Archives September 2012

Is Man a Two-Part or Three-Part Being or Both?

Is man a two-part (dichotomous) or three-part (trichotomous) being? Could he in fact be both? Is it possible that God made Adam to be a three-part being but at the fall he became a two part being?

Genesis chapter one gives us the overview of creation, all the way from the creation of space until the pinnacle of God’s creation: Adam. The other creatures, fish, birds, or land animals, the creeping things; all the creatures that God made are lumped together in a few verses. However, the text spends much more time on Adam and in fact, we are told that God said:

Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds God Created Man In His Imageof the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them, (Genesis 1:27).

Genesis chapter two then focuses solely on the creation of Adam and the privileges and responsibilities that God gave him. Concerning his creation, the text elaborates and states that God formed Adam from the dust of the ground. However, that was not all that God did. The text says:

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul, (Genesis 2:7).

This verse demonstrates that Adam was made (physically, earthly) from the dust (he and we are carbon-based life forms). However, God also breathed into Adam. What we must not miss is that the animals (see Genesis 7:15) also have breath in their lungs but God did not breathe into them. There is something special about the breath that Adam received directly from God. Adam receiving the breath of God is unique and thus he is also spiritual. To put it another way, Adam had a material (physical, earthly) part, that is to say his body, and he also possessed an immaterial (soulish, spiritual, heavenly) side, that is to say his soul or spirit.

Man’s Non-material Makeup

Over the centuries scholars of the Bible have debated whether or not man consists of two parts (dichotomous – “cut in two”) just body and soul/spirit or in three parts (trichotomous – “cut in three”), body, soul and spirit. A. H. Strong in his book, Systematic Theology, articulates the essence of the essential elements of human nature:

Man has a twofold nature,—on the one hand material, on the other hand immaterial. He consists of body, and of spirit, or soul. […]Man is as conscious that his immaterial part is a unity, as that his body is a unity. He knows two, and only two, parts of his being—body and soul.

Strong notes that I Thessalonians 5:23 (“may your whole spirit and soul and body”), which is the principle passage relied upon as supporting the trichotomous view, may be better explained in that “soul and spirit are not two distinct substances or parts, but that they designate the immaterial principle from different points of view.”[i] After all, there are many verses where soul and spirit are used interchangeably. If we are to divide the immaterial make up of man into soul and spirit, then what are we to do with the heart, mind, and conscience? They are also immaterial parts of man that Scripture repeatedly makes reference to. Lastly, there are verses that speak of only two parts of a man, as though it constitutes the whole of his being. The following list demonstrates how soul and spirit are used interchangeably.

  • his spirit was troubled, (Genesis 41:8)
  • my soul is cast down within me, (Psalm 42:6)
  • now is my soul troubled, (John 12:27)
  • he was troubled in the spirit, (John 13:21)
  • give his life [soul – psuekhen ψυχὴν] as a ransom for many, (Matthew 20:28)
  • yielded up his spirit, (Matthew 27:50)
  • And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell. (Matthew 10:28 emphasis mine)
  • spirits of just men made perfect, (Hebrews 12: 23)
  • I saw underneath the altar the souls of them that had been slain for the word of God, (Revelation 6:9)

The Place of the Holy Spirit

What we are observing is that man was created as a three part being. God created Adam to be a three part being; the material (body) and immaterial (soul/spirit) were uniquely his and the third part was the “compartment” for the Holy Spirit. At the time of Adam’s creation, God, in the person of the Holy Spirit, actually indwelt Adam. However, when Adam disobeyed God through sin, he lost the Spirit of God that had up until that point indwelt him. Thus he truly began to die physically; corruption (data loss) of his genetic code (on a physical level) began and the spiritual connection that he shared with God was immediately broken. Thus, the Holy Spirit that was to that point dwelling in Adam departed, leaving him spiritually empty and dead; therefore man was left as a two-part being with a “God-shaped hole in his heart” (cf. Pascal). The Holy Spirit is the one who comes and dwells in us when we turn from darkness to light and receive the Lord Jesus as the sacrifice for our sins. Let’s go back to our text and understand how that could be possible.

When God Breathed the First Time

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed [vayipakh וַיִּפַּ֥ח] into his nostrils the breath of life [nishmat khayim חַיִּ֑ים נִשְׁמַ֣ת]; and man became a living soul [l’nephesh khaya לְנֶ֥פֶש חַיָּֽה] (Genesis 2:7).

The obvious feature to note is that God Himself did the breathing. What beautiful imagery: After having created the universe with the stars, sun, moon, animals, vegetation etc., God bent over Adam’s body which he had just formed, (like a potter molds the clay), and breathed into Adam’s nostrils. Both the Hebrew word yatzar (יצר) and the Greek word plasso (πλάσσω) carry the idea of forming or fashioning wax or clay.[ii] This may have taken God but a moment – however, if we consider the fact that God could have created the world and all therein in less than a microsecond but decided to go slowly and create in six whole days, then when it came to the creation of man He would have given the greatest care! In fact, we could envision the Word of God[iii], Jesus the Son, in His preincarnate state[iv], carefully taking the dust (carbon atoms and such) of the earth in His hands, pushing, shaping, and molding Adam as a potter would do. Once Adam looked like God, that is to say he resembled the image (shadow) of God; He then gently leaned over this beautiful but still lifeless formation. Opening His mouth, God breathed deep into the nostrils of Adam and then Adam opened his eyes to see the tender but glorious face of the One who had just made him!

This breath of God animated Adam’s body in a manner similar to the animals in that they also have breath (neshama[v] נשׁמה) in their nostrils. But it was also so much more, for we know that God did not breathe directly into the animals. Thus the breath that God breathed into Adam must have been so much more than the mere animation of the body (spark of life). It was also the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.[vi]

When God Breathed Again

To see evidence of this picture we must fast forward approximately four thousand years to just after the resurrection of Jesus. We find the disciples after the crucifixion behind closed doors for fear of the Jewish leadership. Jesus makes a sudden appearance and walks through a wall in his resurrected body. “And when he had said this, he breathed (literally “inbreathed”) [enephusesen ενεφυσησεν] on[vii] them and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit,’” (John 20:22).

The Greek word enephusesen (stem: emphusao εμφυσάωused in the passage above is the same exact word and form of the word that the Greek Septuagint in Genesis 2:7 uses to translate the Hebrew word (vayipakh וַיִּפַּח root naphakh נפח)This correlation is noted in Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:

This word used only once by the LXX translators in Gen 2:7 where God breathed on Adam and he became a living soul. Just as the original creation was completed by an act of God, so too the new creation, was completed by an act from the Head of the new creation, (Thayer’s εμφυσάω entry).

