed, and that when this number is completed the consummation must take place, and the condition of human affairs be remodelled for the better, the proof of which must first be related, that the matter itself may be plain. God completed the world and this admirable work of nature in the space of six days, as is contained in the secrets of Holy Scripture, and consecrated the seventh day, on which He had rested from His works. But this is the Sabbath-day, which in the language of the Hebrews received its name from the number,107 whence the seventh is the legitimate and complete number. For there are seven days, by the revolutions of which in order the circles of years are made up; and there are seven stars which do not set, and seven luminaries which are called planets,108 whose differing and unequal movements are believed to cause the varieties of circumstances and times.109

Therefore, since all the works of God were completed in six days, the world must continue in its present state through six ages, that is, six thousand years. For the great day of God is limited by a circle of a thousand years, as the prophet shows, who says, (Psa_90:4; see also 2Pe_3:8) “In Thy sight, O Lord, a thousand years are as one day.” And as God laboured during those six days in creating such great works, so His religion and truth must labour during these six thousand years, while wickedness prevails and bears rule. And again, since God, having finished His works, rested the seventh day and blessed it, at the end of the six thousandth year all wickedness must be abolished from the earth, and righteousness reign for a thousand years; and there must be tranquillity and rest from the labours which the world now has long endured. But how that will come to pass I will explain in its order. We have often said that lesser things and things of small importance are figures and previous shadowings forth of great things; as this day of ours, which is bounded by the rising and the setting of the sun, is a representation110 of that great day to which the circuit of a thousand years affixes its limits.111

In the same manner also the fashioning of the earthly man held forth to the future the formation of the heavenly people. For as, when all things were completed which were contrived for the use of man, last of all, on the sixth day, He 212 made man also, and introduced him into this world as into a home now carefully prepared; so now on the great sixth day the true man is being formed by the word of God, that is, a holy people is fashioned for righteousness by the doctrine and precepts of God. And as then a mortal and imperfect man was formed from the earth, that he might live a thousand years in this world; so now from this earthly age is formed a perfect man, that being quickened by God, he may bear rule in this same world through a thousand years. But in what manner the consummation will take place, and what end awaits the affairs of men, if any one shall examine the divine writings he will ascertain. But the voices also of prophets of the world, agreeing with the heavenly, announce the end and overthrow of all things after a short time, describing as it were the last old age of the wearied and wasting world. But the things which are said by prophets and seers to be about to happen before that last ending comes upon the world, I will subjoin, being collected and accumulated from all quarters.


On the Creation of the World.

To me, as I meditate and consider in my mind concerning the creation of this world in which we are kept enclosed, even such is the rapidity of that creation; as is contained in the book of Moses, which he wrote about its creation, and which is called Genesis. God produced that entire mass for the adornment of His majesty in six days; on the seventh to which He consecrated it . . . with a blessing. For this reason, therefore, because in the septenary number of days both heavenly and earthly things are ordered, in place of the beginning I will consider of this seventh day after the principle of all matters pertaining to the number of seven; and as far as I shall be able, I will endeavour to portray the day of the divine power to that consummation.

In the beginning God made the light, and divided it in the exact measure of twelve hours by day and by night, for this reason, doubtless, that day might bring over the night as an occasion of rest for men’s labours; that, again, day might overcome, and thus that labour might be refreshed with this alternate change of rest, and that repose again might be tempered by the exercise of day. “On the fourth day He made two lights in the heaven, the greater and the lesser, that the one might rule over the day, the other over the night,” (Gen_1:16, Gen_1:17) – the lights of the sun and moon; and He placed the rest of the stars in heaven, that they might shine upon the earth, and by their positions distinguish the seasons, and years, and months, and days, and hours.

Now is manifested the reason of the truth why the fourth day is called the Tetras, why we fast even to the ninth hour, or even to the evening, or why there should be a passing over even to the next day. Therefore this world of ours is composed of four elements – fire, water, heaven, earth. These four elements, therefore, form the quaternion of times or seasons. The sun, also, and the moon constitute throughout the space of the year four seasons – of spring, summer, autumn, winter; and these seasons make a quaternion. And to proceed further still from that principle, lo, there are four living creatures before God’s throne,2 four Gospels, four rivers flowing in paradise; (Gen_2:10) four generations of people from Adam to Noah, from Noah to Abraham, from Abraham to Moses, from Moses to Christ the Lord, the Son of God; and four living creatures, viz., a man, a calf, a lion, an eagle; and four rivers, the Pison, the Gihon. the Tigris, and the Euphrates. The man Christ Jesus, the originator of these things whereof we have above spoken, was taken prisoner by wicked hands, by a quaternion of soldiers. Therefore on account of His captivity by a quaternion, on account of the majesty of His works, – that the seasons also, wholesome to humanity, joyful for the harvests, tranquil for the tempests, may roll on, – therefore we make the fourth day a station or a supernumerary fast.

On the fifth day the land and water brought forth their progenies. On the sixth day the things that were wanting were created; and thus God raised up man from the soil, as lord of all the things which He created upon the earth and the water. Yet He created angels and archangels before He created man, placing spiritual beings before earthly ones. For light was made before sky and the earth. This sixth day is called parasceve,3 that is to say, the preparation of the kingdom. For He perfected Adam, whom He made after His image and likeness. But for this reason He completed His works before He created angels and fashioned man, lest perchance they should falsely assert that they had been His helpers. On this day also, on account of the passion of the Lord Jesus Christ, we make either a station to God, or a fast. On the seventh day He rested from all His works, and blessed it, and sanctified it. On the former day we are accustomed to fast rigorously, that on the Lord’s day we may go forth 342 to our bread with giving of thanks. And let the parasceve become a rigorous fast, lest we should appear to observe any Sabbath with the Jews, which Christ Himself, the Lord of the Sabbath, says by His prophets that “His soul hateth;” (Isa_1:13, Isa_1:14) which Sabbath He in His body abolished, although, nevertheless, He had formerly Himself commanded Moses that circumcision should not pass over the eighth day, which day very frequently happens on the Sabbath, as we read written in the Gospel. (Joh_7:22) Moses, foreseeing the hardness of that people, on the Sabbath raised up his hands, therefore, and thus figuratively fastened himself to a cross. (Exo_22:9, Exo_22:12) And in the battle they were sought for by the foreigners on the Sabbath-day, that they might be taken captive, and, as if by the very strictness of the law, might be fashioned to the avoidance of its teaching. (1 Macc. 2:31-41)

Commentaries of Origen

Origen’s Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Book XIV.

9. The Time Occupied by the Reckoning.

And these things will take place whenever that happens which is written in Daniel, “The books were opened and the judgment was set;” (Dan_7:10) for a record, as it were, is made of all things that have been spoken and done and thought, and by divine power every hidden thing of ours shall be manifested, and everything that is covered shall be revealed, (Mat_10:26; Luk_12:2) in order that when any one is found who has not “given diligence to be freed from the adversary,” he may go in succession through the hands 500 of the magistrate, and the judge, and the attendant into the prison, until he pays the very last mite; (Luk_12:58, Luk_12:59) but when one has given diligence to be freed from him and owes nothing to any one, and already has made the pound ten pounds or five pounds, or doubled the five talents, or made the two four, he may obtain the due recompense, entering into the joy of his Lord, either being set over all His possessions, (Mat_24:47) or hearing the word, “Have thou authority over ten cities,” (Luk_19:17) or “Have thou authority over five cities.”61 But we think that these things are spoken of as if they required a long period of time, in order that an account may be made by us of the whole times of the earthly life, so that we might suppose that when the king makes a reckoning with each one of his many servants the matter would require so vast a period of time, until these things come to an end which have existed from the beginning of the world down to the consummation of the age, not of one age, but of many ages. But the truth is not so; for when God wished all at once to rekindle in the memories of all everything that had been done by each one throughout the whole time, in order that each might become conscious of his own doings whether good or bad, He would do it by His ineffable power. For it is not with God as with us; for if we wish to call some things to remembrance, we require sufficient time for the detailed account of what has been said by us, and to bring to our remembrance the things which we wish to remember; but if He wished to call to our memory the things which have been done in this life, in order that becoming conscious of what we have done we may apprehend for what we are punished or honoured, He could do so. But if any one disbelieves the swiftness of the power of God in regard to these matters, he has not yet had a true conception of the God who made the universe, who did not require times to make the vast creation of heaven and earth and the things in them; for, though He may seem to have made these things in six days, there is need of understanding to comprehend in what sense the words “in six days” are said, on account of this, “This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth,” (Gal_2:4 etc). Therefore it may be boldly affirmed that the season of the expected judgment does not require times, but as the resurrection is said to take place “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,” (1Co_15:52) so I think will the judgment also be.

Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (13th Century)

“’God called the light day’ (since the word ‘day’ is also used to denote a space of twenty-four hours). Other instances of a similar use occur, as pointed out by Rabbi Moses.”

Martin Luther, Lectures on Genesis (16th century)

We know from Moses that the world was not in existence before 6,000 years ago […] He [Moses] calls ‘a spade a spade,’ i.e., he employs the terms ‘day’ and ‘evening’ without allegory, just as we customarily do  […] we assert that Moses spoke in the literal sense, not allegorically or figuratively, i.e., that the world, with all its creatures, was created within six days, as the words read. If we do not comprehend the reason for this, let us remain pupils and leave the job of teacher to the Holy Spirit. (Martin Luther, Lectures on Genesis)

John Calvin (16th century)

A rebellious spirit will display itself no less insolently when it hears that there are three persons in the divine essence, than when it hears that God when he created man foresaw every thing that was to happen to him.  Nor will they abstain from their jeers when told that little more than five thousand years have elapsed since the creation of the world.

a Chronology of the Holocaust Years and Germany 1905 to 1945

 Written by Robert Rico published here with his express consent.


Rev & Released 3-21-96/Chrono 3 g

A Personal Note:


It is my hope is that you struggle with the issues of hatred, prejudice, the colossal murders of the holocaust, the courage of those that dared to stand against totalitarianism, the motivations behind these horrors and the shame of silence on the part of the Western Christian community.  I do not expect you to read every book or see all the films, I trust that you are exposed to the truth found in the chronology of history and how common men and women stood, sometimes alone, to make a difference in establishing goodness and righteousness.  I am looking forward to meeting with you at some time to discuss with you your findings and discovering together some of your insights, observations,  wisdom and understanding on the notions discovered.


This chronology has grown out of a course curriculum on the ”Holocaust” designed for the High schoolers and young adults in the Christian community for the Spring of 1995.  I have added some features such as, at the end of most citations “See . . . ” which will link you to the next event for that idea, country or person. As you read through the chronology you may begin to see similarities of current legislation recently passed or being proposed, I suggest you write to our public officials requesting copies of the bills proposed for your review, you may also clip out  information from your newspapers, and compare  the similarities with the chronology.    I would appreciate making contact with me for the purpose dialogue.


The tide of anti-Semitism and intolerance toward “conservative” Christianity (which wishes to “conserve” traditional Biblical values) is rising and once again G*D’s people everywhere must stand against, . . .  possibly . . . the darkest period yet ahead of us in the history of Mankind. As G*D’s people, we all have a legacy of spiritual giants on who’s broad shoulders we can stand.  Persons, like young Esther, who was possibly a teenager at the time, defied her circumstances with faith and great courage to redeem a nation!  We all can be encouraged that we too, as individuals can make a difference where ever we are. May we each learn that an individual can and does make a difference for goodness!





Bob Rico

Proverbs 24: 10-12



For comments or for more information on related topics or a listing of other publication subjects

researched please write or call to:


Publisher: Berean Research Group

PO Box 8565, Fountain Valley, CA pz 92708



Copyright: Robert Rico 1995 g

Germany 1905 to 1945






Pre-Weimer Republic





– Dr. Ernst Rudin* elected president of International Federation of Eugenics** Organization. Funded by Rockefeller foundation and employed by Kaiser Wilheim Institute, Munich. Founder of German Society for Racial Hygiene [Chaitkin 309]. *See July 31,’40 ** Selective breeding protecting and improving the quality of the

human race. Sometimes used by some as basis for development of a “superior race”.  Movement was especially significant in England, Germany and the United States between 1910 and 1940. Closely associated with Anglo-Saxon superiority [Bird & Allen]. See 1910




– Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) (Charles Darwin’s cousin), founder of the English Eugenics movement was Charles B(enedict) Davenport, who is founder of the movement in America and chief organizer in Eugenics Record Office [Bird & Allen].

Mary Harriman, mother of Averell W(illiam), donates 80 acres of land and building to establish the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) together with the Eugenics Research Association in Cold Spring Harbor, New York. funds are later supplemented by Mary Harriman Rumsey daughter to Mary and her son, Averell W(illiam) Harriman [Chaitkin 304-305] See 1911





– International Congress of Eugenics (1st), held in Great Britain

(Chaitkin 305). See 1921

Eugenics becomes popularized in America! 24 states pass laws between 1911-1930. Laws restrict marriages between various

racial groups; sterilization of various social “misfits”: criminals, mentally retarded and mentally ill [Bird & Allen].


1914-18              World War One: “The War To End All Wars!”




– Averill W(illiam) Harriman joins the board of American Museum of Natural History in New York (later to become a cornerstone to

the Democratic Party and national known American diplomat). (Chaiklin 304). See Jan 1921





– “. . . require the surrender of all [emphasis added] firearms to
Monday the state governments.” [Simkin]  See Apr 12, ‘28





– Hitler writes “Hatred, burning hatred, that is what we want to pour into the souls of millions of fellow Germans, until the flame of rage ignites in of Germany and avenges the corrupters of our nation (the Jews)” [Lawliss 15].


– H(arry) H(amilton) Laughlin [1880-1943] publishes: Model Eugenical Sterilization Law (Chaitkin 316).  H.H. Laughlin has been a writer for the Eugenic Record Office monthly publication Eugenical News, which is translated into German and distributed by rising NAZI Party. He is also Superintendent of the ERO, Chief Director Charles B. Davenport)  [Chaitkin 303, 305] See Feb’33

United States is established as the international center for

race science”, “eugenics” through American Museum of Natural History in New York (Chaitkin 303).  “Superior races” are justified on the grounds of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory of natural selection (Chaitkin 304). See Sept 22-Oct 22


Sept 22-Oct 22            — International Congress of Eugenics (2nd), held at the American

Thu – Sat                 Museum of Natural History, New York (Chaitkin 304). Hosts: Averell W(illiam) Harriman; Mary Harriman; Mrs. Harriman Rumsey, Averell’s sister; Mrs. Henry Osborne; Madison Grant; J(ohn) P(eirpont) Morgan (founder of US Steel and financier); Herbert Hoover (later to become President of USA); American Museum of Natural History president Henry Fairfield Osborne (nephew to J.P. Morgan) [Chaitkin 305]. See 1925

— All members of the Congressional Committee on Immigration are transported to conference to view exhibits and to hear anti- immigration addresses. Exhibits are later displayed on Capitol Hill itself (Chaitkin 305). See 1924


1922-33              Germany: more than 200 instances of Jewish grave desecration’s in Nuremberg alone [Lawliss 15]





– First issue of Der Sturmer appears in Nuremberg, its’ primary banner is “JEWS ARE OUR MISFORTUNE” [Lawliss 15].





– Madison Grant; H.H. Laughlin; and John Trevor (Director of Museum of Natural History, NY) write the U.S. immigration bill, the Johnson Act with pressure of “Big-business”, which virtually limits only those countries of England, Germany, and Scandinavia.

Congress passes immigration as proposed, Ellis Island is closed

(Bird & Allen; Chaitkin 306).

Johnson Act Severely limits immigration into the U.S. from eastern European and Mediterranean countries. Eugenicists claim these immigrants are inferior to Anglo-Saxons and are “polluting” the “pure” American bloodstream. By 1925 Eugenicists are criticized for racial bias, subjectivity, bias in the use of evidence, lack of scientific methodology and academic credibility [Bird & Allen].


February                     Eugenical News reports: “This provision would change the character of immigration, and hence our future population, . . . immigrants from north-western Europe furnish us the best material for American citizenship and the for further upbuilding of the American race.” (Chaitkin 306) In an address to Congress states, “America must be kept American.” (Chaitkin 306) See 1925







– Sixth International Conference Neo-Malthusian and Birth Control Conference. Subjects of Papers presented: Problems of over population; Medical and eugenic aspects of birth control; International aspects of birth control and Religious and ethical aspects of birth control [Sanger – editor].                    See 1927






Aug 29-Sept 3             — World Population Conference, held at the Salle Centrale,

Mon – Sat                  Geneva, Switzerland [Sanger].





April                12        — The Reichstag (German Parliament) enacted a “Law on

Thursday  Firearms and Ammunition” which required dealers to be licensed and to “keep a register of transactions which was to be made available to the police on request.” Government permit was required to purchase a firearm and/or ammunition, or to receive a firearm as a gift or bequest. And a permit from the local police required, issued free of charge, for the purchase of ammunition [Simkin].

See Mar 18,’38





May                             Germany: Chancellor Bruning, a member of the Centre (Roman Catholic) Party proposes to dissolve the private armies of the Communist (200,000) and NAZI (200,000) parties by emergency decree; Field Marshal Paul Hindenburg, Chancellor President

refuses fearing the decree will bring in German army into politics

[Tobias 10].


August           21-23    — International Congress of Eugenics (3rd) , sponsored by

Sun – Tue  American Museum of Natural History, New York (International Eugenics Congress). Sponsors and participants of Congress included: Mary Averill Harriman ; Mary Harriman Rumsey; Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt; Mrs. Kermit Roosevelt; Margaret Sanger (a Communist: Neo-Malthusian League and Co-Founder Planned Parenthood); Col. William Draper (founder of the Draper

Fund / Population Crisis Committee which will sponsor Global

2000); Irving Fisher (economic advisor to Pres. Calvin Coolidge and Pres. Herbert Hoover); Frederick Fisher; Harry Farnham Perkins; Henry Fairfield Osborn (founder of Population Council in 1952, parent organization of today’s environmental and population control organizations); Charles B. Davenport (founder of Eugenics

movement in America) (Chaitkin 307-308).


November         6         — NAZI Party [NSDAP] [Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei: Sunday  National Socialists German Worker’s Party: NAZI Party]  wins on

33.1 percent of popular votes cast (they had 37.3 percent on July

31) very low percent, yet better than any other party [ Bauer 87; Dawidowicz 48; Tobias 10]. Aldof Hitler is offered a subordinate office to the Chancellor a second time, he again refuses . . . waiting for an opportune time [Tobias 10].



Weimer Republic / NSDAP [NAZI] Regime


1933-39              Reichstag will enact over 400 anti-Jewish laws between 1933-

1939 [Lawliss 18]








Paul von Hindenberg President of German Republic appointsAdolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich and the NAZI [NSDAP] Part
[Ebenstein 13].– Hitler convinces Hindenberg to dissolve the Reichstag(Parliament) and have new elections March 5th. [Dawidowicz 49]

NSDAP National Party form coalition government with Nationalist (Christian conservatives are deceived and will pay a horrible price for their duplicity through the loss of their sons and the nation in war. Adolf Hitler takes power with 33 percent of popular vote [Bauer 87; Tobias 10].

Fatal flaw of Weimer Constitution: “Emergency Powers” of the Chancellor President, allowed the Chancellor to call for a “State of Emergency” and declares “martial law” [military rule].

February United States eugenics expert H.H. Laughlin receives honorary degree for his contribution on eugenics from Heidelberg University,
a major NAZI “race purification” research center [Chaitkin ].
See July 14’33

27        — BURNING of REICHSTAG [German Parliament] building, Hitler

Monday            blames Communists for starting fire which was started in the

Debating Chamber of the capitol building [Tobias 9].




Hitler convinces Hindenberg to evoke “Presidential Decree for the Protection of “People and Reich [State].[Ebenstein 4]
Legality of the decree rests on Article 48, Section 2, of WeimerConstitution [Ebenstein 5].
Reichstagsbrandverordung (Reichstag Burning Decree)
[Tobias 10].– Decree annuls Constitutional Republic seven guaranteed basic rights Constitution in Articles: 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124, 153.
They included the freedom of person, opinion, press, meeting,
association, the privacy of communication through the mails,
telegraph or telephone, search of the home without warrant, and
the inviolability of property. (Ederstein 5)  Also, introduced capital
punishments for several offenses committed by enemies of the State.– A quasi legal persecution of opponents to the regime begins – –opposition was short lived . [Lawliss 31]

4,000 arrested: Communists, Social Democrats, liberal leaders and members of the Reichstad. [Lawliss 31 ]

Feb-Mar Police issued “Shoot to kill” orders to fire on demonstrators[Lawless 31]. In the last few days of March elections, SA
[Sturmabteiling: Storm Troopers, “Brown Shirts”] created violent
disturbances throughout nation [Lawliss 31]. NAZI’s win electionwith 44% of popular vote to bring absolute order out of created chaos. [Niewyk 3].– Conservative Christians help elect Hitler! Hitler uses “Conservative Christian Values” such as: Family, Patriotism, Fidelity, etc. to dupe and attract their votes and is successful.

— Article 24 of NAZI party program demands “liberty for all religious denominations in the State so far as they are not a danger to . . . the moral  feelings of the German Race” [Shire 234].     See Mar 23

First detention / concentration camps set up. SA and SS

[SchultzStaffel: lit.: “Protection Detachment” also known as,
Sonderbehanlung: lit.: “Defense Echelon”, “Black Shirts” exclusively
assigned to Heinrich Himmler]. [Klee 304]
SA, SS, and SD [Sicherheitsdienst: intelligence group of  SS]
conduct door-to-door searches and begin intelligence operationsagainst German people at large.


Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurated 32nd President of the
Saturday United States. States in his inaugural address the he wants “broad
executive powers to wage a war against the emergency, as great asthe power that would be given if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.”           (Flynn 8)NOTE: The “emergency” never has been declared over nor have the “executive war powers” ever been rescinded by any president at this writing!


La Stampa of Turin declares: “‘Mr. Roosevelt is following .
Sunday Fascist revolution and the genius of Il Duce, a just pride in the
spirit and the trail-blazing work of Fascism prompts us to point this

out. The situation recalls the Mussolinian phrase, ‘where we have shown the way, others will follow.”’ [La Stampa of Turin, Italy as quoted in New York Times]



Hitler Fuhrer / NAZI Regime [National Socialist German Worker’s Party]


March                5        — “LAST FREE ELECTIONS OF THE WIEMER REPUBLIC.Of the

Sunday  45 Million votes cast nearly 15 Million votes are cast for the NSDAP (National Socialist German Worker’s Party, i.e NAZI Party) which is the consummation of 150 years of anti-Semitic sentiments in Germany. [Dawidowicz 47-49]


9        — FDR proposes / Congresses passes “Emergency War Powers”

Thursday                     and “Banking” Laws “Trading With The Enemy Act of 1917” amended and passes on voice vote with only one copy in the well of the congress [Manchester 78]. No Congressman read the bill [Schlesinger 4-’58]. ACT RESULTS: Grants the President Dictatorial powers over the United States as “Commander-In-Chief”; Suspends the Constitution; Creates a “State of Emergency”; in effect, suspends the Constitution and Bill of Rights; effectively makes American citizens “Chattel”, confiscates land and all personal property by U.S. Government and uses these  confiscation’s as “equity” for the

Federal Reserve Bank for a new “War Time Currency” to be used during the declared “State of emergency” [Nellis/Schroder 43]. American people are not aware of what had happened to the Nation in Congress. President can rule through “Executive Orders” [Nellis/Schroder 3-4]. Beginning of truly a “New Deal” in America. News papers of the day state in headlines: “Roosevelt will ask Congress for the power of a banking dictator during the emergency”

[New York Times 1].  The “emergency” has never been declared over by any administration since FDR! On the next day (March 10th) banner headlines proclaimed, “PRESIDENT SEEKS ROLE OF DICTATOR” [The Whittier News 1] are examples of headlines across America’s newspapers. Within a month the newspapers ceased from alerting the nation what had just occurred with the “New Deal”. Within FDR’s “One Hundred Days” the nation’s wealth had effectively been confiscated. [Nellis/Schroder 35-36]

See Spring 1934


21        — 62nd Anniversary of Bismarck’s First Riechstag in a unified

Tuesday  Germany. Hitler negotiates with Catholic Centrists for support of “Enabling Act” Storm troopers and police looting and burning Socialist and Communist party offices. Social newspaper Reichbanner is suppressed in many areas of Germany. [Dawidowicz 51]

23        — “ENABLING ACT”: Grants government extraordinary powers to

Thursday   introduce, without consulting parliament, legislation which deviates from Constitution. Together with Reichstagsbrandverordnung forms legal foundation for a National Socialist [NAZI] dictatorship, resulting in the end of the Weimer Constitutional Republic; for the next twelve years, Germany is ruled by “Fuehrer orders” (executive orders) for the “protection of People and Reich.” [Klee

304] See Apr 1,’37

Hitler pays tribute to Christian faiths as “essential elements for safeguarding the soul of the German people,” and further promises to respect their rights, declared that his government’s “ambition is a peaceful accord between Church and State”. He adds “we hope to improve our friendly relations with the Holy See.” in influencing Catholic Center Party [Shire 234].                                See July 20


29Wednesday Anti-NAZI offenders threatened with death penalty by use of Ex Post Facto Laws. Offenses committed between January 31 and February 28 may be punishable with death [Ebenstein 73].
See June 28, ‘35
April Professional restrictions(Berufbeschrankung) imposed on
German Jewish physicians and pharmacist [Klee 304].– Jews First Attempt to Unify! Central Committee for Help and
Reconstruction [Zentralausschuss fur Hilfe und Aufbau, ZA] headed
by  Berlin rabbi Dr. Leo Baeck and Jewish community leader ofWuttemburg, Dr. Otto Hirsch. To meet extended threat, the Jewish community is disunited and split into factions but they establish the “Central Committee”. [Bauer 119] See Sep’33


Hitler, states, “I believe that I act today in unison with [the]
Saturday almighty Creator’s intention, by fighting the Jews I do battle for
the Lord.”Jewish Boycott, Fuehrer Order Number 5.  Action against Jewish business [“Don’t buy from Jews”]. Lawyers and doctors centrally organized by NSDAP  and overseen by Julius Stretcher, most notorious anti-Semite [Bauer 114; Klee 304; Lawliss 18].– “Grit your teeth and think revenge.” — Adolf Hitler [Lawliss 21]
— “Professional restrictions” [Berufsbrankung] imposed on Jewish
Judy Toffle, Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s elderly grandmotherdeliberately walks through Storm Troopers SA to purchase strawberries from her Jewish grocer [Bonhoeffer: film].
7 Federal German States are dissolved and NAZI Governors
Friday appointed by Reich; the “New German Federalism” martial law
begins. [Lawliss 31-32]
German law on career civil service [Berufsbeamtengesetz].
Elimination’ of Jews from public service by ‘Aryan paragraphs’[Aryan paragraphs exclude Jews from membership of societies, associations, etc. (Klee 304; Lawliss).– All Jews are removed from civil service.

By end of 1933 all “non-Aryans” were removed from: legal and technical professions, journalism, banks, and the stock exchange.

Reich Chambers of Culture established. Reich guilds for workers in film, theater, music, fine arts and journalism. Jews are exclusively excluded [Lawliss 18].

Nazification of the German culture begins [Lawliss 31-34] See May 10

May 1 Worker’s Holiday, and labor leaders invited to participate in
Monday parades and celebrations. [Lawliss 32]

2         — Trade unionists leaders are arrested; by the end of the month,

Tuesday  all labor unions cease to exist. [Lawliss 32]


10        — Book Burning bonfires in German cities [university, libraries, and

Wednesday bookstores] to purify German culture [Lawliss 34]. “Where one burns books, in the end, burn people” — Heinrich Heine [Lawliss 31].


Early May                    — Judiciary brought under NAZI control. “People’s Court” established to try anti-NAZI opposition as treason cases. [Lawliss 32]

Proceedings secret, no appeal of verdict except to Fuehrer.

[Lawliss 32]

Death sentences routinely handed out. [Lawliss 32]


July                              Protestant Leaders reveal new constitution for the new “National Reich Church”. Neimoeller agrees with “National Reich Church” and with Hitler as Chancellor President. [Shire 237]

Some of Hitler’s main articles of the National Reich Church, some are known fully others not until later:

— The National Church is determined to exterminate the f oreign Christian faiths imported into Germany (this will co-op Lutheran clergy against non-German Christian factions).

— The National Church demands immediate cessation of the publication and dissemination of the Bible.

— On the altars of the National Church there must be

nothing but Mein Kampf and a sword.

— The Christian Cross must be removed from all churches and must be superseded by the only unconquerable symbol, the swastika.

— Such were the tenets of Hitler’s church. To establish it, he had to destroy Judaism and Christianity. He went at the task with maniacal vengeance.” [Gabor vi]  See July 14



Friday    National Socialist German Workers’ Party [NAZI Party] officially declared sole party in Germany! [Lawliss 33]

Constitution approved of the only official church in Germany the National Reich Church. Heated struggle breaks out among the factions over the election of the first Bishop of the church. Hitler

appoints his friend, Chaplain Mueller becomes Reich Bishop, highest office in the National Reich Church. Any opposition by clergy will be dealt with swiftly and ruthlessly by Gestapo, SS and SA who will terrorize and intimidate those who will not fall in line and vote for NAZI church leadership. [Shire 237] See Nov 13

“Law of Prevention of Hereditary and Defective Offspring”

proclaimed. [Dumback 86] Surgical sterilization of mentally retarded, schizophrenic, alcoholic or genetically diseased persons. [Chaitkin]

Eugenics courts established. Law based on H.H. Laughlin’s 1922

Model  Eugenical Sterilization Law. Courts sterilize 375,000 people before start of  W.W. II [Chaitkin].

Hereditary Health Courts formed to carry out sterilization law. By 1937, more than 225,000 Germans will be ordered sterilized [Chaitkin ].  See July 31,


20        — NAZIs sign concordat with Vatican to guarantee freedom of Thursday   Catholics in Germany and right of Church “to regulate her own affairs.” Papen signs for Germany and Papal secretary of State,

Monsignor Pacelli, who is later to become Pope Pious XII [Shire 234].

See July 25


25        — Roman Catholic Church offended by new sterilization law

Tuesday    by NAZIs [Shire 234]


30        — NAZIs begin steps to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. This

Sunday     is decreed the beginning of Catholic persecution. Over the next few years thousands of Catholic priests, nuns and lay leaders will be arrested on false charges of  “immorality” or of “smuggling foreign currency.” [Shire 235] See June 30,’34


September                  — First Nuremberg Annual rally of NAZI’s from national to local village block leaders attend in a delirium of speeches, music, touchlight parades, pagan pageantry and emotional frenzy. Hitler believes that “…in the evening the people’s will overpower more easily succumbs to the dominating force of a stronger will. “They looked up at him as if he were a Messiah” [Lawliss 35]

Success! Jews Unite to form a single political voice! The

Central Representation of German Jews [Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, RV].  [Bauer 119]

22        — Reichskulturkammergestz [Reich chamber of Culture Law]. Jews

Friday      are excluded from cultural life (Klee 304).


October                       — Chancellor Hitler takes Germany out of League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament Conference [Lawliss 43]





Spring              German Brotherhood Council of the Confessing Church emerges, led by a disillusion Pastor Niemoeller become the remnant of resistance in both the “Confessional Church” and the Pastors’ Emergency League [Shire 238].  See May; 1935 & Early May 1943

Roosevelt criticized for dictatorial policies by Roman Catholic Priest from Detroit, on his radio program on WJR, Father Charles E. Coughlin states, “We now see the policies of a Hitler, the suggestion of a Mussolini and the dogma of a Stalin more honored in our midst than the ideas of a Washington or a Jefferson.” (Schlesinger. vol.-III,

24) See Aug 1-6’36

May                             “Confessing Church” led by Pastor Dr. Rev. Neimoeller separates from the National Lutheran Church which will become

the State (NAZI) Church [Bonhoeffer: film]. Dr. Rev. Neimoeller declares from his pastorate Church of Jesus Christ at Dahlem, a suburb of Berlin that the “Confessing Church” is the legitimate Protestant Church of Germany and sets up a provisional church government. [Shire 238]

— Result of Dr. Niemoeller’s declaration has created two rival State churches, one headed by Reich Bishop Mueller and Pastor

Niemoeller’s claim to legally constitute the Church [Shire 238]. See 1935

June                            Hitler gives verbal order to “purge” the gypsies, the so-called

euthanasia programme Aktion (T4) and other such occasions. Heydrich and even Eichmann said that no one would question or

insist on seeing a written “Fuehrer order” (an Executive Order).


June 30 – July 1          — Blood Purge of Capt. Ernst Roehm’s SA group and coup leaders

Sat-Sun             (brown shirt storm troopers) SA loose power. SS is firmly in control along with army. [Klee 305; Shirer 221].


July                 20        — SS strengthened and takes over control of most concentration

Friday    camps formerly under SA control (Klee 305).


30        — Catholic Action leader, Erich Klausener murdered during

Monday  purge. Catholic publications suppressed. Sanctity of confessional is violated by Gestapo agents [Shire 235]. See Mar 14,’37


August              2        — Chancellor Paul von Hindenburg dies, Hitler combines

Tuesdays  Chancelleries of President (Praesidial-kanzlei) and Reich (Reichskanzlei) into one, declaring himself Chancellor Reich Fuehrer (Fuehrer und Reichskanzlei) of the German People and Leader (Kanzlei des Fuehrers der NSDAP NAZI Party) of NSDAP [Ebenstein 23]






– Dr. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a Berlin University professor and pastor challenges the national Lutheran Synods. Bonhoeffer’s four challenges, the “Church: 1) – must as its political action ask the State to answer for it’s legitimate action; 2) – has an obligation towards

the victims of any social order, even if those victims are not the members of the Christian community; 3) – has a responsibility not only to bind up the victims beneath the (spoked cart) wheel, but also to put a spoke in, if need be” [and help the victim]; 4) is not only its’ task to look after the victims of madmen who drive a motorcar in a crowded street, but to do all in its’ power to stop their driving at all. [Bonhoeffer: film].  See Sept 28 ’37 & Early May 1943

—  700 “Confessing Church” Pastors will be arrested by end of year, pastors will be charged for “offenses against the State” in

“Special Courts” (Sondergericht). Many will be fined and imprisoned for “abuse of the pulpit” and holding collections in the church.

Some will be executed. [Shire 238]  See May 1936

Compulsory military service decreed in Germany, pacifists and non-compliance will national order are summarily shot

[Bonhoeffer: film].

By March 1935 Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen built

(+Gilbert 76).


March                         Hitler states he will rebuild the “Reichswehr” revealing the existence of  German air force and 36 division army in peace time [Lawlis 43].


16 Germany renews conscription in violation of Versailles Treaty
May 21 — “Army Law”: ‘Aryan descent’ is a prerequisite for active service
Tuesday in German army, Jews are barred from serving (Klee 305).
June 28 Principle of “nulla poena sine lege” (“no punishment without a
Friday law”) destroyed in Germany. Principle of law changed “to sound
feeling (gesundes Volsempfinden) of the people . . . punishment
according law whose basic idea best fit it” (Ebenstein 73).– Rule and punishment by terror of the State officially established.


September      13        — Hitler decrees “Nuremberg Laws”! (Bauer 102).


15        —  Reichstad Passes “Law for the Protection of German Blod

Sunday     and German Honor, the Nuremberg Laws”. “Reich Citizenship” laws removes citizenship, political rights [active and passive rights to vote, to hold public office, etc.], and all human rights from Jews. [Bauer 102-103; Bonhoeffer:film; Lawliss 18].   See Nov 14

– Outright isolation and persecution of the Jews, naked iron fist

unleashed. Policy will be repeated in every NAZI occupied country and so-called protectorate. [Lawliss 18]

— The Jews are declared “chattel” of the State [Staatsangehorige:

subjects owned by the state] or slaves of the State.

Outright NAZI seizure Jewish businesses and authorize the breaking of commercial contracts and dismissal of all Jewish employees.

Jewish children are barred from attending public schools.

‘Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor’ makes marriages and extra-marital sexual relations between Jew and Aryans a state offense punishable by imprisonment [Klee 305; Lawliss 18].


November       14        —  Reichstad passes Jewish ‘Mischlingen’ [people of partly Jewish

Thursday  descent for good of “German, Kindred blood” or “persons of mixed blood”] (Bauer 103).                                    See July 31,’36










January            1        — James G. McDonald resigns in protest. High Commissioner of

Wednesday  the League of Nations Commission for Refugees* (Jewish or others).

Since 1933 Germanys persecution of the Jews has been inhumane, the world is aware but refuses any political or humanitarian action on the part of the West. * Forerunner of the United Nations.


March               9        — Three Jews are murdered in small village of Przytyk, Poland after:

Monday  Roman Catholic priest, Cardinal Holland of Poland declares publicly in an open letter, “It is true that the Jews are committing frauds, practicing usury, and dealing in white slavery.” [Lawliss 47]


May Dr. Rev. Neimoeller’s “Confessing Church” continues to maintain it is only legitimate Church in Germany. Memorandum to Hitler firmly demands an end to governments ruthless anti- Christian action, along with State interference in the churches to
cease immediately. Result: Nazi  Interior Minister Flick arrests
hundreds of memorandum signers, Dr. Weissler is murdered in theSahsen-hausen concentration camp, the funds of the “Confessional Church” are confiscated and collections are forbidden [Shire 238]. See 1937
July 31 —  Jewish “Mischling” further defined by Riechstad: “out of
Friday wedlock offspring between Jews and non-Jews considered

Mischlung.” [Bauer 104]





Summer Olympic Games in Berlin. For propaganda reasons anti-Jewish measures are avoided for duration of the games and
slogans removed from the streets, businesses and buildings.Nuremberg Laws are ignored (Klee 305; Morse 104).– United States Olympic Committee removes two American Jews from the finals of the 400 meter relay. Jesse Owens, a black American wins an unprecedented four gold metals. [Lawliss 41]

See Nov 1936

Dignitaries report to U.S. President FDR, who is silent on Berlin Olympic debate. “The synagogues were crowded and apparently there is nothing very wrong.” [Lawliss 42] Nov 18’38

November Roosevelt re-elected 32nd President of U.S. See Feb. 9,’38

























807 “Confessional Church” pastors and lay leaders will be arrested and compromised because of NAZI threats and State sponsored terrorism against the “Church”. By the end of the year respected Bishop Marahrens of Hanover will be coerced by Hitler’s friend Dr. Hans Kerrl, Minister for Church Affairs to make a public declaration of humiliation: “The National Socialist conception of life is the national and political teaching which determines and characterizes German manhood. As such, it is obligatory upon German Christians also.”  See June 27 and April 19’38– Pope Pius XII issues the “Mit Brennender Sorge” (With
Sunday Burning Sorrow) Encyclical, Charges Nazi government with
“evasion” and “violation” of concordat and accusing it of sowing “thetares of suspicion, discord, hatred, calumny, of secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church.”     On ”the horizon of Germany” Pope sees “the threatening storm clouds of destructive religious wars . . . which have no other aim than . . . of extermination.” [Shire 235]


“Enabling Act” of March 23, 1933 officially….”becomes
Thursday ineffective on 1 April 1937.” Act never rescinded, nation is under






Pastor Niemoeller’s last sermon under the NAZI reich. His premonition was correct when he stated before the overflowed
church in Dahlem, “We have no more thought of using our ownpowers to escape the arm of the authorities than had the Apostles of old. No more are we ready to keep silent at man’s behest when God commands us to rather than man.” {Shire 239] See July 1
July 1 Dr. Rev. Martin Niemoeller leader of “The Confessing Church
Thursday arrested and confined to Moabit prison in Berlin [Shire 239]
See Sept 28


September      28        — Dr. Bonhoeffer’s “Confessing Church” Seminary ordered closed

Tuesday  in Palmerania, Germany by Gestapo.  [Bonhoeffer: film] See Mar 2’38


November        5         — Secret discussions in Reich Chancellery: Hitler reveals his

Friday     plans for war (Klee 305).