The same root (emphusao εμφυσάω), though slightly modified, also shows up in Ezekiel 37:9 (37:8 in Greek) and is the same exact Hebrew word as in Genesis 2:7.

Then he said to me, “Prophesy to the breath [ruakh הָרוּחַ]; prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, Thus says the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe [naphakh נפח, Greek εμφυσάω emphusaw] on these slain, that they may live,” (Ezekiel 37:9).

It would truly seem that when Jesus breathed the Holy Spirit into the disciples, He was in fact doing the same thing that He had done to Adam those many thousands of years ago, (the text in Ezekiel 37 will ultimately be fulfilled in the resurrection of the dead – to be discussed in my next book.) Thus, while Adam consisted inherently of two parts, material and immaterial, Jesus Himself breathed not only the life force but also the Holy Spirit; the point at which Adam sinned is when the Spirit departed leaving him all alone. Josephus, the first century Jewish historian, appears to document that as well: “Concerning the formation of man, says thus: […] God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called Adam,” (Josephus Antiquities, Book 1, Chapter 1:2, emphasis mine). The notes from the NET Bible also give a hint at this:

The Hebrew word נְשָׁמָה (n’shamah, “breath”) is used for God and for the life imparted to humans, not animals (see T. C. Mitchell, “The Old Testament Usage of N’shama,” VT 11 [1961]: 177-87). Its usage in the Bible conveys more than a breathing living organism (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה, nefesh khayyah). Whatever is given this breath of life becomes animated with the life from God, has spiritual understanding (Job 32:8), and has a functioning conscience (Proverbs 20:27), (NET Bible Notes Genesis 2:7, emphasis mine).

The Targum of Onkelos (Genesis 2:7) also hints at the idea that the Spirit indwelt him: “And the Lord God created Adam from dust of the ground, and breathed upon his face the breath of lives, and it [“the breath of life”] became in Adam a Discoursing Spirit.”

John in his Gospel makes an interesting observation “Now this he said about the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were to receive, for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified,” (John 7:39). Thus, because Jesus had not yet been crucified and raised from the dead (glorified), no one as of then had received the Holy Spirit. We have seen already that Jesus showed up and inbreathed the Holy Spirit (in) the disciples.

When the Spirit Comes On and Not In

However, just before Jesus ascends to the Father, He tells them “But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon (επί) you,” (Acts 1:8). We know that the Spirit came upon men of the Old Testament for specific times and purposes. The Spirit came upon Jephthah for a time in order for him to route the Ammonites (Judges 11:29). He came upon Samson (Judges 14:6, 19) to defeat the Philistines but left due to Samson’s sinful life (Judges 16:20). The Spirit also came upon David (1 Samuel 16:13) and others. However, the imparting of the Spirit before Jesus’ death and resurrection was a temporary and transient experience. The Spirit was not actually in the ancient men. He came upon them but not in them; the Lord came upon them for a specific job, but not to indwell.[viii]

Adam a Son of God

Remember that Adam was the only person who was created directly as a son of God. John stated that the Holy Spirit had not yet been given, but those who would believe would receive Him. By believing in the name of Jesus one can become a son of God (John 7:39 and 1:12). Thus sons of God today are marked by those who have the Spirit:

  • For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, (Galatians 3:26).
  • You received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, “Abba, Father.” The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, (Romans 8:15-16).
  • Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, (1 Corinthians 2:12).
  • And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, “Abba, Father!” (Galatians 4:6).
  • Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you, (Romans 8:11).

Paul says that we have become a new creation in Christ. As new creations we are adopted by God becoming sons of God. The down payment of the Holy Spirit is evidence that we are new creations and are now waiting for the “full package” when we get to heaven. Therefore we conclude that the Holy Spirit must have indwelt Adam prior to his fall because he was classified as a Son of God. We are sons of God because we are direct creations of God “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation,” (2 Corinthians 5:17). “For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation,” (Galatians 6:15). We share that feature with the angels, whom we shall be like in heaven. However, God did not form them from the earth, nor did He breathe into the angels and so we possess something that sets us apart from them as far as being sons of God is concerned. The work of the cross was the correction of what had been lost 4000 years before. The Spirit was breathed into Adam, the first (earthly) son of God, he lost it, and now the Spirit dwells in the sons of God who we have become by believing in Jesus’ name. The Spirit is the guarantee or down payment of what is coming.


[i] Augustus Hopkins Strong, Systematic Theology, 1893, 243.

[ii] πλάσσω Thayer’s Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.

[iii] According to the Targumim, one called the Memra [word], who was in the beginning with God creating with Him. According to the Jerusalem Targum the Word created man. “And the Word [Memra] of the Lord created man in His likeness, in the likeness of the presence of the Lord He created him, the male and his yoke-fellow He created them,” (Targum Jerusalem, Genesis 1:27).

[iv] “For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?” (Theophilus, To Autolycus. Book 2, ch 13-30 Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 2).

[v] “Human life is described here as consisting of a body (made from soil from the ground) and breath (given by God). Both animals and humans are called “a living being” (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה) but humankind became that in a different and more significant way. The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often translated “soul,” but the word usually refers to the whole person. The phraseנֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה  (nefesh khayyah, “living being”) is used of both animals and human beings (see 1:20, 24, 30; 2:19),” (NET Bible Notes Genesis 2:7).

[vi] See also: “In Him was life, and the life was the light of men,” (John 1:4); “For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will,” (John 5:21); “For as the Father has life in Himself, so He has granted the Son to have life in Himself,” (John 5:26); “And so it is written, ‘The first man Adam became a living being.’ The last Adam became a life-giving spirit,” (1 Corinthians 15:45); “He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life,” (1 John 5:12).

[vii] In the Greek text enephusesen (ενεφυσησεν) is followed by the dative which is complementary to the word en εν which follows the Hebrew in Genesis 2:7 extremely well.

[viii] Then the LORD came down in the cloud, and spoke to him, and took of the Spirit that was upon him, and placed the same upon the seventy elders; and it happened, when the Spirit rested upon them, that they prophesied, although they never did so again, (Numbers 11:25, emphasis mine). But the Spirit of the LORD came upon Gideon (Judges 6:34 emphasis mine). Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, (Judges 11:29 emphasis mine). And the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him, and he tore the lion apart (Judges 14:6 Emphasis mine). Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon him mightily, (Judges 14:19 emphasis mine).

Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed […] and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David, (1 Samuel 16:13 emphasis mine). See also: Judges 3:10; 15:14; 2 Chronicles 20:14; 24:20.

Is Man a Two-Part or Three-Part Being or Both?

Genesis chapter one gives us the overview of creation, all the way from the creation of space until the pinnacle of God’s creation: Adam. The other creatures, fish, birds, or land animals, the creeping things; all the creatures that God made are lumped together in a few verses. However, the text spends much more time on Adam and in fact, we are told that God said:

Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds God Created Man In His Imageof the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them, (Genesis 1:27).

Genesis chapter two then focuses solely on the creation of Adam and the privileges and responsibilities that God gave him. Concerning his creation, the text elaborates and states that God formed Adam from the dust of the ground. However, that was not all that God did. The text says:

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul, (Genesis 2:7).

This verse demonstrates that Adam was made (physically, earthly) from the dust (he and we are carbon-based life forms). However, God also breathed into Adam. What we must not miss is that the animals (see Genesis 7:15) also have breath in their lungs but God did not breathe into them. There is something special about the breath that Adam received directly from God. Adam receiving the breath of God is unique and thus he is also spiritual. To put it another way, Adam had a material (physical, earthly) part, that is to say his body, and he also possessed an immaterial (soulish, spiritual, heavenly) side, that is to say his soul or spirit.

Man’s Non-material Makeup

Over the centuries scholars of the Bible have debated whether or not man consists of two parts (dichotomous – “cut in two”) just body and soul/spirit or in three parts (trichotomous – “cut in three”), body, soul and spirit. A. H. Strong in his book, Systematic Theology, articulates the essence of the essential elements of human nature:

Man has a twofold nature,—on the one hand material, on the other hand immaterial. He consists of body, and of spirit, or soul. […]Man is as conscious that his immaterial part is a unity, as that his body is a unity. He knows two, and only two, parts of his being—body and soul.

Strong notes that I Thessalonians 5:23 (“may your whole spirit and soul and body”), which is the principle passage relied upon as supporting the trichotomous view, may be better explained in that “soul and spirit are not two distinct substances or parts, but that they designate the immaterial principle from different points of view.”[i] After all, there are many verses where soul and spirit are used interchangeably. If we are to divide the immaterial make up of man into soul and spirit, then what are we to do with the heart, mind, and conscience? They are also immaterial parts of man that Scripture repeatedly makes reference to. Lastly, there are verses that speak of only two parts of a man, as though it constitutes the whole of his being. The following list demonstrates how soul and spirit are used interchangeably.

  • his spirit was troubled, (Genesis 41:8)
  • my soul is cast down within me, (Psalm 42:6)
  • now is my soul troubled, (John 12:27)
  • he was troubled in the spirit, (John 13:21)
  • give his life [soulpsuekhen ψυχὴν] as a ransom for many, (Matthew 20:28)
  • yielded up his spirit, (Matthew 27:50)
  • And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell. (Matthew 10:28 emphasis mine)
  • spirits of just men made perfect, (Hebrews 12: 23)
  • I saw underneath the altar the souls of them that had been slain for the word of God, (Revelation 6:9)

The Place of the Holy Spirit

What we are observing is that man was created as a three part being. God created Adam to be a three part being; the material (body) and immaterial (soul/spirit) were uniquely his and the third part was the “compartment” for the Holy Spirit. At the time of Adam’s creation, God, in the person of the Holy Spirit, actually indwelt Adam. However, when Adam disobeyed God through sin, he lost the Spirit of God that had up until that point indwelt him. Thus he truly began to die physically; corruption (data loss) of his genetic code (on a physical level) began and the spiritual connection that he shared with God was immediately broken. Thus, the Holy Spirit that was to that point dwelling in Adam departed, leaving him spiritually empty and dead; therefore man was left as a two-part being with a “God-shaped hole in his heart” (cf. Pascal). The Holy Spirit is the one who comes and dwells in us when we turn from darkness to light and receive the Lord Jesus as the sacrifice for our sins. Let’s go back to our text and understand how that could be possible.

When God Breathed the First Time

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed [vayipakh וַיִּפַּ֥ח] into his nostrils the breath of life [nishmat khayim חַיִּ֑ים נִשְׁמַ֣ת]; and man became a living soul [l’nephesh khaya לְנֶ֥פֶש חַיָּֽה] (Genesis 2:7).

The obvious feature to note is that God Himself did the breathing. What beautiful imagery: After having created the universe with the stars, sun, moon, animals, vegetation etc., God bent over Adam’s body which he had just formed, (like a potter molds the clay), and breathed into Adam’s nostrils. Both the Hebrew word yatzar (יצר) and the Greek word plasso (πλάσσω) carry the idea of forming or fashioning wax or clay.[ii] This may have taken God but a moment – however, if we consider the fact that God could have created the world and all therein in less than a microsecond but decided to go slowly and create in six whole days, then when it came to the creation of man He would have given the greatest care! In fact, we could envision the Word of God[iii], Jesus the Son, in His preincarnate state[iv], carefully taking the dust (carbon atoms and such) of the earth in His hands, pushing, shaping, and molding Adam as a potter would do. Once Adam looked like God, that is to say he resembled the image (shadow) of God; He then gently leaned over this beautiful but still lifeless formation. Opening His mouth, God breathed deep into the nostrils of Adam and then Adam opened his eyes to see the tender but glorious face of the One who had just made him!

This breath of God animated Adam’s body in a manner similar to the animals in that they also have breath (neshama[v] נשׁמה) in their nostrils. But it was also so much more, for we know that God did not breathe directly into the animals. Thus the breath that God breathed into Adam must have been so much more than the mere animation of the body (spark of life). It was also the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.[vi]

When God Breathed Again

To see evidence of this picture we must fast forward approximately four thousand years to just after the resurrection of Jesus. We find the disciples after the crucifixion behind closed doors for fear of the Jewish leadership. Jesus makes a sudden appearance and walks through a wall in his resurrected body. “And when he had said this, he breathed (literally “inbreathed”) [enephusesen ενεφυσησεν] on[vii] them and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit,’” (John 20:22).