March              2          — Rev. Niemoeller tried in “Special Courts”(Sondergericht) Wednesday sentenced to eight months in prison. Result: Fined 2,000 Rms

and sentenced to 7 months in prison, but was released because of

time served. Offense to State: main charge was “underhand attacks against the State”; “abuse of  pulpit” and holding collections in his church. [Shire 239] Later to be arrested again and sent to Sachsenhausen prison. [+ Gilbert 686]  See April 19 & May 4,’45


11        — German troops occupy Austria [Lawliss 43].


13        — Annexation of Austria [Anschuluss]. Within a year, NAZIs will

Sunday    totally exclud Jews [185,000] from public life. Austrian anti- Semitism endorsed as “public policy” (Klee 305).


18        — “Weapons Law” announced. License to manufacture guns “must

Friday      not be issued if applicant – or if one of the persons proposed for the commercial or technical management of the business – is a Jew”. The weapons law specified; however, that a “firearm acquisition permit is not needed by [among others] officials of the central government” or persons “in service of the central government” and “the states,” “the SA,” and “SS.” [Simkin] See Apr. 9-May 16,’43

—  NAZI “Weapons Law” is prototype for “United States Gun Control Act of 1968” according to research by Jews For The Preservation Of Firearms Ownership, Inc. [Simkin]


April                19        — Fuehrer’s 49th Birthday Gift: State Church (Lutheran) and

Tuesday                       “Brotherhood Council of the Confessing Church” clergy are ordered by Bishop Marahrens, “….as a birthday gift to the Fuehrer, all Pastors are to take a personal oath to Adolf Hitler. ‘ It is hereby decreed, he who is called to spiritual office is to confirm his loyal duty with the following oath: ‘I swear that I will be faithful and obedient to Adolf Hitler, the Fuehrer of German Reich and the people, I will conscientiously observe the laws and carry out the

duties of my office, so help me God.’ Anyone who was “called” before this decree is to take  this oath of allegiance retroactively, anyone who refuses to take this oath of  allegiance is to be dismissed.’” The majority of the “Confessing Church” signed the oath, because they thought it was their patriotic nationalist duty to do so. [Bonhoeffer: film; Shire 239] See Apr 5’43


26        — Registration of all German Jews with assets exceeding

Tuesday  5,000 RM(Reich Marcs) (Klee 305).




24        —  Hungarian Regent Nicholas Horthy’s government under NAZI Sunday                coercion, parliament passes anti-Jewish laws limiting employment of Jews in private businesses to 20 percent. [Dawidowicz 381]

See 1939


June              13-18    German police instructed to arrest for “preventive detention,”

Mon – Sat                      anti-social able bodied males and Jews with criminal records “are dangerous to security and useless eaters” (Dawidowitz 99).


14        — Registration of German Jewish enterprises. Beginning of so-

Tuesday  called “Aryanization”. Jews pressured to sell to certain people or

firms [IG-Flick, the Flick group, major banks, etc.]. Payment of sales proceeds, far below market value, into government blocked

accounts (Klee 305).


Summer            Buchenwald, Dachu, and Sachsenhausen are greatly enlarged

as “labor camps”. Dacau Jews are ordered to wear “Star of David”
on uniform. [Dawidowitz 99]
July 6Wednesday German Law prohibits numerous Jewish business activities(Klee 306).


July-October              Further German laws limiting professional activities of doctors and lawyers (Klee 306).


August                        “Zentralstelle fir judishe Auswanderungs” [Officer for Jewish

Emigration] established in Vienna [within eighteen months

150,000 Austrian Jews induced to emigrate] (Klee 306).


11        — Reuters dispatch: Manchester Guardian state: “Everybody is

Thursday                     Weimer knows of the Buchenwald and will readily indicate the general terms where it is, but one mentions the dread words

‘concentration camp.’”  [Morse 184]

September                  Allies agree to Hitler’s annexation of Czechoslovakia, the

“sudentenland” See Mar 15


October           28        — Polish Jews expelled from Germany to Polish border!



November      9-10     — “REICHSKRISTALLNACHT!” [“nation’s night of broken glass”].

Wed-Thu   Pogrom organized by the NSDAP. Official pretext was the murder of a German legation secretary in Paris by a young Jew. Numerous synagogues and Jewish businesses destroyed. Within 48 hours

ninety Jewish citizens are murdered, 1,000 synagogues burned down, 7,000 businesses are vandalized and looted, cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes are destroyed (Klee 306; Lawliss 47). Silent crowds look on and police regulated traffic and make

wholesale arrest of Jews “for their own protection.” [Dawidowicz 102; Feingold 41]

Christian attitude is, “this was a curse on the Jews…”

Dr. Bonhoeffer’s response: Psalms 74: 10-11 [Bonhoeffer: film].

German Roman Catholic Bishops and German Lutheran Synod are silent in response to outrages of Reichskristallnacht”.





12        — Punitive “Money Atonement Fines” At the suggestion of,

Saturday  Goebbels Goring decrees “Atonement fines” of German Jewry of one Billion RM for the damages caused during “Reichskristallnacht”, although this was part of Hitler’s “Four year plan” to destroy Jewry [Dawidowics 104; Morse 186-187]. Insurance awards, amounting to more than 10 Million RM, are paid to the German Reich (Klee 306).

A share fixed at 20% of all property registered to Jewry is to

paid to the Reich government in four installments for property valued over 50,000 RM [an additional 5% is added]. [Feingold 43]

— All Jewish owned retail establishments are ordered closed by

Reich. [Feingold 43]

36,000 Jews arrested “for their protection” and sent to detention camps at: Bachwald, Dachau, and Sachsenhauson (camps are expanded to accommodate the influx of new arrivals).

[Morse 182-187]

15        — Jewish children are excluded from all German schools

Tuesday  (Klee 306).

18        — President Roosevelt recalls Hugh Wilson, ambassador from

Friday      Berlin and extends work visas for German Jews for an additional six months [Feingold 103-104]. He refuses to increase immigration

limits because 67.8 percent of Congress is against increased immigration .  [Feingold 42] See Dec 3


28        — Regierungsprasidenten (“presidents of regional councils”) are

Monday    empowered to impose curfews on Jews (the “Judenbann”) [Dawidowicz 103; Klee 306].

December         3        — “Security and Flight Taxes” NSDAP require Jewry who emigrate

Saturday  from Germany to a pay “security tax” and “flight taxes” of 25% on all property valued at more than 200,000 RM or yearly income of

20,000 RM [Feingold 42-43]

— Decree provides for compulsory disposal of Jewish businesses, stores, real estate, industrial firms, securities, etc. (Klee 306).

—  All Jews denied access to most public places. Jews try to escape the Germany and Austria. [Lawliss 48]

British severely limit emigration to Palestine. [Lawliss 48]

Swiss close their borders to avoid being over-run by Jews. [Lawliss 48]

United States have strict quotas: “Objectionable qualities”. In every American poll Jews were cited as posing a “major threat to the community . . .”  [Lawliss 48] See May 1939

14        — Goering is to be responsible for issues of the “Jewish

Wednesday  question”[Dawidowicz 104]





Hungary passes omnibus anti-Jewish legislation: defining Jewish status; barring leadership in media; prohibits trade licenses and renewals; barred further entrance into professions until Jews were less than 6% of a given profession; expropriation of real property with compensation; elimination of naturalized citizenship; voting rights denied to nonnative Jews whose families were not

permanent residents  prior to 1868 (Dawidowicz 381). See Aug 1941


January          24        — Establishment of Reichszentrale fur Judische Auwanderung

Tuesday    [Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration] in order to organize and accelerate the emigration of the Jews [almost 80,000 Jews left Germany in 1939] (Klee 306).


30        — Hitler threatens Jewry with destruction in event of war

Saturday  (Dawidowicz 110; Feingold 167).


February           9        — Save the German Refugee Children & Wagner/Rogers Bill. Sen.

Thursday   Robert Wagner, of  New York and Rep. Edith Rogers, of Massachusetts introduce the exact same bill creating a Non- Sectarian Committee for German Refugee Children. Bill will save

10,000 children in 1938 and an additional 10,000 in 1939. The response to the proposal by the 76th Congress is exemplified by one of the 60 anti-alien bills by Rep. Stephen Pace of Georgia (HR 9999) “every Alien in the United States shall be forthwith deported.” [Feingold 149-151]

Roper poll reveals sixty percent of Americans think Jews possess “objectionable.” qualities. Public opinion is that “Jews pose a major threat to the community.” [Lawliss 48]


March                         Pope Pius XII begins his reign.

Slovakia declared an independent state. Father Jozef Tiso, a

Catholic priest is installed as NAZI Slovakia’s puppet Fascist government’s Prime Minister, and with his Nlinka People’s party, he fulfills all NAZI wishes (Dawidowicz 377). 90,000 Jews are at risk. See Apr


Wednesday Bohemia and Monrovia become German protectorates(Klee 306).
April New Slovak Catholic state begins in rapid succession enacting anti-Jewish laws: Jewish status is defined by religion and not ethnically; exclusion of Jewry from public life and restrictions from employment in numerous professions and occupations (Dawidowicz 378).
May Panicky Jews file applications for visas at American Consulates in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia quotas are filled for 5 years. See Jan 1940


15        — German troops invade Czechoslovakia {Klee 306). See Oct


13        — Voyage of the St. Louis (Hamburg – America Lines) sets sail

Saturday  from Hamburg to Havanna, Cuba of the 936 passengers, 930 are Jewish refugees (one of the last ships to leave NAZI’s grasp). Each refugee pays $262 for passage, plus $81 as a guarentee for return fare in the event that Cuban government denies acceptance. This is a formality, because every passanger held “landing certificates” signed by Col. Manuel Benite, Cuba’s director general of immagration at the cost of $150 per certificate. Jewish passengers hads less than $4 per passenger, they had been fleeced completely. [Morse 219-220]  See May 27


27        —  St. Louis docks in Havanna. Cuban government invalidated a

Wednesday      week earlier refugees’ landing permits which had been pre- purchased at $150 per passenger. Cuba had established a stricter procedure for accepting refugees. The line, fails to inform the refugees of the new regulations which had been changed prior to sailing from Hamburg. [Feingold 65-66; Morse 220] See May 28


28        —  American Jewish Joint Distribution Committe (JDC) sends

Sunday                        two representatives to Cuba. Cecilia Razovsky, a social worker and Lawrence Berenson, an attorney. JDC’s attorney posts $125,000 bond to guarentee that none of the passengers will become

dependent upon the Cuban government by seeking employment in

Cuba. [Morse 223-224]

—  Cuba’s President Federico Raredo Bru agrees to meet with

JDC’s attorney Benson on 1 June, 1939. [Morse 224] See May 31


31        —  Gustav Schroeder captain of St. Louis is ordered to sail from

Wednesday    Havanna. Captain attempts to intercede for his passengers to Pres.

Bru of Cuba to be permit his passengers ashore, he his unsuccessul.

—  Cuban government refuses to return the $150 per passenger paid inadvance for “landing certificates”. [Morse 224]

See June 2






St. Louis steams out of Havanna Harbor at 11 AM with 907 passengers destined for Hamburg, Germany. [Morse 225]
See June 6


At 11:40 PM St. Louis ends idle cruising and sets course for
Tuesday Europe. Capt. Schroeder sets course but slowly. [Morse 229]
F.D.R. ignores telegram from St. Louis passenger committee.Telegram requests help for the 907 passengers, “of which 400 are women and children.” [Morse 229] See June 9


New Yorks Times, “The cruise of the St. Louis is cries to high
Friday heaven of man’s inhumanity to man.” [Morse 229]  See June 10
10 U.S. Government remains recalcitrant towards to plite of the
Saturday St. Louis’s human cargo. Telegram to JDC, “ANY IMMIGRATION


12        — Holland’s Queen Wilhelmina welcomes 194 passengers from

Monday     St. Louis., final disposition 224 passengers are accepted. [Morse 231]


13        — Morris Troper, representative for JDC, wires the St. Louis:



17        — 4:00 AM JDC’s representative finalizes disposition of St.

Saturday    Louis’s passengers: 214 to Belgium, 214 to Holland, 287 to England, 224 to France. The 907th passenge, Mr. I Winkler, a traveling salesman from Hungry boarded the St. Louis by accident, as soon that it docked he run off as rapidly as possible. [Morse 233]

Postscript of the St. Louis : The victory was short lived, on

Friday, September 1, 1939 World War II began with Germany invading Poland. S.S. Ordina, S.S. Quanza, and the S.S. Flanders

are examples of similar fates as that of the St. Louis. [Feingold 66] In the end the survivors of the various ships were later rounded up and sent to concentration camps if they were unable to escape from Europe or become involved in the resistence movements.

[Morse 233] See August


21        — Reich Protector of Bohemia and Monravia decrees Jews are to be

Wednesday  under the German legal jurisdiction thereby: defining Jewish status, isolation of Jews, and expropriating Jewish property

[Dawidowicz 376].  See Mar 15,’40


29        — Italy: Jewish professionals restricted to practice only among

Thursday    Jewish clients and patients. Marriages between Jews and Italians forbidden. Limitations on property ownership, especially

agricultural land. [Dawidowicz 370] See Oct 7,’42


July                  4         — NAZIs supplements Reich Citizenship Law [Fuhrer Order 10]

Tuesday     by establishing Reichvereiniguing der Juden un Deutschlund placing all Jews under the Gestapo thereby eliminating all autonomous Jewish organizations.


August                        Hitler mocks the United States for it’s hypocracy over the Jewish Question. Der Weltkampt comments upon democratic pretense adds reality: “We are saying openly that we [the German people] do not want the Jews while democracies keep on claiming that they are willing to receive them . . . and then leave the guests out in the cold! Aren’t we savages better after all?” [Morse 234]


23        — Stalin signs NAZI – Soviet Non-Aggression Pact See June 22’41


September                  Ill-treatment and murder of thousands of Jews begins.

Sept- Dec         Establishment of first concentration camps and ghettos in Poland.

SS and police and villages [exciting the protests of

Oberbefehlshaber-stohannes Blaskowitz] (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).

See Sept 21

1        — German Army Invades Poland: Beginning Second World War –

Friday      World witnesses “Blitzkrieg” (lightning war) for first time. The invasion is brutal and merciless! (Bauer 140; Klee 307; Niewyk xiii). See Sept 21


3        — Britain and France Declare War on Germany (+ Gilbert 4).


21        — Polish Jews Expelled from most Towns, Villages and

Thursday  Territories except for Lodz, beginning of concentration and ghettoization. [Dawidowicz 396]                                 See May 1’40

Reinhard Heydrich (chief of Security Police [sicherheitspolizei]) prepares plans for “Final Solution” (Die Endlosung) with Gestapo, SS, SD and the Criminal Police. [Lawliss 69]


23        — Jews in German Occupied Poland Forced to Wear

Saturday  Distinguishing Badge, Star of David.


October                       Father Jozef Tiso, a Catholic priest is elected Slovakia’s

President [Dawidowicz 377]  See Aug.’40

– First deportations of Czech Jews to Poland. [Dawidowicz 377] See Sept.’41


17        — 1,000 Jewish men must live in open fields in severe

Tuesday    temperatures of -20°C. Czech Jews taken to Nisko and left in open fields and sometimes quartered in poor Jewish village and told to build new settlements. [Bauer 151-152]


Oct-Dec              — Ongoing Polish concentration camps operation in process

(Niewyk xiii).


December                   Reich Youth (Hitler Youth) Service law enacted, compulsory service of every healthy German (Aryan) child over nine.

every handicapped and retarded children excluded and considered

nutzloseEsser (useless eaters), will be put to death by injection or gas at mental instiutions under the “Euthanasia” Programme [Heck 7-8]. See January ‘40






January —  Start of “Euthanasia” Programme, Aktion T4, in extermination institutes within German Reich [killing of mentally ill with carbon monoxide] (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).
— Dr. Ernst Rudin, architect of Aktion T4  program; responsible for
exterminating 400,000 mental patients [Chaiklin ].  See July 31– Breckinridge Long is appointed by Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of State for Special Problem. His task: to halt completely the flow of Jewish refugees. [Feingold 15] See June’42


Bohemia and Monravia Gestapo enacts Zentralstelle fur die
Tuesday judische Auswanderung by decree placing Jews under all anti-
Jewish German legislation. [Dawidowicz 376]





Friday    day before Hilter’s 51st birthday gift two countries. [Bauer 293]





















April 9Tuesday NAZIs Invade Norway (Gilbert+ 72).
19 Denmark and Norway invaded and fall in a matter of days. On
See From July’41
27 Himmler orders creation of Auschwitz, Poland concentration
Saturday camp. (Niewyk xiii)
May 1 — Phase II of Polish ghettoization plan concentration of Jews at
Wednesday Lodz.[Dawidowicz 397] See Nov
10 Belgium and Netherlands invaded, Belgium falls in five days;
Friday Netherlands in three weeks [Dawidowicz 366].
British army trapped in France and is evacuated from thebeaches of Dunkirk.
14 Netherlands Surrender to Nazis [Dawidowicz 366] See May 18
18 Netherlands incorporated as “Germanic” state after invasion.
Saturday Austrian Artur Seyss-Inquart appointed Reich Commissioner, Dutch


NAZIs govern state [Dawidowicz 366]. See Oct 22


22        — France Surrenders to NAZI Germany



June                10        — Mussolini announces Italy’s entry into World War (Bokun 116b)


21        — France falls to the NAZIs. See Sept 27



July                 31        — Murder of German Jewish mentally ill at Branderburg, Germany

Wednesday extermination institute (Klee 307). Under the Akton T4 euthanesia programme, Jews did not have to meet this protocol. [+Gilbert 105] See March & Summer 1941


August                        SS-Haupsturmfuehrer Dieter Wisliceny arrives in Bratislava, Slovakia as Eichmann’s representative from the Reich security Main Office to advise President Father Tiso of all Jewish matters. Reorganizes Hlinka Guard and Freiwillige Schultzstaffel [Slovak volunteers of SS] to carry out all anti-Jewish measures.