The Greek word enephusesen (stem: emphusao εμφυσάω) used in the passage above is the same exact word and form of the word that the Greek Septuagint in Genesis 2:7 uses to translate the Hebrew word (vayipakh וַיִּפַּח root naphakh נפח). This correlation is noted in Thayer’s Greek Lexicon:

This word used only once by the LXX translators in Gen 2:7 where God breathed on Adam and he became a living soul. Just as the original creation was completed by an act of God, so too the new creation, was completed by an act from the Head of the new creation, (Thayer’s εμφυσάω entry).

The same root (emphusao εμφυσάω), though slightly modified, also shows up in Ezekiel 37:9 (37:8 in Greek) and is the same exact Hebrew word as in Genesis 2:7.

Then he said to me, “Prophesy to the breath [ruakh הָרוּחַ]; prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, Thus says the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe [naphakh נפח, Greek εμφυσάω emphusaw] on these slain, that they may live,” (Ezekiel 37:9).

It would truly seem that when Jesus breathed the Holy Spirit into the disciples, He was in fact doing the same thing that He had done to Adam those many thousands of years ago, (the text in Ezekiel 37 will ultimately be fulfilled in the resurrection of the dead – to be discussed in my next book.) Thus, while Adam consisted inherently of two parts, material and immaterial, Jesus Himself breathed not only the life force but also the Holy Spirit; the point at which Adam sinned is when the Spirit departed leaving him all alone. Josephus, the first century Jewish historian, appears to document that as well: “Concerning the formation of man, says thus: […] God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called Adam,” (Josephus Antiquities, Book 1, Chapter 1:2, emphasis mine). The notes from the NET Bible also give a hint at this:

The Hebrew word נְשָׁמָה (n’shamah, “breath”) is used for God and for the life imparted to humans, not animals (see T. C. Mitchell, “The Old Testament Usage of N’shama,” VT 11 [1961]: 177-87). Its usage in the Bible conveys more than a breathing living organism (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה, nefesh khayyah). Whatever is given this breath of life becomes animated with the life from God, has spiritual understanding (Job 32:8), and has a functioning conscience (Proverbs 20:27), (NET Bible Notes Genesis 2:7, emphasis mine).

The Targum of Onkelos (Genesis 2:7) also hints at the idea that the Spirit indwelt him: “And the Lord God created Adam from dust of the ground, and breathed upon his face the breath of lives, and it [“the breath of life”] became in Adam a Discoursing Spirit.”

John in his Gospel makes an interesting observation “Now this he said about the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were to receive, for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified,” (John 7:39). Thus, because Jesus had not yet been crucified and raised from the dead (glorified), no one as of then had received the Holy Spirit. We have seen already that Jesus showed up and inbreathed the Holy Spirit (in) the disciples.

When the Spirit Comes On and Not In

However, just before Jesus ascends to the Father, He tells them “But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon (επί) you,” (Acts 1:8). We know that the Spirit came upon men of the Old Testament for specific times and purposes. The Spirit came upon Jephthah for a time in order for him to route the Ammonites (Judges 11:29). He came upon Samson (Judges 14:6, 19) to defeat the Philistines but left due to Samson’s sinful life (Judges 16:20). The Spirit also came upon David (1 Samuel 16:13) and others. However, the imparting of the Spirit before Jesus’ death and resurrection was a temporary and transient experience. The Spirit was not actually in the ancient men. He came upon them but not in them; the Lord came upon them for a specific job, but not to indwell.[viii]

Adam a Son of God

Remember that Adam was the only person who was created directly as a son of God. John stated that the Holy Spirit had not yet been given, but those who would believe would receive Him. By believing in the name of Jesus one can become a son of God (John 7:39 and 1:12). Thus sons of God today are marked by those who have the Spirit:

  • For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, (Galatians 3:26).
  • You received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, “Abba, Father.” The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, (Romans 8:15-16).
  • Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, (1 Corinthians 2:12).
  • And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, “Abba, Father!” (Galatians 4:6).
  • Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you, (Romans 8:11).

Paul says that we have become a new creation in Christ. As new creations we are adopted by God becoming sons of God. The down payment of the Holy Spirit is evidence that we are new creations and are now waiting for the “full package” when we get to heaven. Therefore we conclude that the Holy Spirit must have indwelt Adam prior to his fall because he was classified as a Son of God. We are sons of God because we are direct creations of God “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation,” (2 Corinthians 5:17). “For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation,” (Galatians 6:15). We share that feature with the angels, whom we shall be like in heaven. However, God did not form them from the earth, nor did He breathe into the angels and so we possess something that sets us apart from them as far as being sons of God is concerned. The work of the cross was the correction of what had been lost 4000 years before. The Spirit was breathed into Adam, the first (earthly) son of God, he lost it, and now the Spirit dwells in the sons of God who we have become by believing in Jesus’ name. The Spirit is the guarantee or down payment of what is coming.


[i] Augustus Hopkins Strong, Systematic Theology, 1893, 243.

[ii] πλάσσω Thayer’s Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.

[iii] According to the Targumim, one called the Memra [word], who was in the beginning with God creating with Him. According to the Jerusalem Targum the Word created man. “And the Word [Memra] of the Lord created man in His likeness, in the likeness of the presence of the Lord He created him, the male and his yoke-fellow He created them,” (Targum Jerusalem, Genesis 1:27).

[iv] “For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?” (Theophilus, To Autolycus. Book 2, ch 13-30 Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 2).

[v] “Human life is described here as consisting of a body (made from soil from the ground) and breath (given by God). Both animals and humans are called “a living being” (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה) but humankind became that in a different and more significant way. The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often translated “soul,” but the word usually refers to the whole person. The phraseנֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה  (nefesh khayyah, “living being”) is used of both animals and human beings (see 1:20, 24, 30; 2:19),” (NET Bible Notes Genesis 2:7).

[vi] See also: “In Him was life, and the life was the light of men,” (John 1:4); “For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will,” (John 5:21); “For as the Father has life in Himself, so He has granted the Son to have life in Himself,” (John 5:26); “And so it is written, ‘The first man Adam became a living being.’ The last Adam became a life-giving spirit,” (1 Corinthians 15:45); “He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life,” (1 John 5:12).

[vii] In the Greek text enephusesen (ενεφυσησεν) is followed by the dative which is complementary to the word en εν which follows the Hebrew in Genesis 2:7 extremely well.

[viii] Then the LORD came down in the cloud, and spoke to him, and took of the Spirit that was upon him, and placed the same upon the seventy elders; and it happened, when the Spirit rested upon them, that they prophesied, although they never did so again, (Numbers 11:25, emphasis mine). But the Spirit of the LORD came upon Gideon (Judges 6:34 emphasis mine). Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, (Judges 11:29 emphasis mine). And the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him, and he tore the lion apart (Judges 14:6 Emphasis mine). Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon him mightily, (Judges 14:19 emphasis mine).

Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed […] and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David, (1 Samuel 16:13 emphasis mine). See also: Judges 3:10; 15:14; 2 Chronicles 20:14; 24:20.

The Beast, Son of Perdition, Antichrist, Maitreya, etc.

Question from listener (Charles): “Why do most prophecy teachers refer to “the Antichrist” as though it is a specific individual given that name in the Bible? In reading the Bible I have never been able to identify any individual or entity referred to as “the Antichrist.”

I agree with Charles that the best name for the person in question is not precisely Antichrist. The Scriptures have many names for this person. We find him called by the title little horn in Dan 7 and 8, Son of Perdition in 2 Thessalonians 2, the Wicked One in Isaiah 11. So,  he is not properly called “the Antichrist” – I have used the term “Antichrist” because it is what we commonly used term to describe the person who will be the ultimate embodiment of the antichrist philosophy. I would argue that it is not such a bad designation for the person because he is certainly against and will be in the place of Christ – thus the name fits. I think the other terms for such as beast, son of perdition, little horn, are all terms that refer to a feature of him. From Genesis 3:15 we know that he will be opposed to Jesus the Messiah (the Christ) and will also be the genetic counterfeit of the Christ.  I am convinced that he is called the beast in revelation precisely because he is a genetic hybrid between Satan and man.

The Petrodollar, Federal Reserve, Bohemian Grove, and Disciples of Yeshua

This post is to clarify the video Preserving the Petrodollar Is Leading to World War 3

First of all, I simply reposted the video. I didn’t make it myself. Secondly, this short video is not the final word on a complex issue. However, I posted it because we need to realize that the US is not this “we-are-God’s-nation-that-can-do-no-wrong” – once we begin to see the Federal Reserve for what it is – a for-profit private company in charge of a massive Ponzi scheme – and once we can see that Bohemian Grove 40 foot stone owl molechmany of our leaders and world leaders get together every year for a “creamation of care” ceremony where they sacrifice (in effigy) to a 40 ft stone owl (representing perhaps Molech, but definitely satanic in nature) – and once we see that 9/11 was not what the official-governmental position is (what brought down tower 7? – watch the video I posted on Architects and Engineers 9/11 Truth) – once we see these things and many more, then we begin to realize that America is not some bastion of freedom keeping the world a safe place to play in, then many things begin to make sense.   
Some readers have suggested that we need to put away our tin foil hats. I am interested in truth, the truth. The Bible gives me the all important context and framework. However, there are things that may not be SPECIFICALLY predicted in the Bible yet clearly fall into the bigger picture. I invite you to read my article: Freemasons, the Third Temple, and Antichrist. We can’t pretend that a secret society has not been working on the reconstruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Well, we could, but we shouldn’t. When you see how they are ready, anticipating and preparing for the coming of the Anti-Christ then I would argue we ought to take notice. When you notice that our children’s cartoons are infested with NWO imagery https://www.douglashamp.com/the-new-world-order-message-hidden-in-childrens-cartoons/  then you begin to see that Satan, our sworn enemy has been very busy and he just might have pulled the wool over our eyes. However, once we begin to see his devices, we can start making better decisions about what we watch, what we buy…and HOW WE PRAY. When we see just how nefarious he really is and how the culture of our every day lives is inundated with his lies, then we can be-ware of our adversary who goes about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour (1 Pet 5:8).
Understanding America’s role with the Petrodollar, Federal Reserve, Bohemian Grove, etc, should help us to better understand the gravity of the situation that we are in and the lateness of the hour. We need to wake up and take notice of what is happening and then seek the Lord as to what we should do about it.

Are the Thousand Years in Revelation 20 Literal?

The question regarding the last years of earth’s history is, in a sense, very similar to that regarding earth’s first days: what do numbers and units of time in the Bible actually mean?  Are they merely figurative or are they to be taken literally? The interpretation of the days in Genesis 1 and the meaning of the thousand years in Revelation 20 are related due to the use of numbers and measurements of time in the Bible.

In Revelation 20 verses 2-7, six times we are told that Satan will be bound and that Christ will reign for a thousand years.  Understanding this to be a literal period of one thousand years or an allegory of an indefinite period of time has been an issue that has, generally speaking, created two camps of believers.  When we look at the ancient interpretations of both the creation account and Revelation 20, we will see that before the time of Augustine (354 to 430 A.D) both were interpreted literally.  Those holding to a literal interpretation are historically called millenialists (although today they are called premillenialists) and believe that the Great Tribulation will occur before Jesus returns to set up His kingdom for a literal period of a thousand years in which He will reign physically from Jerusalem.  Justin Martyr, a church father from the early second century A.D. declared emphatically in his Dialogue with Trypho,

But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and enlarged, [as] the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.  (The FathersDialogue with Trypho Chapter 80)

Clearly, Justin Martyr took the literal interpretation rather than a figurative or typological approach as Augustine, who is the father of the amillenial position, would later do. [i] The amillenialists purport that the thousand years in Revelation should be taken figuratively and that, in fact, there will not be an actual, literal, physical reign of Christ nor a binding of Satan for a literal, thousand years.  Again, we are faced with the question of whose view is right.  Is it really a matter of theological preference as to which view one holds?  Or is there some key to unlock this enigma?  Rather than looking to the Church Fathers for validation, let’s first look at the passage and allow Scripture to interpret itself.  I believe that we will find that, as with Genesis 1, only one of the two approaches is acceptable.

There are in essence two words that we need to study in order to determine the duration of time in Revelation 20.  We will first of all look at years to appreciate how the word is used in the Bible.  Once we have recognized what is the normal meaning, we will explore what writers meant when stating one thousand.  Does the number have just a simple meaning of thousand?  Or if as the amillenialists state, should it be understood as an indefinite period of time similar to the days of creation as purported by evolution supporters?