[Dawidowicz 378] See Sept

Dictator Carol II of Rumania decrees anti-Jewish statutes based on Italian model: Jews expelled from cultural life and from all government service, including armed forces [Dawidowicz 384]. See Oct


Aug 8-             — Rabbi Serebrenik and the Consistory in Luxembourg 2,500

Oct 15, 1941           Jews are evacuated through illegal means to unoccupied France

Thu – Tue         and Portugal. [Dawidowicz 366] See Sept. 5


27        — French Vichy government annuls April 21, 1939 decree that

Tuesday           punishes slander and libel “toward a group of people but origin to a

particular religion,” thereby providing a “legal” basis for subsequent anti-Jewish laws. [Dawidowicz 361] See Sept. 27


31        — First NAZI decree abolishes “shehita” (ritual killing of a kosher

Saturday     animal) or the Jews of the Netherlands [Dawidowicz 367]


September        5        — Luxembourg decrees anti-Jewish legislation. Jews are

Thursday   ghettoized, forced to wear arm bands; assigned to labor camps;

exported to Nazi authorities  [Dawidowicz 366-367]. See Oct 19’40-Apr 19’43

26        — Ustredna Zidow [Center of Jews] decreed to represent all Jews

Thursday     in Slovakia, responsible to the Central Economy Office [under

Minister of Interior]. [Dawidowicz 367]  See Sept’41

27        — German’s order French government to complete a census of all

Friday      Jews and their property. Census to be completed by October 20,

1940    [Dawidowicz 367] See Oct 3


October                       Rumania’s Antonescu’s coalition government enact legislation for the “Rumanianization” of Jewish property similar to “Aryanization”. [Dawidowicz 384] See Jan.’41

Serbia (Yugoslavia) government decrees: limiting access of Jews to secondary and higher education and halting the issuance of licenses for Jewish businesses while restricting the renewals. [Dawidowicz 391]   See May’41


3         — French Vichy government enacts anti-Jewish statutes, defines

Thursday   what a Jew is and prohibits Jews from holding most public offices, bans them from judiciary, teaching, the military, banking, real estate, the media, and limits their presence in the professions. [Dawidowicz 361]         See Oct’4


4         — Vichy government authorizes the internment of foreign Jews.

Friday      Consequently, trapping about 25,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria. Internees forced into labor brigade, and large numbers die of hunger, cold, and disease. [Dawidowicz 361] See Mar’20


18        — NAZIs begin “Aryanization” process by registration of all

Friday      French Jewish owned businesses to of all Jews. [Dawidowicz 362] See Mar. 20,’41


22        — Netherlands Jews ordered to register all businesses owned

Tuesday    whole or in part and operated along with all properties.

See Jan 10’41

— Jews defined by Reich racial standards.


28        — After six months of NAZI occupation of Belgium, they decree

Monday     all Jews as defined by Reich racial standards to register along with all Jewish owned businesses. Registration discloses 42,000 Jews in Belgium, 25,000 native born. [Dawidowicz 364]

— Jews excluded from Belgium public service, schools, law, press, and media. [Dawidowicz 364] See May 31,’41


November                   — Government force Jews to wear arm bands [Lawliss 69].

Rumanian government decrees to expelled Jews from employment. [Dawidowicz 397]


5        — Polish Jews sealed in Warsaw Ghetto, approximately 500,000

Tuesday    inhabitants (Niewyk xiii). See Apr’41


7        — FDR re-elected unprecedented 3rd term of President.



December       24        — Bulgarian Sobranie [parliament pass anti-Jewish “Law for the]

Tuesday    Protection of the Nation” which define who is a Jew. [Dawidowicz 388]  See Feb 17’41





January          10        — Jews in Netherlands ordered to register with local Census

Friday     Office.  Failure to register is punishable by five years imprisonment and/or confiscation of all property. [Dawidowicz 367] See Mar. 12


21-26      — Brutal Massacre of 170 Jews in Bucharest, during fighting

Tues – Sun  between Rumania’s Iron Guard and Antonescu’s army supporters. [Dawidowicz 385]                                See June


February         12        — Jewish Council [Joodsche Raad] formed in Netherlands under

Wednesday  duress by NAZI Dutch. Jews confined to “old section” of Amsterdam under Hans Rauter, High SS and Police Leader, Seyss- Inquart’s Commission for Security and Police. Area sealed off as ghetto. See Mar 12


17        — Pro-German Bulgarian Premier Bogdan Filov implements

Monday    executive order to define who is a Jew [anyone who has one parent who is Jewish is considered a Jew]. [Dawidowicz 388] See June’42


22        — First “Razzia” [round-up] of Jews in Netherlands and

Satursday   Holland (?).       See Mar 12


March                         — Victor Brack who works in Hitler’s Chancellery will testify at Nuremberg trails that by March 1941, “higher party circles”, no more than a dozen people knew that the Jews were doomed to extermination (Niewyk 252). See Summer


1        — Himmler visits Auschwitz POW Camp. Orders expansion

Satursday 140,000 prisoners for occupancy of ideological enemies, Jews and

“Bolsheviks”.  [+Gilbert 121]


12        — Germans begin “Aryanizing” Netherlands Jewish property.

Wednesday  [Dawidowicz 367] See Spring


18        — NAZIs place Netherlands Jews under “Joodsche Raad”. Jews

Tuesday    prohibited from traveling, dismissing them from civil service, cultural posts, and the stock exchange, barring them from public schools and vocational schools. See Spring


20        — Vichy government appoints anti-Semite Xavier Vallat as

Thursday    Commissioner and creates General Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, functions to: liquidate Jewish property and supervise all police powers with regard to Jews. [Dawidowicz 361] See Apr. 26


Spring              Netherlands Jews are rounded up for deportation. Zentralstelle fur Judische Auswanderung [Central Office for Jewish Emigration) established under SS-Hauptsturmfurhrer Ferdinand aus der Funten. Joodsche Raad made subordinate to the Zentralstelle.

[Dawidowicz 368]  See May 21


April                            Polish Jews in the Generalgouvernement are “ghettoized”, Phase II complete. [Dawidowicz 397] See From July


9        — Greece and Yugoslavia invaded by NAZIs. First year anniversary

Wednesday  of Norway’s invasion. [+Gilbert 172]


10        — Croatia (Yugoslavia) Ante Pavelic becomes puppet government

Thursday   of Germans. Anti-Jewish degrees: Defining Jews; registration of property; ordering identifying badges; identifying Jewish owned businesses.   See May


20        — Hitler’s 52nd birthday


26        — French Jews forbidden from engaging in wide variety of

Saturday   occupations including positions in contact with the public. [Dawidowicz 362]  See June 22



29        — Dutch Jews decreed to wear Jewish Star; further restrictions on

Tuesday     occupational activities. Curfew introduced. May 21


May Germans occupy Old Serbia (Yugoslavia) within one week Jews ordered to register, wear yellow Star of David, and assigned to forced- labor brigades. [Dawidowicz 391] See June 26– Croatian Jews ordered to pay heavy taxes and ordered into forced labor.  See June 26
21 Expropriation of Netherlands Jews decreed of all property with
Wednesday exception of wedding bands and gold teeth. [Dawidowicz 368]
See Aug. 27
31       — “Aryanization” begins in Belgium and Serbia (Yugoslavia) of all
Saturday Jewish property, rapid impoverishment occurs. [Dawidowicz 364]
See From July– German military commander issued Belgium anti-Jewish decrees: defining Jews; registration of property; and separated economic life of the nation. See From July
June Special Rumanian troops assigned to rounding up, deporting, and murdering Jews. [Dawidowicz 385] See Aug

2         — Vichy government “Aryanization” begins and expropriates

Monday    Jewish properties. [Dawidowicz 361] See July 22


6         — Hitler invades Greece and Yugoslavia, fighting is extremely

Friday     fierce. See Autumn-Winter


22        — “Warzburg” NAZI Germany invades Soviet Union at 3 AM,

Sunday    unleashing mobile killing units by means of engine exhaust [carbon monoxide] (+Gilbert 193; Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).                                         See June-Aug


26        — Croatian government ordered mass arrests of Jews in Bosnia

Thursday         and Herzegovina.  [Dawidowicz 372]  See Oct June-Aug

SS organizes pogroms against Jews in the Baltic states and the Ukraine using local populations [according to the report of Thursday (22nd), Einsatzgruppe A, by 29 June about 2,300 Jews were “rendered harmless” in Kaunas] (Klee 307). See Sept 29-30


Summer            New Program for “Final Solution” launched by construction of the“Vernichtungslager” (the annihilation camp). Civilians are instructed on the use of Zyklon B.  See Sept 3


From July                    — Beginning of mass shootings of Jews by Security Police and SD Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos [see ‘Jager-Bericht’] and police units [e.g. Police Battalion 322 and Polizeiregiment Mitte]. Wehrmacht also part in mass shootings of Jews (Klee 307).

Jews in Belgium declare real estate holds; orders issued

forbidding banks to accept deposits from Jews; 7,600 Jewish firms in existence ordered closed, by mid-1942, Jewish property “Aryanized”.  [Dawidowicz 364]  See Autumn

NAZI Norwegian puppet government carry out Reich Commissar

Terboven’s policies without legislation. All businesses submit lists of their employees, indicating their religion. [Dawidowicz 371]

See Nov

“Aryanization” of Serbian Jews (Yugoslavia) begins. [Dawidowicz 391] See Aug

Polish “ghettoization” of Jews finalized with the taking of Galatia. Jews endure hunger, disease, and ordered into forced- labor brigades. An estimated 500,000 Polish Jews died from policy of annihilation from “natural causes” and daily terror.

[Dawidowicz 397]         See Dec 5


July 22 French government gives General Commissioner wide powers
Tuesday of expropriating Jewish property and businesses.[Dawidowicz 361] See Nov. 29


Thursday comprehensive solution to the Jewish Question.” (Niewyx xiii)Endlosung derJudenfrage” [‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question’,
i.e. elimination of Jewry] (Klee 307).
August Execution of Jewish children in Byelaya Tserkov [Ukraine] (Klee 307).  See August 24– Rumanians expel Bessarabian Jews to Transnistria. [Dawidowicz 385]         See Nov


31        — Goering orders Heidrich in a letter to “formulate a

Hungary government passes laws defining Jews. 100,000

Christians defined as “racial” Jews, subject to anti-Jewish laws. Start of Jewish round ups, beginning with 17,000 stateless. [Dawidowicz 391]      See Mar’42

Mass Serbian Jews internment of adult males. Internment camp set-up outside Belgrade, Nis and at Sabac. Death camps are not ready and begin to shoot the Jews in masse. [Dawidowicz 391]


24        — Euthanasia” programme discontinued. Killings continued by

Sunday      other means [poison, starvation, etc.] (Klee 307). See Sept 3


27        — Netherlands Census Office reveal 160,820 registrations; 140,552

Wednesday     are Jews; 14,549 “half-Jews;” and 5,719 “quarter-Jews.” [Dawidowicz 368] See Jan’42


29        — Netherlands: Jews banned from schools and vocational

Friday      schools. [Dawidowicz 368] See Jan’42


September                  Papal Charge d’Affairs, Msgr. Burzio immediately protests NAZI Slovakia’s anti-Jewish legislation to deport Jewish citizens into German hands. [Dawidowicz 378]  See Sept 9 & Autumn- Winter

Czech Jews from Bohemia and Moravia must identify themselves with a yellow Star of David. [Dawidowicz 377] See Autumn

3       — First experimental gassing with Zyklon B in Auschwitz, Poland

Wednesday  concentration camp of Soviet POWs. Zyklon B established as murder method (Klee 307; Niewyk xiii).


9       — Father Tiso’s Slovakian government decrees 270 anti-Jewish

Tuesday  articles of omnibus legislation. Defining Jews as racial group, Jews must wear yellow Star of David, forced labor, evictions from specified towns and districts, etc. [Dawidowicz 378] See Late Autumn


13      — Germany: NAZIs Announce Every Jew Must Wear Yellow Star

Friday    Of David On left side of body by next Friday, September 19. [Jens 300]


19      — Deadline for All Jews In Germany Ordered To Wear Yellow Star

Friday  Of David [Jens 300]


29-30  — Mass shootings of 33,771 Jews from Kiev in Babi Yar ravine by

Mon-Tue members of derkommando 4a from Einstatzgruppe C and members of

Polizeiregiment Sud (Klee 308; Niewyk xiii). See Late Autumn


October                       Jewish legal emigration ceases from Germany, Austria, and

Soviet areas conquered by Germany.

Jews in Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina are all either in forced labor, in concentration camps or have been shop to death, at the mercy of the next atrocity that awaits them at Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 392]            See Nov

Mid-Oct                       — Beginning of railroad deportation transports on Deutche

Reichbahn [German ways]. Goods or cattle wagons mostly used for

transporting Jews. Many do not survive the transports, owing to poor hygiene and inadequate supplies of food and water (Klee 308; Niewyk 252).


Oct-Apr 1942               — Jews deported from Luxembourg, approximately 800 sent to Lodz, Auschwitz and Theresienstadt. After the war 400 Jews will survive in Luxembourg. [Dawidowicz 367]


Autumn            – Beginning of dispute between Generalkommissar for White Russia, Gauleiter Kube, with the SS members lodge complaints about Kube (Klee 308; Niewyk 252). See Autumn-Winter

Belgium Jews isolated; subject to curfews; forbidden travel outside major cities where concentrate; prohibited from public parks and streets of Antwerp. [Dawidowicz 364] See Nov. 25

Germans set-up central ghetto for Czech Protectorate Jews

[Bohemia and Moravia] at Theresienstadt [Terezin]. [Dawidowicz 367]                                    See 1942


Oct- Nov                      — Extermination camp of Chelmno [Kulmhof], Poland set up in

Warthegau (Klee 308). See Dec 8


Late Autumn        — The RSHA puts gas-vans at disposal of Security Police and SD

Einsatzgruppen (Klee 308).

Plans to deport Slovakian Jews to concentration camps begin. [Dawidowicz 378] See Mar-Aug 1942


Autumn-Winter     Unauthorized murders of Russian Jews by Taubner’s

Werkstattzug in Russia [Klee 308]. See Mar 9’42


November                   Inventory of all Norwegian Jewish-owned businesses demanded by provincial governors. See Mar 1

Over 120,000 Romanian Jews transported to Transnistria concentration camps. An estimate of 200,000 are shipped to Transnistria by late 1942, two-thirds die of hunger and epidemics. [Dawidowicz 385] See Sept

– 5,000 male Serbian Jews are murdered by Germans between August-November at concentration camps at Belgrade, Nis and Sabac.   See Nov 23


23        — Second Croatian Mass arrest of Jews in Bosnia and

Sunday     Herzegovina.[Dawidowicz 392] See Dec


25        — NAZIs order Belgium formation of “Judenrat[Jewish rats]

Tuesday    lead by Dr. Salomon Ullmann, head of Jewish chaplains in Belgium army. This ad hoc body becomes the Association des Juits en Belgique [AJB], to which all Jews are to subject. Task: To be responsible for the affairs of the Jews and to transmit and carry-out German orders. [Dawidowicz 365]  See Dec. 31


29        — French government establishes UGIF (Union Generate des

Saturday      Israelites de France) purpose to represent affairs of all Jews vis-à-vis the state.  All Jewish property turned over to UGIF and all Jewish organizations disbanded, except for religious associations. [Dawidowicz 361] See Winter 1942


December                   Serbia (Yugoslavia) Jewish women and children are interned at Belgrade, Nis and Sabac and are shot to death. Several hundred surviving Jews in hiding are hunted down by Serbian collaborators and turned over to NAZIs. By mid-1942 German declare success in “solving the Jewish question” in Serbia. [Dawidowicz 391]

See Aug 1942


5         — First transport of Jews to Chelmno, Poland extermination

Friday      camp (Klee 308). See Dec 5

7        — Pearl Harbor Bombed by Japan! America enters World War

Sunday     (Morse 249).

8        — Chelmno, Poland first extermination camp to completed

Monday    opens, victims are killed in gas-vans with exhaust gases [carbon monoxide] (Davidowitz 135: Niewyk xiii). See Mid-Dec

German army occupy Semlin, Serbia use gas trucks at makeshift camp, before facilities are ready. [Dawidowitz 135]


12        — 1,000 French Jewish lawyers and doctors rounded up and

Friday      deported to the East, as reprisal for unsuccessful assassination attempt on a German air-force officer.

16        — Rumanian government dissolves Jewish Federation Unions of

Tuesday     the Jewish Communities of Bucharest and set up Centrala Evreilor din Romania [Center for Rumanian Jews] as “sole body authorized to represent the interest of the Jewish community of Rumania.” They become the instrument used by government to fulfill it’s anti-Jewish demands


Mid-Dec                       — So-called “Dezember-Aktion” [‘December Action’] – mass shootings in mid-December Libau [Liepaja] watched by a great number of spectators. Further mass executions in Baltic states (Klee 308).

– Phase III of anti-Polish Jewish policy begins, death camps at Chelmno and  Belzec (2nd killing camp completed) become operational, deportations begin Wartheland to Chelmno. [Dawidowicz 135, 397]       See 1942, Feb,’42 & Mar-July 1942


31        — Belgium Jewish children excluded from public schools.

Wednesday  [Dawidowicz 364] See Winter 1942


Autumn-Winter      – Vatican is made aware of the increasing persecution faced by the Jews under NAZI controlled nations and territories [Austria, Poland, and Ukraine].

Vatican Papal Nuncio in Berlin informed sphere of responsibility

limited exclusively to Germany. See Mar 24’42





U.S. State Department and British Foreign Office has no intention of  rescuing large numbers of  European Jews. Consequently, their policies are for obstructing rescue possibilities and ignoring public pressures for governmental action.

See Summer 1942

Czech Jews to death camps in Poland. 55,000 Czech Jews alone deported to Auschwitz, Poland and other death camp. [Dawidowicz 377] See Mar-July 1942


Winter              Start of Belgium Jews deportations. 25,437 Jews are deported to Auschwitz via transit camp at Malines mid-1942 through mid-

1944 according to NAZI records. By end of war 40,000 are found in Belgium [6,000 German and Austrian refugees, 8,000 Polish Jews, remainder Belgian and Dutch nationals.  [Dawidowicz 365]

See February


January                      Forced-labor camps established in Netherlands. Jews begin to be concentrated in Amsterdam. [Dawidowicz 368]


1        — First Jewish Resistance Organization (FPS; United Partisans

Thursday  Organization) established in Vilna, Germany. “Lets not allow ourselves to be led like sheep to the slaughter.” [Dawidowicz 314]


20        — Berlin: Wannsee Conference (“Final Solution of the Jewish

Tuesday    Question”) (Klee 308): chaired by SS Gruppenfuhrer Reinhart Heydrich [second in command to Himmler expressed by Hitler in speeches of January 30 and February 24] (Jens 300) participating departments receive reports on compiled extermination actions and outline organizational matters for extermination of Jewry

(Niewyk xiii)


February                     Beginning of French Jews ordered to wear yellow-star arm bands and badges. [Dawidowicz 362] See Mar 28

Belgium Jews in Antwerp used for forced-labor brigades for

Organisation Todt. [Dawidowicz 364]  See June 6

Belzec Becomes Operational For Killing [Dawidowicz 135].


19        — FDR signs Executive Order 9066. 125,000 Japanese-Americans,

Thursday   of whom are U.S. citizens are forced to leave their home and busineses in the west coast of the U.S. and sent to places the New York Times calls “concentration camps”. [N.Y. Times]  See March


Spring              Locally stationed Security Police and SD units take over job of exterminating the Jews in USSR [Klee 308].

March                         Solibor Death Camp Construction Begins [Dawidowicz 135]. Mar-July            — Extermination begin at “Operation Reinhard” camps: Belzec,

Sobibor, and Treblinka [Niewyk xiii].


Mar-Aug                      — Deportation in earnest of Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz

[75 percent, some 58,000 deported during this time].


Early March                — Belzic extermination camp completed as of “Aktion Reinhard” [‘Final Solution of Jewish Question’ in Genera-Gouvernement]. The two further extermination camps envisaged by “Aktion Reinhard” are Sobibor and Treblinka. The Jewish victims are killed at the camps

in gas-chambers with engine-exhaust fumes [carbon monoxide].

The manpower deployed for “Aktion Reinhard” consists for the most


part of ‘“experienced” personnel who had worked on Aktion T4 with mobile killing units using engine exhaust (Klee 309). See March 17
Miklos Kallay heads Hungarian government and begins torestrict anti-Jewish legislation by end of year he rejects German demands to introduce yellow badges for Jews to deport them to Poland. See Mar 19’44


Beginning of Norwegian Jewish passports and national identity
Sunday card marked “Jew”. Fugelsand, Chief of the Norwegian State
Secretariat is charged with “racial department” and anti-Jewishorders to begin rounding up Jews. See June– Norway: Passports and national identity cards must be marked “Jew”. “Racial Department” established to administer anti-Jewish decrees. [Dawidowicz 372] See Oct 23


Vatican’s diplomats confirm NAZI’s Holocaust policy against.
Monday Jews Slovakian Papal Charge d’Affairs, Msgr. Burzio informs Vatican
of proposed deportation of 80,000 Jews to their deaths. Similarreports are sent by Nuncios  in Budapest and Berne at the instigation of Jewish sources calling for Papal intervention. [Niewyk 228] See Mar 14
14 – Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Maglione firmly expresses to
Saturday Slovakian Minister his hopes that plans to deport Jewish citizens

into Germany hands will not occur. See Mar 24


17        — Beginning of “Aktion Reinhard” extermination programme.

Tuesday      Jews from Lublin are deported to Belzec, Poland concentration camp starts (Klee 309). See May 4


24        — Cardinal Maglione makes a second appeal without success.

Tuesday  Msgr. Burzio directly protests to President Father Jozef Tiso “making appeal to his sentiments as a priest.” Appeals utterly fail. See 1943


26        — Roman Catholic priest, Father Jozef Tiso Orders Deportations

Thursday   of Jews to Poland, beginning with the arrest and transport of 16- year-old girls to Auschwitz. See July

Tiso government paid the NAZIs 500 RM for each Jew deported to Poland.

Deportation of Jews are arranged by Jewish affairs Gestapo, Dieter Wisliceny assigned to German embassy at Bratislava.


28        — First Deportation of French Jews from Drancy for Auschwitz.

Saturday     [Dawidowicz 362] See July 1


April                29        — Netherlands: introduction of yellow Star of David must be

Wednesday  worn; occupation restrictions and curfew introduced. [Dawidowicz 368]                                    See July-Sept. 1943


May                  4         — Beginning of mass gassings at Auschwitz, Poland (Niewyk xiv).

Monday    See Early May

Summer            Clear evidence of systematic murder of Jews reaches the West.

Two million Jews have already been massacred and killing is accelerated. The West will do nothing except for symbolic action until end of the war.  See June


Early May                    — “The Leaflets of the White Rose (Weisse Rose)” secret anti-Nazi movement established with three members in Munich write and distribute first leaflets. They refuse to be silent in face of the unparalled oppression and inhumanity in a nation otherwise gone mute. [Scholl] First Leaflets of the White Rose call for “every individual, conscious of his responsibility as a member of Christian and Western civilization . . . [to] defend himself as best he can at this late hour . . . [to] work against the scourges of mankind, against fascism and any similar system of totalitarianism. Offer passive resistance — resistance . . .” [ Jens 201]  See June

Mass gassing begin at Sobibor, Poland extermination camp

(Klee 309).       See Early May – Early July


End May – Early July — Construction work on Treblinka extermination camp begins

(Klee 309)


June London’s Daily Telegram first to report: 700,000 JEWS GASSED!“The WHITE ROSE WILL NOT LEAVE YOU IN PEACE.” Second issue of of four leaflets printed and distributed anonymously between May thru July in Munich by non-violent student resistance group (Vinke 113). This summer the students begin to learn of German atrocities in Poland, and subsequent leaflets publish the information that since Poland’s conquest, 300,000 Jews had been murdered there. [Jens 201; Niewyk 229]                                See Jan, 1943– Bribery For Lives. Rabbi Michael Dov-Ber Weissmandel [a young anti-Zionist, orthodox religious zealot] and Gizi Fleischmann [a Zionist-secularist woman, relative to the rabbi] leaders of the
Slovakian JDC [Joint Distribution Committee] approach Gestapo
Dieter Wisliceny through Karl Hochberg, a Jewish traitor in June tobribe Wisliceny with $50,000 in foreign currency to cease deportations for seven weeks. Bribe is partially effective. See Sept ‘42– Beginning of NAZI planned expulsion, and emigration by ransom. [Niewyk 229]

Norwegian Jewish owned businesses placed under the control

of commissioners. See Sept-Oct

Bulgaria proposes to “solve the Jewish question” by expelling all

Jews and confiscating their property. See Aug 28

6 Belgium Jews forced to wear Star of David arm bands.
Saturday [Dawidowicz 362]     See July-Sept 1942


July-Sept 1942            — 300,000 Polish Jews are deported from Warsaw to death camp at

Treblinka. [Dawidowicz 397]  See July


July-Sept 1943            — Deportations begin for Dutch Jews to concentration transit camps Westerbrook and Vught for final destination of Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz  362]     See Sept. 29 ’43


July Start of deportations of Dutch and French Jews to Auschwitz& Warsaw Jews to Treblinka, Poland(Niewyk xiv).  See July 22– Vatican protests deportations of Jews. Deportations in Slovakia are curtailed for a short period. See Sept-Oct

— Germans appoint Saby Saltiel as President of Jews in Greece. Jews are evicted from homes, arrested, humiliated and taken as

hostages.  NAZI Directive order Jews to forced labor battalions
(approximately 10,000). Further edicts confiscate all Jewishproperty. [Dawidowicz 393]  See Feb 1943
2 France: Vichy Council of Ministers decide, with Petaino
Thursday approval to make a distinction between French and foreign Jews.
[Dawidowicz 362]         See July 16-17
16-17 Paris, non-French Jews, including women and children rounded
ThuFri up. One week later all are sent to Auschwitz. Those without
families are transported to Drancy immediately. After the war of21,884 sent, 30 adults return, no children survive. [Dawidowicz 362] See Nov. 11


22        — Start of deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Belzec and

Monday  Treblinka.[Klee 309] See July 23




Mass gassing begins in Treblinka extermination camp [Klee309]. See Jan 18 ’43
August 15,000 Jews interned in French camps turned over to NAZIs for deportation. [Dawidowicz 362] See Oct– Croatian, Bosnian and Herzegovinian Jews (approximately

9,000) are deported to Auschwitz. See Sept


1        — Dr. Gerhart Reigner, a German Jew, is Representative of World

Saturday    Jewish Congress informed of Hitler’s plan to exterminate Jewry with prussic acid, the lethal ingredient Zykon B gas . . . he is not believed. [Morse 9-13] See Sept.


28        — Bulgarian government establishes Commissariat of Jewish

Friday      Affairs and begins process of surrending to German jurisdiction Bulgarian Jewish citizens and those residing in German-occupied countries.            See Feb ’43


Sept-Oct                      — Three transports of Slovakian Jews continue to Auschwitz for extermination. Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Maglione intervenes and partly through bribery and promises of financial profit by Jewish leaders used to negotiate directly with SS-

Hauptsturmfuhrer Dieter Wisliceny. Outcome: deportations stop until

1944 Slovak rebellion when 13,500 Jews are then deported. See 1943


September                  German occupation of Italy begins. [Dawidowicz 370] See Oct

Start of mass gassings at Maidanek (Niewyk xiv).

— Extensive Norwegian roundups of Jews destined to be interned in labor camps in northern Norway. [Dawidowicz 371-372] See Oct 3

Finland forced to be allied with Germany against Russian invasion. Himmler visits Helsinki, attempts to induce Foreign Minister Rolf Witting to deport Finland’s 2,000 Jews, but refuses to give matter any consideration.

Roosevelt Administration refuses to believe Stephen Wise’s report, “The corpses of the murdered victims used for the manufacture of soap and artificial fertilizer. Please do best to arouse American intervention.” [Feingold 170]            See Nov


October                       — Italy: First NAZI action against Jews…begin round ups

[Dawidowicz 370]. See Oct. 1


7        — U.S. newspapers page one stories praise FDR for establishing

Wednesday  War Crime Commission” [Morse 28]. FDR is ineffective to meaningfully address the “Jewish Question” issue . . . instead he uses symbolism while millions die! The moral leader of the Western World is bankrupt of leadership. See Spring 1943


23        — Norway: Jews are Hunted for the assassination of a Quisling

Friday      frontier guard by two Jews, which served as a flimsy pretext to persecute Jews. [Dawidowicz 372] See Nov


November                   One boat load of Norwegian Jews sent from Oslo to Stettin then to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 372] See Feb’43

– Palestinian Jewish citizens repatriated from Europe inform Jewish Agency leaders of Jewish Holocaust. Jewish leaders are unwilling to accept the written evidence gathered by experienced observers, but were ready to believe the accounts delivered by chance arrivals in face-to-face meetings.

NAZIs Systematic Extermination of European Jewry is Finally

Made Public. [Niewyk 216]

President Roosevelt receives authenticated intelligence of

NAZI atrocities. [Niewyk 216]

Roosevelt Refuses To Act For Fourteen Months (!) (until March

1944), then acts only because of political pressure of a possible public scandal over symbolic administration rescue policies. [Niewyk 216)         See March 28,’43


December       11        — After NAZIs occupy all of France they begin deportations of

Friday      Jews in territories and Italy [Dawidowicz 362] See Aug. 24,’44


16        — Gypsies rounded up and sent to Auschwitz for extermination.

Wednesday    (Niewyk xiv)





Vatican protests deportations of Jews. Deportations stopped for a short period. See April’44 & June 25,’44


January                      — Leaflets Of The White Rose: “A CALL TO ALL GERMANS!” states, Hitler could not win the war, that it was “leading the German people  into the abyss . . . The guilt of Hitler and his minions exceeds all bounds. Retribution comes closer and closer. But what are the

German people doing? They will not see and will not listen. Blindly they follow their seducers into ruin . . .”   (Jens 265) See Jan 13


13        — “Don’t Go to University, Give the Fuhrer a Child! . . . [for the

Tuesday    least pretty girls, NAZI leader Paul Giesler promised to assign each one to one of his adjutants] and I can promise each one a thoroughly enjoyable experience . . .” So were the words on the

470th anniversary of Munich University, at an assembly in the German Museum. Furious at this insult, some women students stood up and angrily rushed the exit only to be arrested by the SS .

Within minutes the men exploded in fury against the NAZIs, some of the protesters were from Die Weisse Rose. The women were later released.  First open rebellion of students at Munich University. The NAZI terrorists became more and more anxious. [Vinke144-145]

See Feb 3


18        — First resistance against the deportations in the Warsaw, Poland

Monday    ghetto [Klee 309]. See Oct 3


Spring              Sonderkommando ‘1005’ starts its activities in the East. The bodies of murdered Jews are dug up and burned. The mass graves are filled in and leveled off (Klee 309).

U.S. State Department refuses to apply pressure on Axis satellites to release Jews as condition of Axis surrender during negotiations [Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungry and Slovakia].

See Mar 28’43

February                     Second boatload of Norwegian Jews from internment camps

deported to Auschwitz and in smaller numbers to Germany. Only 23

Jews survive the deportation. Some 900 Jews, or half the Jewish population evaded arrest and internment with the help of the Norwegian resistance movement they fled over the border to Sweden. Norway became emptied of Jews. [Dawidowicz 372]

See Sept 1

Oral agreements reached between SS-Obersturmfuhrer Theodore Dannecker and Alexander Belev, an attorney who writes plan for “final solution”, now head of Bulgaria conspire to deport 20,000

Jews.  See Mar 2

Dieter Wisliceny, Eichmann’s SS Deputy arrives at Salonika, Greece starts the process for deportations to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 393]     See March 15


3        —  NAZIs Defeated At Stalingrad! Out of 420,000 German troops,

Wednesday  90,000 remained. After enormous casualties, germans surrendered

(Jens 274). See Feb 16

Slogans Appear at Munich University: “DOWN WITH HITLER!”, “LONG LIVE FREEDOM!”, “FREEDOM” are found painted on Munich University buildings. [Vinke 167]

— “White Rose” Responds. Christl Probst writes the final draft

leaflet for distribution of the White Rose. It will cost him his life. (Jens 322; Vinke 156). See Feb 4

—  Belev telegraphs all representatives of the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs to draw up lists of Jews in their areas by: sex, age, occupations and addresses.  See Oct 3

4        — “FREEDOM” and “DOWN WITH HITLER” — are painted with tar

Thursday   paint on the walls of Munich’s university quarter by White Rose leafleteers Alexander Schmorell and Hans Scholl in the early morning hours. [Jens 275; Vinke 149] See Feb 16



Tuesday    MEN and WOMEN!] The White Rose leaflet began: “Shaken and broken, our people behold the loss of the men of Stalingrad. Three hundred and thirty thousand German men have been senselessly and irresponsibly driven to death and destruction by the inspired strategy of our World War I Private First Class. Fuhrer, we thank you! . . . “We have grown up in a state where all free expression has been ruthlessly gagged. In the most fertile, young years of our lives Hitler Youth, SA, and SS have endeavored to standardize, condition, and anesthetize us. ‘Philosophical education’ they called their contemptible method of suffocating nascent free thought in a fog of empty phrases. An inconceivably diabolic and at the same time narrow-minded leader-selection program trains future party leaders to become godless, shameless, unscrupulous exploiters and killers, blindly and stupidly following their Fuhrer! . . .

“Freedom and Honor! For ten long years Hitler and his lackies have drained, vulvarized, and distorted those two glorious German worlds ad nauseam, the way only amateurs can when they cast the highest values of a nation before swine. For ten long years, destroying all material and spiritual freedom and all the moral substance of the German nation, they have blatantly shown how little freedom and honor mean to them. The German name will remain disgraced forever unless German youth arise[s] and, avenging and atoning at the same time, smashes its tormentors and build a new spiritual Europe. . .

“Students! The German nation is watching us! . . . Bravely on, students! The beacons are aflame! Our nation sounds the march against Nationa Socialism’s enslavement of Europe. There will be newly impassioned faith in freedom and honor.!” [Jens 277; Venke 155-156]

Anti-NAZI Riots at Universitat of Munchen, Germany break out. Hans And Sophie Scholl leave substancial numbers of final

White Rose leaflets outside the doors of the various institutes, on the stairs, or in cloakrooms of Munich University.  See Feb 18


18        — White Rose members spotted by a janitor, who witnesses Sophie

Thursday   and Hans flinging a few copies of the handbills down the balustrade of the atrium into the court yard below. They are captured by a janitor, Jakob Schmid and handed over to the Gestapo. They are arrested for treason. [Jens 277, 278 & 280; Scholl; Vinke 160, 162] See Feb 22


22        — Bulgaria-German agreement is signed by Belev and Dannecker,

Monday     preparations for deportation is set in motion. See Mar 2

Three Members of Die Weisse Rose Student Restance Movement in Munich tried in “People’s Court” and Executed by Guillotine! (Vinke 185, 188). Hans, 24 and Sophie Scholl, 21 and Christl Probst, 23 are executed. [Jens 280-281] See Feb 23

Sophie Scholl was the first to die. The Warden of dreaded Stadel-

heim Prison reports that, “She went without batting an eyelash. None

of us could understand how such a thing was possible. The executioner said he had never seen anyone die like that!”  [Vinke 188]

Hans Scholl’s last words before placing his head on the block of

the guillotine were, “LONG LIVE FREEDOM!” were heard reverberating  through the large prison courtyard. [Jens 280-281; Vinke 185, 188]

– Christl Probst drafter of the last leaflet of the Die Weisse Rose is baptised into the Roman Catholic church on the verge of his death by guillotine. [Jens 322] He is reported as saying by the warden, “I did not know that dying was so easy, in a few moments we meet again in eternity.”  [Jens 322; Vinke 188] See Feb 23


23        — “Death Sentences for Conspiracy to Commit High Treason”,

Tuesday  declares the newspaper Munchener Neueste Nachrichten which carried the death notices. [Vinke 188-189]

– 80 Die Weisse Rose members arrested and sentenced in

Munich and other southern and western German cities.

[Vinke 189]      See Apr 19


March                         Polish-Jewish ghetto at Krakow is liquidated by SS.


2         — Bulgarian-German anti-Jewish deportation written agreement

Tuesday                       confirmed by cabinet. Result: Thracian and Macedonian Jews are rounded, and instructions issued to prepare for deportation of Jews from Bulgaria. A total of 11,384 Jews are sent to Treblinka and other death camps. See May


15        — Start of deportations of Greek Jews to Auschwitz (Niewyk xiv).


28        — Congressman Cellar and a committee of Jewish congressmen

Sunday     meet with Roosevelt “off the record” to lodge a strong protest against Brenkinridge and the State Department for the continued sabotage of rescue efforts made to save Jewry. Roosevelt refers the congressmen to Brenkinridge Long and the State Department. Roosevelt remain passive on the Jewish issue.      See Nov


April                 5         — Dietrich Bonhoeffer arrested for disloyalty and incarcerated in

Monday            the Tegel military prison in Berlin. See April 9, 1945


7         — Chelmno, Poland extermination camp discontinues activities.

Wednesday    The traces of the extermination are eliminated (Klee 309).

See April 19-May 16


Early April           — Warsaw Ghetto groups dispatched with urgent appeals for help to London, New York and Jerusalem with the message, “Storm heaven and earth for help!” HELP NEVER COMES! The failure to comprehend the horror about to descend upon the ghetto. [Dawidowicz 336]


19        — On Hitler’s 54th birthday Warsaw ghetto in Poland is

Monday    attached by SS. Against 3 to 1 odds; 750 Jewish fighters resist extermination by 2,000 crack SS troops under the command of General Jurgen Stroop (See Oct 3).  [Bauer 262; Klee 309; Stroop]

—  “ A few good young men and women” Almost every fighter had a revolver, and there were possibly two or three light machine guns, a number of hand grenades, and fourteen rifles; whereas, the German SS was heavily equip with arms of every type, including artillery and tanks. [Bauer 262] See May 16

Die Weisse Rose members sentenced! Professor Kurt Huber, Willi Graf, and Alexander Schmorell sentenced to death and executed a few months later. Eugen Grimminger to life in prison, Traute Lafrenz, Katharina Schuddekopt, Gisela Scherting, and Susanne Hirzel each sentenced to ten years in prison. Hans Hirzel to five years. [Vinke 189]                              See July 13


April 19-May 16        — “WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING”. This incident was the only

Mon-Sun               resistance by victims to the ensuing genocide that cost as many as

15 million lives of Jews and Gentiles. There was little resistance by victims to the ensuing genocide that cost as many as 15 million lives. The victims had been deprived of the means for effective resistance by the earlier gun control statues (Klee 309; Niewyk xiv; Smith, Jay). This is the result, of the naive who think their government will protect them from tyranny. The nature of government is at best, “is a tiger which must be watched every moment with a whip and gun.” See May 16



May Berlin declared: “Juden rein”, free of Jews.– Kallay, head of Hungarian government, in a public speech,
rejects NAZI demands for “resettlement” of the Jews as a “final





solution,” so long as Germans are unable to satisfy questions ofwhere Jews are to be settled.– King Boris of Bulgaria orders resettlement of Sofia Jews in provincial towns, despite protests from Jews and Bulgarians.