Years in the Bible

The word year (ete ἔτη) appears a total of 29 times in the New Testament.  In every occurrence the meaning of year (or years) is simply that of a real, literal period of a year whenever a number precedes it.  For example, we read in Mark 5:25, “Now a certain woman had a flow of blood for twelve years.”  The text treats this as a real number of real years — and why shouldn’t it?  What else could years mean?  In Luke, we read of the prophetess Anna, “and this woman was a widow of about eighty-four years…” (Luke 2:37).  In John 2:20, the Jewish leaders reply to Jesus’ claim, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?”  Furthermore, in Acts 13:20 we read, “After that He gave them judges for about four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.”  In all of the examples, the word years (ete ἔτη) is referring to a real (specific) amount of time and is used in its literal sense.  The 450 years of the time of the judges is considered to be a real amount of time.  The fact is that year, when preceded by a cardinal number, is never used in any other way.  Years always refers to what we understand to be a year – that is, the completion of twelve months (with the exception of an occasional 13th month added every several years to balance out the Jewish calendar), once around the sun.  Similarly to day in the Old Testament, which when preceded by a cardinal number means only a real day, so too when the words years and years are preceded by a cardinal number, they always and only signify a definite period of time.

The Number Thousand

Since year (and years) has only a literal and absolute meaning when preceded by a cardinal number, our next undertaking is to try to correctly understand “thousand.”  Is there something in the word which would lead us to conclude that thousand could mean something other than its literal and plain meaning?

Thousand (chilia χίλια) occurs in the New Testament eleven times, six of those being in the twentieth chapter of Revelation.  Twice it occurs in 2 Peter 3:8, “…that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.”  The other three occurrences are in the book of Revelation as well.  The number of verses with which we can compare the word thousand in the New Testament in order to correctly determine the meaning is somewhat limited since six of the eleven examples occur in Revelation 20.  Thus, we need to turn to the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament translated from the Hebrew in approximately 270 B.C.

The word thousand appears 504 times in the Septuagint where it is translated from the Hebrew word אלף elef, which simply means thousand.  It never refers to any kind of imaginary number, nor does it signify an indefinite quantity.  The Septuagint merely translates that word literally and carries the same meaning.  There are cases where a text will say thousands in the plural and of course, that by definition is indefinite.  But whenever a text refers to one thousand it is speaking in a literal sense.

So, you might ask, why doesn’t the word one appear before the word thousand?  Quite simply, Greek does not require the word “one” to appear before thousand for it to be understood that it means one thousand.  Many languages are parallel to Greek in this respect.  For example, in Hebrew, there is no need to say one before thousand.  In fact, it is impossible to say that and to do so would sound very foreign; so too in Greek.  When it is only one thousand, then no other word is necessary to qualify the number.  Only when it is two thousand plus does a number come in front of it.

The Definite Article

The phrase thousand years appears six times in the passage of Revelation 20:2-7.

He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. But after these things he must be released for a little while. And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.  Now when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison.  (emphasis mine)

Three times in the passage the author, John, states “…bound him [Satan] for a thousand years” (Revelation 20:2); “…And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years” (Revelation 20:4); and “…and shall reign with Him a thousand years” (Revelation 20:6).  In all three of these passages, the literal rendering of the text is that Satan is bound and the saints reign one thousand years (one is included in the word thousand in Greek).  The other three occurrences “…till the thousand years were finished” (Revelation 20:3); “again until the thousand years were finished” (Revelation 20:5); and “…when the thousand years have expired…” (Revelation 20:7) all refer to a specific time indicated by the use of the definite article the.  The word the is a limiter or a definer.  It tells us that something specific is indicated.  Therefore, the time frame is not something undefined but in fact it is very defined.  “The thousand years…” reinforces the fact that a literal amount of time is indicated since it points back to “a thousand years” already mentioned in verse 2.

Summary of Years

In conclusion, we have seen that years and numbers (just like days) in both the Old and New Testaments are taken as literal.  Years always refers to a literal amount of time.  Year, when used with a number, is never used to refer to anything more than once around the sun.  When the writer wished to indicate a longer period, then the exact number of years was mentioned.  We also saw that the number thousand is treated just like the other numbers in both Testaments.  The references to years in the New Testament are numerous and all of them are treated as real years, including the one of 450 years.  Furthermore, the Greek word chilia χίλια, meaning “one thousand,” is used hundreds of times in the Greek Septuagint and every time has a simple meaning of a literal number, that is one thousand!  And finally, we noted that the grammar in Revelation, by the use of the definite article, limits the use of what one thousand can mean.  It is not an indefinite period of time, but rather is very definite.

Thus we are left with the conclusion that the thousand years of Revelation should be understood to mean precisely that – one thousand, literal years.  Having used Scripture to interpret Scripture, we see that any other interpretation is both inconsistent with the teaching of the Bible and grammatically unsound.


[i] Augustine formulated this eschatology primarily in response to the Donatists’s drunken feasts in their “cult of the dead” ceremonies honoring the martyred brothers.  Augustine also reacted to the millenialists’ anticipation as the year 500 approached since they thought that to be the culmination of the 6000 years since creation. (Anderson 2002: 4)

¿Son Literales los Mil Años en Apocalipsis 20?

¿Son Literales los Mil Años en Apocalipsis 20?

El tema tocante a los ultimos anos de la historia de la tierra es, en una manera,  muy similar al primero: ¿Qué significan actualmente los números y las unidades de tiempo? ¿Son meramente figurativos o serán tomados literalmente? En Apocalipsis 20 versiculos 2 – 7, se nos dice en seis ocasiones que Satanás será atado y que Cristo reinará durante 1000 años. Entender esto como un periodo literal de mil años o una alegoría de un periodo indefinido de tiempo ha sido un tema que generalmente hablando, ha creado dos campos de creyentes. Hay aquellos que se llaman a sí mismos premilenialistas, creyendo que la Gran Tribulación sucederá antes que Jesús regrese para instaurar un periodo literal de mil años donde El reinará físicamente desde Jerusalén. Los amilenialistas sostienen que los mil años de Apocalipsis deberían ser tomados figurativamente y que de hecho, no será literalmente un reinado físico de Cristo ni se atará a Satanás por mil años literales. Nuevamente, somos enfrentados a la pregunta, ¿Cuál punto de vista es correcto? Realmente es un asunto de preferencia teológica donde uno se sostiene en el punto de vista o ¿Hay alguna clave para descubrir este enigma?

Hay en esencia dos palabras que debemos estudiar para determinar la duración del tiempo en Apocalipsis 20. Primero que nada miremos “años” para apreciar cómo es usada la palabra en la Biblia. Una vez que hemos reconocido cual es el significado normal exploraremos lo que quieren decir los  escritores cuando establecen mil para ver si el número tiene un significado simple de mil o si, como establecen los amilenialistas, debería ser entendido como un perido indefinido de tiempo.