See Sept

SS is triumphant in burning down the entire Warsaw ghetto

Sunday thereby exterminating its inhabitants. Of the 750 Jewish fighters
only 100 escaped capture and survived to fight with “the resistance.”The size of the ghetto was 300 X 1000 yards approximately. See Aug
June Himmler orders liquidation of Polish and Russian ghettos. Lwow ghetto    liquidated (Niewyk xiv). See Aug 2
July 13 Third Trial of Die Weisse Rose Members! “People’s Court” tries
Tuesday and sentenced Josef Soehngen, Wilhelm Geyer, and Manfred
Eickemeyer are given three months. [Vinke 189]– Die Weisse Rose Crushed! Hamburg branch is discovered also.50 people are discovered, arrested; eight received death sentences. [Vinke 189]

Die Wiesse Rose was comprised of 130 or more, primarily young adults, out of a German population of millions, they were a flickering brilliant light of HOPE for a few months, yet Die Weisse Rose has glowed HOPE for countless of people desiring to remain and be free, to this very day! “You are the light of the world” . . . “You are a city on a hill!” said Jesus the Messiah. Jesus’ followers are that light of Hope and Freedom may we never forget, nor stop shining His light! That light can never be hidden or tyranny will follow.                                                 See 1934 & 1935


August Goebbels declares Berlin: “Juden rein”, free of Jews!Germans to liquidate the surviving remnants of slave labor ghettos in USSR beginning with Bialystok. See Nov
Lodz, Polish ghetto, last and longest 70,000 Jewish forced-labor workers deported to killing camps. 50,000-70,000 Polish Jews survived, 1 million have been murdered. [Bauer 302] See Aug
2 Uprising of prisoners in Treblinka, Poland extermination camp
Monday [Klee 309; Niewyk xiv]. See Oct 14
29 Denmark: NAZIs institute military rule, takes King prisoner and
Sunday disarms symbolic Danish army. [Bauer 294] See Sept 28


September                  Russian ghettos of Minsk, Lida, and Vilna are liquidated by

NAZIs.              See November & July 1944

7,500 Danish Jews rescued (Niewyk xiv) See Sept 28

Bulgarian Jews must wear yellow Star of David; orders expulsion from cities for unemployed Jews, confiscate Jewish property and sent to special quarters in Sofia. See Aug ‘44

Croatian, Bosnian and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia) Jews was deported on a constant basis through 1944, even those who have taken refuge in the Italian zone are sent to Auschwitz. Jewish losses  for all of Yugoslavia estimated at 60,000.


1        — 13th Fuehrer Order Supplementing Reich Citizenship Law of

Wednesday  September 16, 1935 denies protection of the courts for Jews and are to be surrendered to the Gestapo.


23        Norwegian “Quisling” frontier guard is assassinated. Killers (2)

Thursday     identified as Jews. Quisling order under the assassination pretext to confiscate all Jewish property owned in Norway. As the result of the murder half the Jewish population are taken as hostages and erned or imprisoned.


28        — Danish Social Democratic leaders receive intelligence that under

Tuesday    martial law SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Karl Werner Best [acting as Reich Plenpotentiary] plans to roundup Jews remaining not already deported to Theresienstadt will use German shipping industry to transport them to concentration camps.[Dawidowicz 373] See Oct 1


29        — Last major roundup of about 5,000 Dutch Jews, including

Wednesday    heads of Joodsche Raad deported to Westerbrook. Only diamond workers and Jewish partners in mixed marriages. Most of these were deported in early 1944. [Dawidowicz 368]

110,000 Dutch Jews deported to Auschetz-Sobibor, and in small numbers, to other camps. About 5,000 survived the death camps. Seventy-five percent of Dutch Jewry perished. [Dawidowicz 368]


October                       —  NAZI occupied Italy roundup 1,000 of 8,000 Roman Jews for deportation to Auschwitz. [Dawidowicz 370-371]                                See Nov. 23

1        — NAZIs attempt to roundup and deport Danish Jews not already

Friday      at Theresienstadt, but in an extraordinary operation involving the whole of Denmark and by agreement with the Swedish government, all the remaining 7,000 Jews were hidden and remain safe until the end of the war. [Dawidowicz 373]

3        — SS General Jurgen Stroop, Athens, orders anti-Jewish decrees:

Sunday  defining Jews and ordering registration within five days; if Jews do not register they are shot dead on sight. Anyone providing shelter to Jews are to be shot without trial. [Dawidowicz 374] See Nov 19


14        — Uprising of prisoners in Sobibor extermination camp (Klee 310;

Thursday   Niewyk xiv). See Oct 19


19        — Lublin SS und Polizeifuhrer, Globocnik, announces the “Aktion

Tuesday      Reinhard” declared complete (Niewyk xiv) and dissolution of the camps Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Maidanek cease functioning (Klee 310).

— Most SS personnel involved in “Aktion Reinhard” are transferred to the Adriatic coastal operation zone to fight the partisans, select, and deport the Jews in that area (rapid deployment forces).





November                   Russian ghetto of Riga is liquidated by NAZIs. See July 1944.

Breckinridge Long testifies to U.S. Congressional House Foreign Affairs Committee reason State Department is issuing few visas. “In December 1941 most neutral shipping disappeared from the seas. . . There just is not any transportation.” In reality, ample shipping existed.                     See Mar 31’44


23       — Italian NAZI puppet regime issue police order to roundup all

Thursday Jews to be sent to concentration camps and to confiscate all Jewish property for the state. Jews flee into hiding. Police manage to hunt down 7,000 Jews and are sent to assembly centers Folloli di Carpi (near Modena) and Bolzano for final destination of Auschwitz and Birkenau. Many Jews were jailed in Italian prisons like San Vittorio in Milan where torture and murder were common. About 8,000

Italian Jews were murdered. [Dawidowicz 370-371]


December       15        — Bonhoeffer Writes From Tegel Prison, “Sometimes I think I

Wednesday     really have life more or less behind me now and that what remains for me to do would be to finish my Ethics”, (a book which he partially completed)      [Bonhoeffer: Ethics 10]





U.S. War Department rejects numerous appeals to bomb railroads leading to Auschwitz and its gas chambers [Gilbert 580; Niewyk 217]. See Spring

U.S. Supreme Court concedes that Japanese deportations are legal [Korematsu v. United States].

Early in 1944 NAZIs round up Greek Jews from Athens, islands of Corfu, Crete, Rhodes, and etc. 60,000 Greek Jews are murdered, most by deportation to Auschwitz.


March             19        — Germany’s seizure of power in Hungary and installation of

Sunday Arrow Cross Chief Szalsi, leads to immediate steps of listing, segregation, and deportation of the largest surviving group of Jews in central Europe, approximately 750,000. Adolf Eichmann himself arrives in Budapest with a contingent of SS officers to take over Jewish affairs. See March 20


20        — Eichmann demands that Hungarian Jewish leaders establish

Monday    “Judenrat” to carry out NAZI orders by noon. See March 21


21        — By 5 PM, Hungarian Jewish leaders [Judenrat] in Budapest

Tuesday    must prepare list of all Jewish organizations and agencies with names of their leaders for approval of IV.B.4. section of the Gestapo by 5 PM [Gabor 19]. See March 22


22        — Eichmann appoints Dome Szalsi, Prime Minister of Hungary.

Wednesday              See March 29


29        — New Hungarian laws virtually eliminate Jews from professions;

Wednesday  order registration of all property and establishes procedures for instant deportation. Eichmann divides Hungary into 6 zones and

systematically deports Jews zone by zone. See March 31


31        — Hungarian orders all Jews to identify themselves and register with

Friday      government by April 5.  See Apr 15


Spring              Roosevelt personally informs Robert Pehle, Vice Director of IGC [Intergovernmental Committee on Political Refugees], that Navy could bring refugees to U.S. on returning troopships. War Shipping Administration could use Liberty ships because they need ballast. While State Department claimed transportation for refugees unavailable. IGC is planned by Roosevelt to become the “International Refugee Organization” of the United Nations after the war.           See Aug 21’44


April                            Hungarian Catholic Bishops, led by Cardinal Primate, Seredi, were conservative nationalist who were skeptical of the Vatican’s Nuncio, Msgr. Rotta intervention with mitigation’s of degrees passed against the Jews by the Hungarian new Fascist government under Dome Szalsi.

— Hungarians change only certain modifications of deportation in favor of  baptized Jews the rest of the 750,000 Jews are to be deported for extermination to Auschwitz, Poland. See Apr 5 & June 25


5         — Deadline for Jews to be identified, must wear yellow Star of David,

Wednesday     school closed in Hungary due to heavy bombing [Gabor 19].

See Apr. 7


7        — Hungarian Regal government decree No.6163/1944, deportation

Friday    of Jews to concentration camps [Gabor 68].     See Apr. 23


23        — Hungarian Jews weekly and daily food rationed by decree of

Sunday            government [Gabor 22]. See Apr 25


25        — Adolf Eichmann orders Joel Brand, Zionist Va’adah from

Tuesday    Budapest to appear before him. He offers to release 1 Million Jews (i.e., not only Jews in Hungry) in return for war material and other goods. In subsequent meetings ransom is specific: 10,000 trucks and quantities of tea, coffee, sugar, and soap. Negotiations are to be through Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Western Allies, plan fails.  See May 19.


27        — Start of deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz

Thursday  [Niewyk xiv].  See May 1


May                   1        — Hungarian government decrees food rations are cut in half for

Monday    Jews: Weekly – 10 oz. cooking oil, 3 oz. beef or horse meat. Daily –

8 oz. milk for infants and pregnant women (Gabor 22). See May 14


14        — Hungarian Jewish deportations to Auschwitz begin.

Sunday See May 16


16        — “Hungarian Action” starts in Auschwitz concentration camp (by

Tuesday    July 8, 1944, 476,000 Hungarian Jews have been deported) [Klee 310].     See June 5


19        — Joel Brand and Andor (Bandi) Grosz, a quadruple Jewish agent

Friday      [German military secret-service (the Abwehr), Hungarian counter- espionage, American OSS and British Intelligence Service] arrive in Istanbul, Turkey.

— Jewish Agency for Palestine barred from entering Turkey. Negotiation plan fails.  See June 1


June                  1        — Bandi Grosz is only effective German contact with Western

Thursday   intelligence agencies who is to negotiate with Joel Brand will defect to British in Istanbul. See June 6


5        — Hungarians Jews can shop between 11am-1pm as decreed.

Monday  [Gabor 27] See June 6


6        —Normandy Invassion of France: D-Day. Allies land with

Tuesday  155,000 Troops on first day! [+ Gilbert 354]

Himmler continues to make efforts to negotiate with West for ransoming of Jews.Joel Brand negotiation mission fails, can not return to Hungry because he would be killed, defects to British in Istanbul.


7        — Hungarian zones I and II cleared of nearly 290,000 Jews deported

Wednesday     to Auschwitz, Poland for extermination. See June 30.


25        — Pontiff personally speaks out. Sends an open telegram to the

Sunday      Hungarian Regent, Admiral Horthy, calling for an end to the sufferings of the Jews, and on the same day demanded a public


intervention by the Bishops on behalf of Christian principles for those “urgently afflicted by the racial regulations.”
30 Hungarian zone III and IV cleared of approximately 92,000
Friday Jews, all deported to Auschwitz for extermination. See July 7-8.
June – Aug 


Chelmno, Poland concentration camp resumes activities (more than 7,000 Jewish victims) [Klee 310]. See July-Dec– Last of Russian ghettos of Kovno and Shavli are liquidated by
NAZIs. Jewish losses are over 1 million, possibly as high as 1.3
million. In the Baltic Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia] about 90percent are murdered. In Russia proper losses are 100,000. In White Russia about 66 percent and in the Ukraine about 60 percent of all Jews are massacred.
7-8 Hungarian Jews numbering nearly 476,000, including 50,000
Fri-Sat from Budapest are cleared from zones V and VI deported to

Auschwitz for extermination. See July-Dec


July – Dec                    — Transports and Death Marches Evacuate Auschwitz

[Niewyk xiv]. See Aug



August                        Last Jewish ghetto, Lodz. . .Liquidated [Niewyk xiv]. See Aug 20


20        — Birkenau is passed up for bombing by Allies for “higher priority

Sunday    targets” in favor of synthetic oil refineries. [+ Gilbert 580; Lawliss 126]     See Jan 27’45

21        — WRB [War Refugee Board] agreed to negotiate [British refused]

Monday  with NAZIs intending to drag on discussion in hopes of saving lives until Allied victory comes. See August 22.

Bern, Switzerland. Saly Mayer, a Swiss citizen, represents JDC in Switzerland .  Roswell D. McClelland, State Department diplomat states the United States “cannot enter into or authorize ransom transactions of the nature indicated by German authorities. If it was felt that a meeting between Mayer and the German authorities

would result in gaining time, the WRB has no objections to such a meeting”. Mayer could not offer goods or money, nor could he speak in the name of the JDC.

22        — Zionist official, Joseph Liston delivers a plan of death camp at

Tuesday    Birkenau to British Foreign Office from Jerusalem. Plan had been compiled from reports of four escapees. See Nov 5

24        — After liberation of Paris, Drancy Internment camp is liberated.

Thursday   90,000 Jews were executed by Germans, mostly foreign-born. [Dawidowicz 363]

Bulgarian government abolishes Commissariat for Jewish Affairs at the negotiations with Ira Hirschmann of the United States War Refugee Board [WRD]. WRD negotiate to evacuate Jews to Palestine via Turkey. See Aug 29


25        — Himmler orders deportations from Budapest, Hungary stopped

Friday      as a “goodwill” token to maintain negotiations to save Jews — Allied air reconnaissance aircraft again fly over Auschwitz from base in Italy. Photos show Jews on the way from a train to a gas chamber and crematorium.


29         —  Bulgarian Cabinet Votes To Abolish All anti-Jewish Tuesday   Legislation; decree is published Monday, September 5, 1944 thereby saving 50,000 Bulgarian Jews. See Nov 5


Sept-May 6           — Allied Liberation beings in Netherlands. German begin policy of starvation and terrorism including bombing of Rotterdam and Amsterdam until liberated. [Dawidowicz 366-367]





Bonhoeffer is Transferred from Tegal to main Gestapo Prison inPrinz Albrechtstrasse in Berlin. He had refused to escape when
arrangements were made because it would endanger his family andfriends (Bonhoeffer 20 & 26-’63).See February 1945


Uprising of Jewish prisoners belonging to a Sonderkommando in
Saturday crematorium IV in Auschwitz-Birkenau. The prisoners blow up the


crematorium. The uprising is suppressed (Klee 310; Niewyk xiv).See Jan 18– 35,000 Hungarian Jews have been rounded up to be used for

Thursday slave laborers, because Auschwitz has been closed to new arrivals.

Railway transports unavailable because of war, Germans march off

27,000 Jews for 100 miles to Austria, Szalasi stops marches because of high death rate.


November        5         — Mayer, arranges meeting with NAZI Col. Kurt Becher and

Sunday  American diplomat McClelland in Zurich, demands that NAZIs halt all killings, release orphans, and agree to the intervention of the Red Cross to take over all “civilian: internment camps, Jewish and non-Jewish” (i.e., slave labor, concentration, and death camps). Negotiations succeed in saving more lives. See Jan 15


7        — FDR re-elected unprecedented 4th and final term of President.


8        — Death March of Approximately 40,000 Jews from Budapest,

Wednesday      Austria

27        — Himmler orders end of gassings [Niewyk xiv].



December       31        — Alger Hiss writes United Nations Charter [Bishop 213;

Sunday   Valerian 59].






– Cornelius Rhodes receives Legion of Merit for establishing chemical warfare labs in Maryland, Utah and Panama. Is appointed to experiments on unwitting prisoners, hospital patients and

soldiers [Valerian 59].

– Germany secret chemical weapon discovered in ammunition dump. British ship shell to Britain [Valerian 59].

United States: “Operation Paperclip”, imports 642 NAZI specialist in all technical areas until 1973, after an initial phase which will end in 1952. Germans involved in mind- control research in concentration camps are also are immigrated through OSS (Office

of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA under Dulles) [Bower; Hunt; Lasby; Valerian 59].

– Americans establish Concentration Death Camps for German “Prisoners of War” in post-war Germany. Records reveal death rate is 33 percent [Valerian 59]!

Eisenhower redesignates the German POWs (protected by Geneva Convention) to “disarmed enemy forces” (without protected status) [Valerian 59].

Interpol reorganized, new headquarters will be in Paris, France

[Valerian 59].

The “doctors” trial will begin in Nuremberg. It is disclosed during the trial, that many experiments done on concentration camp prisoners followed precedent-setting one done in the United States

on civilian population earlier in the decade [Valerian 59].


January          15        — Himmler desperately attempts to negotiate with American

Monday     government through JDC (Joint Distribution Committee, an American Jewish aid agency). Contrary to wishes of extreme SS faction, Ernst Kaltenbrunner head of the security services, Eichmann, and others — Himmler wanted to keep some Jews alive to serve as hostages.                     See Apr 11


18        — Evacuation of Auschwitz Concentration Camp begins

Thursday  [+ Gilbert 631; Klee 310].


27        — Auschwitz is Liberated by Soviet troops [Klee 310; Kiewyk xiv].


From Jan                     — Evacuation of most concentration camps to the ‘interior of the

Reich’. Innumerable exhausted prisoners die during transports

and at overcrowded reception centers or are shot at the roadside by

SS guards if they cannot march fast enough (Klee 310).


February                     Bonhoeffer transferred to Flossenburg from SS prison in Berlin, because of allied bombing destroys Gestapo prison (Bonhoeffer

21-’63)    See April 9

German SS High Command relocates scientific research/ testing centers west from Grossendorf to Sulzheim, where rocket studies are being done [Valerian 59]. See Apr 8


4-11     — FDR at Yalta Conference with Stalin and Churchill. Eastern

Sun-Sun           Europe handed over to Communists. Millions relocated at the Yalta Accord signed by FDR with Alger Hiss at his side and Averill Harriman, among others     [Bishop 297, 374; Valerian 59].


April                 2         — Hitler prophecies world’s eternal gratefulness for having

Monday    instigated the stamping out of the Jews.

15        — Belsen Concentration Camp Liberated by Allies! [Gilbert+ 672]


8         — Rocket studies resume at Sulzheim [Valerian 59].


9         — Dietrich Bonhoeffer Hanged Naked at Flossenburg

Monday    Concentration Camp by the Black Guard SS between 5 and 6 o’clock in the morning. Dr. Bonhoeffer was never tried for any crime. Execution specially ordered by Himmler himself. His last

recorded words at his farewell were, “O God, this is the end – – – for me, the beginning of life.”  [Bonhoeffer 20, 21, 32-‘63]. See 1934;

1935; Early May 1942

Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s most influential works: Cost of Discipleship (1937; trans. 1949), Life Together (1939; trans. 1954), and the posthumously edited Letters And Papers From Prison (1951; trans 1953). Dr. Bonhoeffer was motivated on the importance of ecumenism, his work towards world peace and a tenacious challenge to make the “Gospel” and “Christian” community relevant in a modern world.

Bonhoeffer, a Christian anti-Semite? Despite his consistent

and heroic opposition to Nazism, there is no evidence that he repudiated the concept of a ‘divine curse’ over the centuries on the Jewish people. As an example, he wrote in 1933, “The church has never lost sight of the thought that the ‘chosen people’ . . . must            bear the curse for its action through a long history of suffering . . .” (Fletcher 25)


11        — Buchenwald is first concentration camp in Germany to be

Wednesday  liberated by the Allies [Niewyk xiv].


12        — Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States dies

Thursday  at 3:35 P.M.[Bishop 540] “ . . . deceased by reason of a massive cerebral hemorrhage.” [Bishop 548]


23        — Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s brother Klau and Albiecht Haushofer

Wednesday  executed as conspirators against Hitler and the Reich. [+Gilbert 672]


29        — Dachu Liberated! 2539 Jews among 33,000 survivors. Of these

Tuesday    survivors, 2466 die within the next month and half! [+Gilbert 678]


30        — Hitler commits suicide at 3:30 PM – Berlin Bunker by single

Wednesday      shot through mouth.  [+Gilbert 681]


May                  7         — NAZI unconditional capitulation of Germany [Niewyk xiv].

Monday    End of war in Europe [Klee 310; Niewyk xiv].




NOTE:                                                         1946






Winston Churchill Announces the Beginning of the Cold War. His announcement occurs during his speech at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. He speaks of the “Iron Curtain” of the Stalin’s Soviet Union.
June 42 Jewish Holocaust survivors who returned to Kielce, Poland to reclaim their property are killed by polish mob! “. . . the Polish government is trying to mend relations with Jews on the50th anniversary of the June Riots. President Aleksander Kwansniewaki met with leaders the World Jewish Congress to discuss returning property that once belonged to 3 million Polish Jews, most of

whom were murdered in Germany occupation.” [ National & International Religion Report.  Vo.10, No.5, p. 8. February 19, 1996]



Library Search


Topics                         Catalog Numbers          [Dewey / Library of Congress]


Anti-Semitism                                                 305.892 /   DS 145

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945)                      940.5315 /  D 810


Anti-Nazi Movement – Germany

Concentration Camps Holocaust (Christian Theology) Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945)

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Addresses, essays, lectures Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Anniversaries, etc. Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Biography

Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Causes Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Censorship Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Dictionaries Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Drama Holocaust – Jewish (1939-1945) – Fiction Holocaust Survivors

Jews – Persecutions – History

O’swi’ecim (Concentration camps) Righteous Gentiles in the Holocaust

Weisse Rose (White Rose) [Resistence group] World War, 1939-1945 – Jews


Specific Sources (Note: most of these citations are available from your local, college and university libraries)


Books [catalogue No.]





Arendt, Hannah. The Origins Of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich,

1973.  [321.9 / JC 481.A6]

*Bratton, Fred Gladstone. The Crime Of Christendom: The Theological Sources Of Christian

Anti-Semitism. New York: Beacon Press, 1989. [261.2 / BM 535.B67]

Bulkin, Elly. Yours In Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives On Anti-Semitism And Racism.

New York: Haul Press, 1994c. [320.56 / DS 146.U6 B85]

Chaitkin, Anton. Treason In America. New York: New Benjamin Franklin House, 1984. [305.52 /]

Fleischner, Eva. Judaism In German Christian Theology Since 1945: Christianity And Israel Considered In Terms Of Mission. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press & The American Theological Library Assoc., 1972c, 1975. [261.2 / BM 535.F56]

“Eugenics,” Microsoft ® Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c)

1994 Funk &  Wagnalls Corporation.

*Flannery, Edward H. The Anguish Of The Jews: Twenty-three Centuries Of Anti-Semitism.

Mahwah: Paulist Press /Macmillan, 1965c, 1985 Rev Ed. [301.45209 / DS 145.F6] Glock, Charles Y.; Stark, Rodney. Christian Beliefs And Anti-Semitism. New York: Harper &

Row, 1966.       [261.2 / DS 145.G56]

*Grosser, Paul; E.; Halperin, Edwin G. Anti-Semitism: Causes And Effects. New York: Philosophical  Library, Inc., 1978c, Rev Ed. [305.8924 / DS 145.G763]

Isaac, Jules. Has Anti-Semitism Roots In Christianity? New York: National Conference of

Christians and Jews, 1961. [305.8924 / DS 145.I8]

                 . The Christian Roots Of Anti-Semitism. London: Council of Christians and Jews,

1960.  [305.8924 / DS 145.I73aE]

Kirsch, Paul J. We Christians And Jews.  Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975. [305.8924 / BM 535.K48]

Lapide, Pinchas. Three Popes And The Jews. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967. [261.2 / BM 535.L3]

Littel, Franklyn Harmlin. The Crucifixion Of The Jews. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. [201.8 /]

*Morse, Arthur D. While 6 Million Died: A Chronicle Of American Apathy. New York: Random

House, 1968c.  [940.531 / D 810]

*Parkes, James W. The Conflict Of The Church And The Synagogue: A study In The Origins

Of Anti-Semitism. Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1964. [305.8924 / DS 141.P36]

*              . The Jewish Problem In The Modern World. Oxford: Thornton Butterworth Ltd.,

1939.  [305.8924 / DS 141.P37]

*Poliakov, Leon. The Aryan Myth: A History Of Racist And Nationalist Ideas Of Europe. New

York: Basic Books, 1974. [ / GN 539.P7513]

*              . Harvest of Hate: The Nazi Program For The Destruction Of The Jews Of Europe.

New York: Holocaust Library – Schocken Books, 1979. [ / D810.J4P6148.I34]

                 . The History Of Anti-Semitism. New York: Vanguard Press, 1965. [301.451 / DS 145.P4613]

Roth, John K. A Consuming Fire: Encounters With Elie Wiesel And The Holocaust. Atlanta: John     Knox    Press, 1979c. [940.5315 / PQ 2683.I32.Z86]

Runes, Dagobert D. The Jew And The Cross. New York: Philosophical Library, 1965. [305.8924 / DS 145.R85]

Selznick, Gertrude Jaeger; Steinberg, Stephen. The Tenacity Of Prejudice: Ante-Semitism In

Contemporary America. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. [305.8924 . DS 146.U6.S4] Yascen, Leonard C. The Jesus Connection: To Triumph Over Anti-Semitism. New York:

Crossroads Books, 1985. [296.3872 /BM 620.Y37]





Bauer, Yehuda; Keren, Nili. A History Of The Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.B315823]

Bayles, William David. Seven Were Hanged: An Authentic Account Of The Student Revolt In

Munich University. London: V. Gollanez Ltd., 1945. [943.085 / DD 256.3 B] Block, Gay; Drucker, Malka. Rescuers: Portraits Of Moral Courage In The Holocaust. New

York: Holmes and Meier, 1992. [940.5318 / D 804.B57]

Blum, Howard. WANTED! The Search For Nazi In America.. New York: Quadrangle / The

New York Times Book Co., 1977. [364.1380924 / D 804.G4.B57]

*Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Ethics. New York: Collier Books, 1949c, 1986 paper Ed. [241 / BJ 1231.B7]

                 .Letters & Papers From Prison. New York: Colliers Books, 1953c, 1971 enlarged

Ed.       [284.086 / BX 4827.B641]

                 . The Cost Of Discipleship. New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1949c, 2nd ed. 1963. [248.4 / BT 380.B66]

“Bonhoeffer, Dietrich,” Microsoft ® Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright (c)   1994 Funk & Wagnalls.

Brietman, Richard. The Architect Of Genocide: Himmler And The Final Solution. New York: Random House, 1991. [943.086 / DD 247.H4.B74]

*Conway, J(ohn) S.  The Nazi Persecution Of The Churches 1933-1945. New York: Basic

Books, 1969. [ / BR 856.C6710]

*Davidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against The Jews 1930-1945. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1975. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.D33]

*Dumbach, Annette E.; Newborn, Jud.  Shattering The German Night: The Story Of The

White  Rose. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986. [943.086 / DD 256.3 D825]

*Ebenstein, William. The Nazi State. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1943. [943.086 / DD 253.E5]

Eisner, Jack. The Survivor. New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1980. [943.086 / D 810.J4.E385]

Epstein, Helen. Children Of The Holocaust: Conversation With Sons And Daughters Of

Survivors. New York: Putman, 1979. [940.531503924 /]

Epstein, Leslie. King Of The Jews. New York: McCann and Geoghegan, 1979. [ / PS3555.P655 K5]

*Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration And The Holocaust,

19381945. New York: Holocaust Library, 1970. [940.531 / D 810.J4.F38] Fleming, Gerald. Hitler And The Final Solution. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1984.

[940.5315 / D 810.J4]

Fogelman, Eva. Conscience And Courage: Rescuers Of Jews During The Holocaust. New

York: Anchor Book, 1994. [940.5318 / D 804.3.F64]

*Frank, Anne. Anne Frank: ”Diary Of A Young Girl”. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1955. [940.5481 / D 810.J4.F7813]

Friedman, Chaim Shlomo. Dare To Survive. New York: C.I.S. Publishers, 1992. [943.84 /] Gabor, Georgia M.  My Destiny: Survivor Of The Holocaust. Arcadia: Amen Pub. House, 1981.  [940.5315 / DS 135.H9]

*Frydland, Rachmiel. When Being Jewish Was A Crime. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc., Publishers, 1978. [940.531503924-B / DS 135.P63F783]

George, Amy. Good-bye Is Not Forever. Eugene: Harvest House, 1996. [ / ]

*Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz And The Allies. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981. [940.5316 / D 810.J4.G48]

*              . The Holocaust: A History Of The Jews Of Europe During The Second World War.

Holt,     Rinehart, and Winston, 1985. [940.5315 / D 810.J4.G522]

*              .  The Macillan Atlas Of The Holocaust. New York: Macmillan, 1982. [ / G 1797.21.E29.G48]

+              . The Second World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1989. [940.53 / D 743.G6334]

*Hallie, Philip P. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. [944.815 / DS 135.F85.L434]

Hanser, Richard. A Noble Treason: The Revolt Of The Munich Students Against Hitler.

New York: Putman, 1979. [943.086 / DD 256.3 H35]

Heck, Alfons. A Child Of Hitler: Germany In The Days When God Wore A Swastika.

Frederick: Renaissance House, Div. of Jende-Hagan, Inc., 1985. [943.086’092’4 / DD 247.H354.A34]

Hilberg, Raul; Staron, Stanislaw; Kermisz, Josef. The Warsaw Diary Of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude To Doom. New York: Stein & Day Pub., 1982. [943.84 / DS 35.P62.W2613]

Hoffman, Judy. Joseph And Me: In The Days Of The Holocaust. New York: National Conference of Christians and Jews – KTAR Publishing House, Inc., 1979. [940.531503924 / D 810.J4.H62]

*Hoffman, Peter. The History Of The German Resistence 1933-1945. Cambridge: MIT Press,  1977. [/]

Hohne, Heinz. The Order Of The Death’s Head; The Story Of Hitler’s SS. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. [940.5318 / DD 253.6.H613]

Gun, Nerin E. The Day Of The Americans. New York: Fleet Pub. Co., 1966. [940.547 / D 805.G3.G95]

*Jens, Ingle, ed.; Scholl, Hans; Scholl, Sophie. At The Heart Of The White Rose: Letters And

Diaries Of Hans And Sophie Scholl. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. [943.086’0922

/ DD 247.S375 A4]

Karski, Jan. Story Of A Secret State. Boston, Houghton Mifllin Co., 1944. [943.8 / D 802. P6K3]

Keneally, Philip P. Schindler’s List. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982c. [FIC-Ken / PR 9619.3.K4653]

Kern, Alice. Tapestry Of Hope; Survivor Of Auschwitz And Bergen-Belsen. Cathedral City, Limited Edition Books, 1988. [940.5315 / D 810.J4.K]

Kerstan, Reinhold. Blood And Honor. Illinois: David C. Cook Publishing Co., 1980c, Spl Ed

World  Wide.  [070.924 /DD 253.5.K37]

Klee, Ernst – ed.; Dressen, Willi; Riess, Volker. “The Good Old Days”: The Holocaust As

Seen By Its Perpetrators And Bystanders. New York, Free Press – Macmillan, Inc.,

1991.  [940.5318 / D804.3.S3613]

Kubar, Zofia S.  Double Identity: A Memoir. New York: Hill and Wang [Div. of Farrar, Strauss

& Giroux], 1988. [940.5315’0392404384 / DS 135.P62 W279]

Lawliss, Charles. “…and God Cried: The Holocaust Remembered”. North Dighton: JG Press

World  Publisher, 1994. [940.5318 / D 810.J4]

*Le Hallie, Philip Paul. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story Of The Village Of Le Chambon, And How Goodness Happened There. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. [944.815 /DS 135.F85.L434]

Levi, Alan. The Wiesenthal File. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1994. [940.5318092 / DS 135.A93.W534]

Levi, Primo. Moments Of Reprieve. New York: Summit Books, 1986.  [940.531 / PQ 4872.E8 Z4713]

                 .  Survival In Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault On Humanity. New York: Collier,

1959c, 1993. [940.5315 / D 804.G3 L48E]

                 . The Drowned And The Saved. New York: Summit Books, 1988. [940.5313 / D 810.J4 L453131]

Linder, Bert. Condemned Without Judgement: The Three Lives Of A Holocaust Survivor.

New York: S.P.I. Books, 1995. [940.5318092 / ]

Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying The Holocaust: The Growing Assault On Truth And Memory. New

York: Penguin Books, 1994. [940.5318 / D 804.35.L51]

Littel, Marcia Sacks – ed. Liturgies On The Holocaust. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press

(Anne Frank Institute of Philadelphia), 1986. [291.38 / D 810.J4L553]

*Lutzer, Erwin W. Hitler’s Cross. Chicago: Moody Press, 1995. [940.5482 /]

Marks, Jane. The Hidden Children: The Secret Survivors Of The Holocaust. New York: Ballatine Books, Fawcett Combine Books, 1933. [940.5315 / D 804.3.M368]

Mermelstein, Mel. By Bread Alone; The Story of A-4605: Survivor Of The NAZI Holocaust.

Huntington Beach: Auschwitz Study Foundation, 1979. [940.5472 / D 810.J4.M426]

*Niewyk, Donald L. ed. The Holocaust: Problems And Perspectives Of Interpretation.

Lexington: DC Heath & Co., 1992. [940.5315 / D 810.J]

*Office of Counsel for Prosecutions of Axis Criminality. Nazi Conspiracy And Aggression Opinion And Judgment / Office of United States Chief Of Counsel For Prosecution Of Axis Criminality. Washington DC: United States Printing Office Documents, 10 vols., 1947.   [940.54 / D 804.G42.A42)

Opdyke, Irene Gut & Elliot, Jeffrey M.  Into The Flames: The Story Of A Righteous Gentile.

San Bernardino: R. Reginald, The Bongo Press, 1992. [940.5318 / D 804.3063]

Rosenberg, David ed. Testimony; Contemporary Writers Make The Holocaust Personal.  New

York: TIME Books / Random House, 1989. [940.5318 / D 804.3 T47]

*Rothchild, Sylvia. Voices From The Holocaust. New York: Meridian Books, 1982. [940.5315’03924024 / D 810.J4 V63]

*Scholl, Inge. The White Rose: Munich, 1942-1943. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, distributed by New York: Harper & Row, 1983, 2ed. [943.086 / DD 256.3 S3362]

                 .  Six Against Tyranny.  London: Murray, 1955. [943.086 / DD 256.3 S] Senger, Valentin. No.12 Kaiserhof-strasse: The Story Of An Invisible Jew In Nazi Germany.

New York: E.P. Dutton, 1981. [943.41[B] / DS 135.G5S46713]

Shirer, William L. The Nightmare Years, 1930-1940. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., v.2, 1984. [070.924 /]

*Smith, Danny. Wallenberg: Lost Hero. Springfield: Templegate Publishing, 1987. [940.5315 / D 809.S8.W3276]

*Steenmeijer, Anna G. – ed.; Frank, Otto – collaborator (father of Anne Frank). A Tribute To

Anne Frank. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970. [090 / D 810.J4.S7413]

Stein, George H. The Waffen SS: Hitler’s Elite Guard At War 1939-1945. Ithaca: Cornell

University Press, 1966. [940.5318 / D 757.85.S8]

*Ten Boon, Corrie. The Hiding Place. Washington Depot: Chosen Books, 1971. [940.53 / D 811.5.T427]

Time-Life Books, The Apparatus of Death. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1991. [940.5318 /] Treece, Patricia. A Man For Others: Maximilian Kolbe Saint Of Auschwitz. Huntington: Our

Sunday Visitor. Inc., 1982. / Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., 1982. [940.5472 /

BX 4705.K625.T73]

Tsur, Muki; Yanai, Nathan – eds. The Holocaust. American Zionists Foundation, Inc. (Pamphet 138pp, no date and city)

*United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The History of the Holocaust As Told In The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1993c. [940.9315 / D 804.3.B464]

*Vinke, Herman. The Short Life Of Sophie Scholl. Cambridge: Harper & Row, 1st Amer. Ed.,

1984. [943.086’0924 / DD 256.3 S337]

Wechsberg, Joseph – ed. The Simon Wiesenthal Memories: The Murderers Among Us. New

York:    McGraw Hill Book Co., 1967. [364.12 / D 804.G4.W5]

Wiesel, Elie. Night.  New York: Hill and Wang, 1960. [940.548 / D 811.5.W4923] Wiesenthal, Simon. The Simon Wiesenthal Story.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. [364.12 /

D 804.G4 W54]

Wilder-Smith, Beate. The Day Nazi Germany Died: An Eyewitness Account Of The Russian

And Allied Invasion Of Germany: An Autobiography. Costa Mesa: World For Today,

1982.  [940.5482 / D 811.5.W49]

Wyman, David S.  The Abandonment Of The Jews: America And The Holocaust, 1941-1945.

New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. [ 943.531 / D 810.J4.W95]

Yahil, Levi. The Holocaust: The Fate Of The European Jewry, 1935-1945. New York: Oxford

Univ. Press, 1990. [940.5318 /]

Zuccotti, Susan. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, And Survival. New

York: Basic Books, Inc. Pub., 1987. [940.531503924045 / DS 135.I8.Z83]



Germany, Politics and Government, 1933-1945


Allen, William S. The Nazi Seizure Of Power: The Experience Of A Single German Town,

19301935. New York: New Viewpoints, 1965. [943.085 / DD 256.5.A58]

Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943 (Verlag FRZ.,1925c.) [92 / DD 247.H6A4 ]

                 . My New Order. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941. [940.5318 /DD 247.H5]

Hohne, Heinz. The Order Of The Death’s Head; The Story Of Hitler’s SS. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. [940.5318 / DD 253.6.H613]

Klee, Ernst; Dressen, Willi; Riess, Volker. “The Good Old Days” The Holocaust As Seen By Its Perpetrators And Bystanders. New York: Macmillan, Inc. – Free Press, 1991. [940.5318 / D 804.3.S3613]

Langer, Walter C. The Mind Of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report. New York: Basic

Books, 1972. [943.086 / DD 247.H5.L29]

Mayer, Sydney L. Signal Years Of Triumph 1940-1942: Hitler’s Wartime Picture Magazine.

Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. [940.5343 / D 743.2.S525]

Mosse, George L. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural And Social Life In The Third Reich. New

York: Grosset & Dunlay, 1966. [943.086 / DD 256.5.M38]

*Noakes, J(eremy), Pridham, G(eoffrey), Ed’s. Nazism: A History Of Documents And Eyewitness Accounts, 1919-1945. New York: Schocken Books: Distributed by Pantheon Books, 1990. Reprint: Exeter: Univ of Exeter, v 1-3, 1983-1988. [943.086 / DD 256.N366]

Stein, George H. The Waffen SS: Hitler’s Elite Guard At War 1939-45. Ithaca: Cornell

University, 1966. [940.5318 / D 757.85.S8]

Todias, Fritz. The Reichstag Fire. New York: G.P. Putman’s Sons, 1964.         [943.086 / DD 256.5.T573]

United States. Congress. Joint Committee On Conditions In Concentration Camps In

Germany. Atrocities And Other Conditions In Concentration Camps In Germany. Report Of The Committee Requested By Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Through The Chief Of Staff  Gen. George C. Marshall To The Congress Of The United States Relative To Atrocities And Other Conditions In Concentration Camps In Germany. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office., 1945. [ /DD 253.U583]



Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the United States of America


Bishop, Jim. FDR’s Last Year, April 1944-April 1945. New York: William Morrow & Co. Inc.,

1974. [973.917 / E 807.B54]

Bower, T.G.T. The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt For The Nazi Scientists. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987. [353.00856 / D 810.S2.B69]

Hunt, Linda. Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, And Project

Paperclip, 1945-1990. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. [ 353.00856 / D 810.S2.H86]

Lasby, Clarence. Project Paperclip; German Scientist And The Cold War. New York: Athenaeum.      1971.  [353.00856 / Q 149.U5.L58]

Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt And The New Deal, 1932-1940. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. [973.917 / E 806.L44]

Manchester, William. The Glory And The Dream: A Narrative History Of America. Boston: Little,  Brown & Co., 1974. [917.30392 / E 806.M34]

Nellis, Micki II; Schroder, Gene. Constitution: Fact or Fiction. Cleburne: Buffalo Creek Press,

1995. (342.73 / JK 560]

Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt And Marshall: Partners In Politics And War. New York: William

Morrow & Co. Inc., 1989. [973.9170922 / E 807.P27]

Peikoff, Leonard. The Ominous Parallels; The End Of Freedom In America.  New York: Stein and Day, 1982. [190 / B 252.P44]

Sanger, Margaret, Editor. International Birth Control Conference. New York: The American

Birth Control  League, 1925-1926. [312 / HQ 766.I6]

                 Editor. Proceedings Of The World Population Conference, Held At The Salle Centrale, Geneva, August 29th To September 3rd, 1927.  London: E. Arnold, 1927. [ / HB 849.W]

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age Of Roosevelt: The Crisis Of The Old Order, 1919-1933.

Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1957. [973.91 / E 806.S34]

                 The Age Of Roosevelt: The Coming Of The New Deal. Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin  Co., 1958. [973.91 / E 806.S34]

                 The Age Of Roosevelt: The Politics Of Upheaval. Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin

Co., 1960. [973.91 / E 806.S34]


Schroder, Gene. War And Emergency Powers: A Special Report On The National Emergency In The United States Of America. Campo: American Agriculture Movement, 1994. [342.73 / JK 560]

Simkin, Jay; Zelman, Aaron; Rice, Alan M. Lethal Law: Gun Control. Milwaukee: Jews For

The Preservation Of Firearms, 1994.

*Sutton, Anthony C. Wall Street And The Rise Of Hitler. Seal Beach: ‘76 Press, 1976. [940.086 /HF 1456.5.G3 S871]

Valerian, Val. article: “Slice of Time, Part Three: 1945”. Culver City: Perceptions Magazine; Nov-Dec, 1995, p59.



Video-recordings [VHS]


Auschwitz and the Allies / BBC-TV [19–]. British Television Documentary / UCLA Film TV – Viewing on premises only / 100 minutes VHS.

*– Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Memories And Perspectives / Gateway Films, 2030 Wentz

Church Road (Box 540) Worcester, PA 19490, c1981. Documentary: interviews with person who survived the Nazis and who knew Dr. Bonhoeffer directly (relatives, students and  friends). Tell of events and ideas under the Nazis / 90 minutes – VHS / B&W.

—  Memory Of The Camps / WGBH, Boston, MA: Public Television Viewer, Documentary Consortium c1995. VHS release of PBS: “Front-line” documentary of news footage of Nazi Germany and each concentration killing camp. Some footage never before seen to date. Some footage taken by Russians. / 60 minutes – VHS / B&W.

*– Schindler’s List / Amblin Entertainment production. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal Home Video, 1994, c1993. VHS release of 1993 motion picture of novel by Thomas Keneally of true story of Oskar Schindler who saved 1,000 Jews during the Holocaust. / 197 minutes – 2 VHS cassettes / B&W & color sequences / closed caption for hearing impaired.

*– SHETETL / WGBH, Boston,MA: Public Television Viewer, Documentary Consortium c1996. VHS release of PBS: “Front-line” documentary of Marian Marzynski’s film profiles the return of two Polish-American Jews to their families’ shtetl (village) in Bransk, Poland where 2,500 Jews lived before most were sent to the gas chamber.

/ 180  minutes – VHS /Color.

The Diary of Anne Frank / Magnetic Video Corp., Mount Kisco, NY : Guidance Associates

[distributor], c1980. VHS release of 1959 motion picture of book, The          Diary Of Anne Frank. A true story based on events recorded in the dairy kept by a                                young Jewish girl during two years of hiding from the Germans in an Amsterdam

attic. / 100 minutes – VHS / B&W.

*– The Dairy of Anne Frank / 20th Century Fox, Beverly Hills, CA: Foxvideo, c1995. VHS release of  motion released by 20th Century – Fox Film Corp., Updated VHS version of 1959 motion picture of above title / 170 minutes – 2 VHS cassettes / B&W / closed caption for hearing impaired.

*– The Hiding Place / World Wide Pictures production. [19–]. VHS release of  1975 motion picture based on autobiographical book, The Hiding Place, by Corrie ten Boom, John and Elizabeth Sherrill which depicts author’s family situations during

Holocaust in Netherlands and at Ravenbruck, Germany Concentration Camp. /

150 minutes    VHS / Color.

The Nightmare Years, 1930-1940 / 1993 VHS release of television mini-series of William

Shirer experiences of Hitler coming to power in Nazi Germany. / 157 minutes – 2

VHS / Color with B&W news footage.

Triumph Of The Will Triumph (Des Willens) / International Historic Films, Inc., 1985 / News footage of various speeches made by Adolf Hitler. Various venues in Germany including Berlin. / 115 minutes – VHS / B&W / Sound (German) with sub-titles.

*– Weapons Of The Spirit /First Run Features / Icarus Films, New York, NY, 1987c. Story of the French village of Le-Chambon-sur-Legion and how it’s Christian populace took in and sheltered 5,000 Jews from the Nazis, as told by Jewish film maker Pierre Sauvage, who himself was born and protected by that defiantly peaceful community. / 90 minutes – VHS / slides, Color with B&W footage. Friends of Le Chambon Foundation 213/650-1774, Fax 213/654-4689,

*– Witnesses To The Holocaust: The Trial Of Adolf Eichman / Lorimar Home Video, Irvine, CA, 1987/ News footage with narration by Joel Grey of the trial of Adolf Eichmann, former head of Reich Security Office which administered the annihilation of European Jewry, was tried in Jerusalem in 1962, charge with crimes against the Jewish people and Crimes against humanity./ 90 minutes VHS / B&W.[940.5316/]

The tide of anti-Semitism and intolerance toward “conservative” Christianity (which wishes to “conserve” traditional Biblical values) is rising and once again GOD’s people everywhere must stand against, . . .  possibly . . .  the darkest period yet ahead of us in the history of Mankind.

This article is the work of my good friend Robert Rico – I have published it with his permission.


The Millennium Overview (Fall Feasts Prophetically Fulfilled)

(the google presentation below did not capture all of the formatting and pictures from MS PP)
Order of Events from the beginning of the Tribulation to the beginning of the Millenium and beyond.
    • Jesus takes his bride (Rapture/Trumpets)
    • Yom Kippur (last chance to repent before judgment)
    • We come back with him (on horses) clothed in light (Rev 19:8)
    • He (with us) comes from Teman with light flashing from his hands (Habakkuk 3:4)
    • Jesus destroys the Antichrist (2 Thess, Isaiah 11:4)
    • The nations are judged (Matthew 25, Joel 3:2)
    • Satan is cast into the pit
    • New Heavens New Earth
    • Holy City Descends (?)
    • Jewish people have access to the fountain of living water
    • The nations must come up for the Feast of Tabernacles
    • Order of Events (cont)
    • Fountain of Living Water
    • The Tree of Life and its leaves are available for healing
    • People have up to 100 years before they die – the must go up to Jerusalem (Isaiah 65:20)
    • Satan is released for short time
    • Fire descends and destroys them
    • Final judgment
    • All sin and death destroyed
    • Life continues without end
    • God dwells with his creation forever and ever (heaven and earth are together)

The Biblical Feasts


  • No one knows the day or the hour
  • Happens on the feast of the new moon
  • Two witnesses had to confirm that they saw it and then ran into the Sanhedrin.
  • They were cross examined and if authenticated, then the new moon was confirmed.
  • Thus people always knew approximately when the festival would start but never knew the exact day or hour
  • Watch, therefore; for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.”(Matthew 24:42).“Therefore, let us not sleep, as do others, but let us watch and be sober-minded.”I Thessalonians 5:6Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior, Jesus Christ” (II Timothy 2:13).
  • “So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation”” (Hebrews 9:28).“Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, in which the heavens, being on fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat? Nevertheless, we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, in which dwelleth righteousness. Wherefore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such things, be diligent that ye may be found of him in peace, without spot, and blameless” (II Peter 3:11-14).

Yom HaKippur

  • The people of Israel were to humble (afflict) their souls (Leviticus 23:27).  “If there is any person who will not humble himself on this same day, he shall be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 23:29).
  • According to Jewish custom, three books are opened on the Feast of Trumpets: the Book of Life for the righteous, the Book of Life for the unrighteous, and the Book of Life those in-between. If a man is deemed righteous, his name is written in the Book of Life for the righteous at the Feast of Trumpets. If a man is unrighteous, his name is written in the Book of Life for the unrighteous, and he will not survive the year. If a man is deemed in-between, judgment is delayed for ten days from the Feast of Trumpets to the Feast of the Day of Atonement. It is during that period of time that a man is given opportunity to repent before the book is closed and his destiny sealed. Thus, at the Feast of Trumpets, the Church will be raptured and the Lord’s wrath will begin on the earth. It will occupy a relatively brief period of time.

The Season of Jacob’s Trouble
(Affliction of the Jewish Soul- Yom Kippur)

    • Alas! For that day is great, So that none is like it; And it is the time of Jacob’s trouble, But he shall be saved out of it. (Jer 30:7)
    • Days of Awe Between Trumpets and Yom HaKippur
    • “The moon will not shed its light.” Isa 13:10
    • “The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.” Joel 2:31
    • “And There Will Be Signs In The Moon” (Luke 21:25)
    • “The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come.” Act 2:20
    • “And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood.” Rev 6:12

Blood Red Moon

    • Hebrew Calendar
    • 3 Tetrads Fall on Biblical Feasts
    • Three sets of blood-red moons that corresponded to significant events:
    • The Spanish Inquisition final year 1492 when the Alhambra Decree ordered all remaining Jews who would not convert to Christianity to leave Spain, the 1948 War of Independence and the 1967 Six-Day War had back-to-back, blood-red moons occur on the first day of Passover and Sukkoth the following two years or beginning the same year of the 1967 Six-Day War for two years.

His Glorius Return in Power

    • God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise. [His] radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays [flashing] from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power. […] He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting. […] Did the LORD rage against the rivers, Or [was] Your anger against the rivers, Or [was] Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, On Your chariots of salvation? Sun [and] moon stood in their places; They went away at the light of Your arrows, At the radiance of Your gleaming spear. (Habakkuk 3:3-8,11)
    • We Will Come With Him
    • And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white [and] clean, were following Him on white horses. From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty.  (Rev 19:13,14)

Judgment in the Valley of Jehoshaphat Joel 3, Matthew 25

    • I will gather all the nations and bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat. And I will enter into judgment with them there, on behalf of my people and my heritage Israel, because they have scattered them among the nations and have divided up my land, (Joel 3:2)
    • “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left. Then the King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. (Matthew 25)

God’s Desire of the Ages: Dwelling with Man

    • Rev 21:3-4 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling place of God is with man. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.” ESV
    • Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them. They shall neither hunger anymore nor thirst anymore; the sun shall not strike them, nor any heat; for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to living fountains of waters.  And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” (Rev 7:15-17)
    • Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. My tabernacle [משכן, ‘Mishkan‘] also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. The nations also will know that I, the LORD, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore. (Ezek 37:26-28)
    • But…there was a divorce years ago

The Divorce in the Garden

    • Gen 3:24 “He drove out the man, and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim and a flaming sword that turned every way to guard the way to the tree of life.” (ESV)
    • Yeshua Tabernacled/Dwelt
    • “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (John 1:14)The Greek word εσκηνωσεν comes from the word σκηνόω
    • 1. to fix one’s tabernacle, have one’s tabernacle, abide (or live) in a tabernacle (or tent), tabernacle  2. to dwell
    • שׁכן
    • Shachan  שׁכן to settle down, abide, dwell, tabernacle, reside
    • …He will dwell in Jerusalem (Zec 8:3). …There is another verb in Hebrew that also means “to inhabit, dwell” and it is yashab. What is the difference between the two? For God’s dwelling (yashab) is Jerusalem and Zion (cf. Psa 135:21; Psa 9:11. shachan, on the other hand, underscores the idea not of loftiness but of nearness and closeness. (TWOT)

The Incarnation: The First fruits of God Tabernacling Among Us

    • Seeing in his spirit of prophecy that the time would come when the משכן, ‘Mishkan‘ (the Sanctuary) would cease to exist and the Shechinah dwell no more in Israel’s midst, Moses was anxious to know by what means the sins of his people would then be expiated. The Almighty vouchsafed the information that He would choose a righteous man from their midst, and make him a משכן (pledge) for them, and through him their sins would be forgiven.–Exod. Rabba 35.
    • The perpetual light in the Mishkan was typical of the light of King Messiah.–Levit. Rabba 31.

Yeshua – the Door to the Tabernacle

    • We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle which the Lord erected, and not man. For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. […] who serve the copy and shadow of the heavenly things, as Moses was divinely instructed when he was about to make the tabernacle. For He said, “See that you make all things according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.” (Hebrews 8:1-5)
    • But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation. (Hebrews 9:11)

Conditions in the Millennium: Isaiah 4

    • In that day the branch of the Lord shall be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land shall be the pride and honor of the survivors of Israel. And he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy, everyone who has been recorded for life in Jerusalem, when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and cleansed the bloodstains of Jerusalem from its midst by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning. Then the Lord will create over the whole site of Mount Zion and over her assemblies a cloud by day, and smoke and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory there will be a canopy. There will be a booth (Sukkah) for shade by day from the heat, and for a refuge and a shelter from the storm and rain.

The King of the Millennium: Isaiah 11

    • ​​​​​​​​There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit. […] ​​​​​​​​And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord. He shall not judge by what his eyes see, or decide disputes by what his ears hear,  ​​​​​​​​but with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked.  ​​​​​​​​Righteousness shall be the belt of his waist, and faithfulness the belt of his loins. […] ​​​​​​​​ In that day the root of Jesse, who shall stand as a signal for the peoples-of him shall the nations inquire, and his resting place shall be glorious.  In that day the Lord will extend his hand yet a second time to recover the remnant that remains of his people, (Isaiah 11)

The Animals Restored

    • “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play by the cobra’s hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper’s den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD As the waters cover the sea. (Isaiah 11:6-9)

Partakers of the Divine Nature

    • “​​​​​​​​As for me, I shall behold your face in righteousness; when I awake, I shall be satisfied with your likeness [t’munatkha תְּמוּנָתֶֽךָ],”  (Psalm 17:15 ESV).
    • by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped from the corruption that is in the world because of sinful desire. (2 Peter 1:4 ESV)
    • The sun shall be no more your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give you light; but the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your glory. Your sun shall no more go down, nor your moon withdraw itself; for the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your days of mourning shall be ended,” (Isaiah 60:19-20 ESV).

Paul affords us this insight into what we shall become:

    • “and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image – in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth,” (Ephesians 4:24 NET).
    • Our new man has been created in God’s image – imagine that! We, as new creations are in the image of the one who made us!
    • and have been clothed with the new man that is being renewed in knowledge according to the image [eicon εικον] of the one who created it, (Colossians 3:10 NET).
    • He is the image [eicon εικον (icon)] of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation, (Colossians 1:15 NET).
    • who will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body, according to the working by which He is able even to subdue all things to Himself. (Philippians 3:21)
    • Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.

Our Bodies Restored to Light

    • “and He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and His clothes became as white as the light [phos φως].” (Matt 17:2)
    • Jesus clothes were not only white, but they were literally white as light which is the Greek word φως phos from which we get the word photo or photon. In other words, the light of Jesus, who is the source of that light, emanated through his clothing.
    • it was granted her to clothe herself with fine linen, bright [λαμπρον] and pure”- for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints.” (Revelation 19:8 ESV)
    • We see from this verse that the clothes will be bright or luminous. The Greek word λαμπρον lampron signifies bright or shining. The Liddel, Scott and Jones Classical Greek Lexicon defines it as “bright, radiant, of the sun and stars”. Thus, when we occupy our heavenly or celestial bodies we will also be clothed in garments of light.

Clothed in Light

    • Then the righteous will shine forth [eklampo ἐκλάμπω] as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear! (Matthew 13:43)
    • Those who are wise shall shine [LXX: eklampo ἐκλάμπω] Like the brightness [LXX: lamprotes λαμπρότης] of the firmament, And those who turn many to righteousness Like the stars forever and ever. (Daniel 12:3)

Clothed in Light

    • “Thus let all Your enemies perish, O LORD! But let those who love Him be like the sun When it comes out in full strength.” So the land had rest for forty years. (Judges 5:31)
    • “But the path of the just is like the shining sun, that shines ever brighter unto the perfect day,” (Proverbs 4:18).

The Fountain of Living Waters

    • “In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. (Zechariah 13:1)
    • And in that day it shall be that living waters shall flow from Jerusalem, Half of them toward the eastern sea And half of them toward the western sea; In both summer and winter it shall occur[…] (Zechariah 14:8, 10)
    • And it will come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drip with new wine, The hills shall flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah shall be flooded with water; A fountain shall flow from the house of the LORD And water the Valley of Acacias. (Joel 3:18)

The Fountain

    • Then he brought me back to the door of the temple, and behold, water was issuing from below the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east). The water was flowing down from below the south end of the threshold of the temple, south of the altar  And he said to me, “Son of man, have you seen this?” Then he led me back to the bank of the river. ​​​ As I went back, I saw on the bank of the river very many trees on the one side and on the other. And he said to me, “[…] For this water goes there, that the waters of the sea may become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. And on the banks, on both sides of the river, there will grow all kinds of trees for food. Their leaves will not wither, nor their fruit fail, but they will bear fresh fruit every month, because the water for them flows from the sanctuary. Their fruit will be for food, and their leaves for healing.”  (Ezek 47)
    • And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the middle of its street, and on either side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits, each tree yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. (Revelation 22:1-3)

Jesus Is The Fountain

    • but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.“John 4:14
    • “For My people have committed two evils:  They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters,  And hewn themselves cisterns–broken cisterns that can hold no water. Jeremiah 2:13
    • They are abundantly satisfied with the fullness of Your house,  And You give them drink from the river of Your pleasures. Psalms 36:8
    • For with You is the fountain of life;  In Your light we see light. Psalms 36:9
    • There is a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God,  The holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High. Psalms 46:4

Obligated to Keep the Feast

    • Then everyone who survives of all the nations that have come against Jerusalem shall go up year after year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Booths. And if any of the families of the earth do not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, there will be no rain on them. And if the family of Egypt does not go up and present themselves, then on them there shall be no rain; there shall be the plague with which the Lord afflicts the nations that do not go up to keep the Feast of Booths. This shall be the punishment to Egypt and the punishment to all the nations that do not go up to keep the Feast of Booths. (Zechariah 14)

Sin Seems to Still Be Possible Outside the City of Jerusalem

    • Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. Butoutside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. (Revelation 22:14-15)
    • And the Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” And let him who hears say, “Come!” And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.  (Revelation 22:17)
    • Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?  He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor sworn deceitfully.  (Psalm 24:3-4)

What If They Don’t Come?

    • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​“For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth… I create Jerusalem to be a joy, and her people to be a gladness.  ​​​​​​​​I will rejoice in Jerusalem and be glad in my people; no more shall be heard in it the sound of weeping and the cry of distress.  No more shall there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, or an old man who does not fill out his days, for the young man shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed […] (Isaiah 65)

Summary of the Millennium

    • Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain. And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and threw him into the pit, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he might not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were ended. After that he must be released for a little while.  Then I saw thrones, and seated on them were those to whom the authority to judge was committed. […] The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years (Rev 20)

Millennium’s End

    • And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.  (Rev 20)

Final Judgment

  • Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. (Rev 20)