Años en la Biblia

La palabra “año” (del griego ἔτη ete) aparece un total de 29 veces en el Nuevo Testamento. En cada ocasión, el significado de “año” (o “años”) es simplemente un periodo literal de un año.  Por ejemplo leemos en Marcos 5:25, “Había una mujer que sufría hemorragia desde hacía doce años”. El texto trata esto como un número real de años ¿Y porqué no habría de ser así? ¿Qué otra cosa podría significar “años”? En Lucas, leemos de la profetiza Ana “había quedado como viuda hasta ochenta y cuatro años” (Luc 2:37). En Juan 2:20, los líderes judíos dijeron a Jesús: “Durante cuarenta y seis años se construyó este templo ¿y tú lo levantarás en tres días?”. Más aún, en Hechos 13:20 leemos, “como unos 450 años. Después de eso, les dio jueces hasta el profeta Samuel”. Todos los ejemplos se refieren a un periodo de tiempo real y usan “años” (ἔτη ete) en su sentido literal. Los 450 años del tiempo de los jueces es considerado como un periodo de tiempo real. El hecho es que “año” nunca es usado en ninguna otra forma. “Año” siempre se refiere a lo que entendemos como tal, eso es, la unión de doce meses (con la excepción de un 13º mes ocasional añadido cada algunos años para balancear el calendario), una vuelta alrededor del sol. A diferencia de “día” en el Antiguo Testamento, donde ecasionalmente es usado para referirse a periodos diferentes de 24 horas literales como en “aquellos días” (Jueces 18:1), “años” en la Biblia, siempre y únicamente significan un periodo definido de tiempo.

El Numero “Mil”

Como año (ἔτη ete) (y años) sólo tiene un significado literal y absoluto, nuestro compromiso es tratar de entender correctamente “mil”. ¿Hay algo en la palabra que nos podría conducir a concluir que “mil” pudiera significar algo más que su literal y llano significado?

“Mil” (χίλια chilia) solo aparece en el Nuevo Testamento once ocasiones, seis de ellas en el capítulo veinte de Apocalipsis. Dos veces aparece en dos ocasiones en 2ª Ped 3:8, “…delante del Señor un día es como mil años y mil años como un día”. Las otras tres también aparecen en el libro de Apocalipsis. El número de versículos con que podemos comparar la palabra “mil” en el Nuevo Testamento para poder determinar correctamente el significado es algo así como limitado porque seis de once ejemplos se observan en Apocalipsis 20. Por ello, necesitamos regresar a la Septuaginta, a la traducción del griego del Antiguo Testamento traducida del hebreo aproximadamente en 270 D.C.

La palabra “mil” aparece 504 veces en la Septuaginta donde es traducida de la palabra hebrea אלף elef, que simplemente significa mil. Nunca se refiere a otro tipo de numero imaginario ni significa una cantidad indefinida. La Septuaginta solamente traduce esa palabra literalmente y conlleva el mismo significado. Hay casos donde un texto dirá “miles” en el plural y desde luego, eso, por definición es indefinido. Pero donde sea que el texto se refiera a “un mil”, está hablando en un sentido literal.

Ah, usted podría preguntar, ¿porqué no aparece la palabra “uno” antes de la palabra mil? Muy simple, el griego, a diferencia del inglés, no requiere que la palabra “uno” aparezca antes de mil porque se entiende que significa un mil. Muchos idiomas son paralelos a griego más que el inglés. Por ejemplo, en hebreo, no hay necesidad de decir echad “uno” antes de elef  “mil”. De hecho, hacer eso sonaría muy extraño. Así mismo en griego, cuando es sólo un mil, entonces no es necesaria ninguna otra palabra para calificar ese número. Sólo cuando se habla de dos mil en adelante, se coloca otro número por delante.

El Artículo Definido

La frase “mil años” aparece cinco veces en el pasaje de Apocalipsis 20:2-6.

Apocalipsis 20:2-6, “El prendió al dragón, aquella serpiente antigua quien es el diablo y Satanás, y le ató por mil años. Lo arrojó al abismo y lo cerró, y lo selló sobre él para que no engañase más a las naciones, hasta que se cumpliesen los mil años. Después de esto, es necesario que sea desatado por un poco de tiempo. Y vi tronos; y se sentaron sobre ellos, y se les concedió hacer juicio. Y vi las almas de los degollados por causa del testimonio de Jesús y por la palabra de Dios. Ellos no habían adorado a la bestia ni a su imagen, ni tampoco recibieron su marca en sus frentes ni en sus manos. Ellos volvieron a vivir y reinaron con Cristo por mil años. Pero los demás muertos no volvieron a vivir, sino hasta que se cumplieran los mil años. Esta es la primera resurrección. Bienaventurado y santo el que tiene parte en la primera resurrección. Sobre éstos la segunda muerte no tiene ningún poder; sino que serán sacerdotes de Dios y de Cristo, y reinarán con él por los mil años.

Tres veces en el pasaje el autor, Juan declara, “…lo ató (Satanás) for mil años” (Ap 20:2). “…volvieron a vivir y reinaron con Cristo por mil años” (Ap 20:4). “…y reinarán con él por los mil años” (Ap 20:6). En todos estos pasajes, la interpretación literal del texto es que Satanás es atado y los santos reinan mil años (uno es incluido en la palabra “mil” en griego). Los otros pasajes “…hasta que se cumpliesen los mil años” (Ap 20:3). “…hasta que se cumplieran los mil años” (Ap 20:5), “Cuando los mil años se cumplan” (Ap 20:7) todos se refieren a un tiempo específico indicado por el uso del articulo definido los. La palabra los limita o define. Nos dice que se indica algo específico. Así mismo, el lapso de tiempo no es algo indefinido sino que de hecho, está muy definido. “Los mil años…” refuerza el hecho de que se indica una cantidad literal de tiempo.

Una Objeción Final

En la segunda carta de Pedro, escribe a los creyentes que sufrieron todo tipo de pruebas y persecusiones debido a su fe en Jesús. Sus palabras son para confortarles y recordarles que la perspectiva de Dios es diferente a la nuestra. Escribe, “Pero, amados, una cosa no paséis por alto: que delante del Señor un día es como mil años y mil años como un día”. (2ª Pe 3:8). Este versículo ha sido usado supuestamente para probar que el tiempo y los números en la Biblia no tienen que ser de un valor concreto y por lo tanto, los días en Génesis 1 pudieron haber durado mil años, o quizás un millón, y de la misma manera, los miles de años en Apocalipsis no son un periodo actual de mil años. Pero ¿Pedro está realmente diciendo que un día es igual a un mil años? Mirando nuevamente y con cuidado el versículo notamos que hay dos claves importantes para un entendimiento correcto.

La primera clave es “delante del Señor”. Aquí, Pedro está describiendo la perspectiva de Dios para el tiempo, no la del hombre. Esto no debe pasarse por alto. Pedro no está diciendo que un mil años es igual a un día. El está diciendo que en la economía de Dios el tiempo es radicalmente diferente y que cuando pensamos que el Señor no es ordenado, deberíamos pensarlo nuevamente. “El Señor no tarda su promesa, como algunos la tienen por tardanza; más bien, es paciente para con vosotros, porque no quiere que nadie se pierda, sino que todos procedan al arrepentimiento” (2ª Pe 3:9). Pedro desea clarificar que el tiempo de Dios es diferente al nuestro.

La otra clave importante es la palabra pequeña “como” (ὡς hos). Aunque pequeña, juega una importante función en ello y nos dice que dos cosas son similares pero no exactas en naturaleza. No es diferente que cuando hacemos tales declaraciones como “Juanito es como su padre” o “a los ojos de Juanito, su padre es como Hércules”. Ambas declaraciones solo establecen que uno es como o similar a otro pero no es igual que el otro. De esa manera también, Pedro está diciendo que a los ojos de Dios, un día es similar a mil años y viceversa, mil años es como un día. Como Dios está fuera del tiempo, eso simplemente confirma que el tiempo es irrelevante para Dios, aunque no sea irrelevante para nosotros. Pedro nos da otro ejemplo del uso de esta pequeña palabra en su primera epístola donde dice, “Porque: Toda carne es como la hierba, y toda su gloria es como la flor de la hierba.” (1ª Pe 1:24). Claramente, él no está diciendo que actualmente somos  hierba creciendo en el campo. Meramente está diciendo que en muchas formas somos similares a la hierba. Así como la hierba tiene una vida corta, nuestras vidas también son cortas cuando se comparan con la gloria eternal de Dios y nuestra gloria se desvanecerá más rápidamente de lo que pensamos. Así para Dios, un día o mil años es lo mismo y nuestras vidas pasarán rápidamente.

Esta verdad fue declarada primeramente en el Antiguo Testamento de donde Pedro la extrajo. “Pues mil años delante de tus ojos son como el día de ayer, que pasó. Son como una de las vigilias de la noche” (Sal 90:4). Aquí también, el escritor simplemente establece cosas desde el punto de vista de Dios, esto es, el tiempo no afecta a Dios. El está fuera del tiempo y sea un día o mil años, es lo mismo para El. Sin embargo no vamos a concluir que el tiempo es irrelevante para nosotros. Una y otra vez, vemos que la gente vive vidas reales durante un monto específico de tiempo. La Biblia trata con el periodo de vida de Adán (930 años), Noé (950 años), Abraham (175 años), Sara (127 años), Jacob (147 años) y Moisés (120 años) como tiempo definido y real (Vea Génesis 5:5; 9:29; 25:7; 23:1; 47:28 y Deuteronomio 34:7, respectivamente). Note que Adán y Noé vivieron cerca de mil años. Su tiempo de vida fue como un solo día a los ojos de Dios, pero no obstante, vivieron un número específico de años, y al fnal de acuerdo con Jacob, esos años no pasaron como si fueran un solo día.

“Y Jacob respondió al faraón: –Los años de mi peregrinación son 130 años. Pocos y malos son los años de mi vida, y no alcanzan al número de los años de la vida de mis padres en su peregrinación” (Génesis 47:9)

Conclusiónes acera de los Mil Anos en Apocalipsis 20

En conclusión, hemos visto que los años y los números en ambos, Antiguo y Nuevo Testamento son tomados como literales. “Años” siempre se refiere a un periodo literal de tiempo. Nunca son usados para referirse a nada más que un año. Cuando el escritor deseó indicar un periodo más largo de tiempo, entonces fue mencionado el número exacto de años. También vimos que el número “mil” es tratado solo como los otros números en ambos testamentos. Las referencias a la palabra años en el Nuevo Testamento son numerosas y todas ellas son tratadas como años reales incluyendo la de 450 años. Más aun, la palabra griega χίλια chilia quiere decir “un mil”, es usada cientos de veces en la Septuaginta en griego y en cada ocasión tiene el simple significado de un número literal, esto es, “¡mil!” Y finalmente, notamos que la gramática en Apocalipsis, por el uso del artículo definido limita el uso de lo que puede significar un mil. No es un periodo indefinido de tiempo, sino que es muy claramente definido.

Así, nos quedamos con la conclusión que los mil años de Apocalipsis deberían ser entendidos precisamente así, mil años literales. Habiendo usado la Escritura para interpretarse a sí misma, vemos que cualquier otra interpretación es ambas, inconsistente con la enseñanza de la Biblia y gramaticalmente débil.

 

Trans-humanism Watch: Synthesizing DNA As Easy As ‘Drag and Drop’ (Video)

The technological advances today are moving the human race toward  a trans-humanist future. While those advances are exciting and are a testament to the genius of man, they are leading us over a genetic cliff. God said everything is to reproduce according to its own kind. Splicing different kinds of biological code will most certainly end poorly. I like technology and sci-fi, however, what is happening in our today, in my estimation, are giant steps towards the mark of the beast.

Life may be the software that makes its own hardware, but where is the compiler? If we plan to start programming life itself, we are going to need a radically different and better tool kit than the one available to geneticists today. Omri lays out a concrete vision for how such a tool would work and for how it would be used to create the bio-products our future needs so badly.

In an analogous way, Amirav-Drory wants to create a graphic user interface that would empower people to manipulate the arcane logic of DNA. His new software, Genome Compiler (free and available for download at www.genomecompiler.com), converts the various parts of a DNA sequence into easy-to-understand, and easily manipulable, icons. The software turns the complex task of DNA design into an easy drag-and-drop exercise. Read more…

Omri is the founder & CEO of Genome Compiler Corp, a Synthetic Biology venture. His background is in biochemical and structural studies of membrane protein complexes involved in bio-energetics.