Nimrod as Gilgamesh

Chapter 11 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Nimrod as Gilgamesh 

Nimrod the rebel may also be known by the name Gilgamesh. In the ancient epic, Gilgamesh was a demigod from Uruk, which is biblical Erech and modern-day Iraq. According to Genesis 10, “The beginning of [Nimrod’s] kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar” (Gen 10:10). Gilgamesh was eager to make a name for himself and set out on adventure with his half-animal, half-human hybrid friend, Enkidu, in order to ask Utnapishtim, a survivor from the Flood, the secret of immortality. 

It is interesting that in the epic, the Flood is taken as a matter of historical fact. No explanation is given about the Deluge, much like how every American knows the 4th of July is Independence Day. Everyone reading the Epic of Gilgamesh would have known there had been a Flood.  

Gilgamesh’s name itself means “ancestor hero”, which points us back to Nimrod, who began to be a gibbor (a hero). In a later section, we will consider another face of Nimrod as Pabilsag, the chief ancestor, a name which includes an aspect from Gilgamesh (bilga “ancestor”). According to behindthename.com, Gilgamesh:  

Possibly means “the ancestor is a hero”, from Sumerian (bilga) meaning “ancestor” and (mes) meaning “hero, young man” … Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Uruk who ruled around the 27th century BC.xix 

Amar Annus, in his ground-breaking study, has brought to light a hidden detail in Gilgamesh’s name which may provide a connection between Ninurta and Gilgamesh. Ninurta’s epithet is frequently “overseer of the equilibrium of the universe,” while Gilgamesh’s esoteric name, as deduced by S. Parpola, was “he who balanced the tree of equilibrium,” which is hidden into the cryptographic signs dGIŠ.GÍN.MAŠ.” xx In other words, Ninurta and Gilgamesh might be the same. 

There are other features of Gilgamesh that echo Nimrod and the idea that he was a gigas, a giant. According to scholar, A. Heidel, Gilgamesh is “2/3 god and 1/3 man.xxi He is from Uruk. He was a giant (11 cubits). He constructs cities. He takes women. He is a mighty hunter, and he is a “shepherd.”xxii  

Just looking at that list of similarities leads us to conclude “His activities thus resemble the exploits of the Mesopotamian hero Gilgamesh.”xxiii Nimrod was a hybrid, and was from Erech / Uruk. He constructed cities, and was likely behind the construction of Babel and the religious system. He was a hunter. We certainly hear loud echoes of Nimrod in the Gilgamesh epic, which strongly suggests they were the same historic hero.xxiv  

Annus reminds us of an important principle as we continue on our journey to uncover Satan’s ancient machinations. He says, “Creation myths and conflict myths are somewhat different entities, but in some versions or contaminations they might be connected into a single mythical story.”xxv In other words, the Gilgamesh, Ninurta and Nimrod accounts could be contaminations of the original, but ultimately, they lead us back to original story.  

G. Smith and Jeremias were some of the first scholars to suggest the theory that Nimrod was, in fact, Gilgamesh: 

Nimrod is to be identified with the Babylonian hero Izdubar or Gishdubar (Gilgamesh) … based on the fact that Izdubar is represented in the Babylonian epos as a mighty hunter, always accompanied by four dogs, and as the founder of the first great kingdom in Asia. Moreover, instead of “Izdubar”—the correct reading of which had not yet been determined—Jeremias saw the possibility of reading “Namra Udu” (shining light), a reading which would have made the identification with Nimrod almost certain.xxvi 

We must appreciate the fact that Gilgamesh is not a fictional character; He was a real man. As S. N. Kramer suggests in History Begins in Sumer, the earliest period of Mesopotamian history is the same time that Gilgamesh ruled.xxvii This period is also when Nimrod existed, according to the Bible. And Nimrod the Rebel was such a sight to behold that God took notice! 

HOW TALL WAS GILGAMESH? 

It has been noted that Gilgamesh was 11 cubits tall. xxviii Exactly how tall he was varies based on the value of the cubit, and the measurement of a cubit length varied as:  

  • Hebrew 17.5 in 
  • Egyptian 17.6 in 
  • Babylonian Long 19.8 in 
  • Hebrew Longest 20.4 in 
  • Egyptian Long 20.6 in 

Since Gilgamesh came from the Babylonian region, we ought to use the Babylonian cubit. Thus 19.8” x 11 cubits equals 18.15 feet (5.53 m).  

It is interesting to compare his height to Og, King of Bashan. Moses wrote in Deuteronomy that Og’s bed was nine cubits long (Deut 3:11). But which cubit should we use for Og? The real question is which cubit would Moses, who was “learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,” (Acts 7:22) have used? Of course, the Egyptian Cubit.  

Figure 29 Egyptian Royal Cubit 

When I had the chance to visit the British Museum in London, I requested to look at the Egyptian (Royal) cubit, and they obliged me. After waiting about half an hour, they took me into a room with lots of drawers. They opened one and pulled out the Egyptian (Royal) cubit, as depicted in Figure 29. I have to admit, I was very excited. I measured it, and it was exactly 20.63 inches. Thus, we have the exact length of the standard measure Moses would have used.  

We are told of Og’s bed (or likely sarcophagus) that “nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man” (Deut 3:11 JPS). We calculate 20.63 inches times nine cubits and arrive at 15.47 feet (4.716 m) long and the width is about six feet ten inches (6.87 feet, 2.094 meters); That means Og was roughly 15’6” tall. Gilgamesh was about 18’ tall. These descriptions fit second temple sources; Josephus mentions the ancient giants who had: “bodies so large, and countenances so entirely different from other men, that they were surprising to the sight.”xxix The Book of Baruch mentions the giants “were of so great stature, and so expert in war.”xxx 

There is no doubt that many features match both Nimrod and Gilgamesh and hence, we cannot write Gilgamesh off as a purely fictional character. S. N. Kramer agrees and points out: “A few years ago one would have strongly doubted his (historical) existence … we now have the certitude that the time of Gilgamesh corresponds to the earliest period of Mesopotamian history.xxxi  

Figure 30 Gilgamesh relief in Louvre Museum in Paris 

GILGAMESH’S WEIGHT 

The Louvre Museum in Paris contains a relief, seen in Figure 30 on the previous page, that is thought to be of Gilgamesh. It may just be coincidental, but the relief is between sixteen to eighteen feet tall. In the picture, Gilgamesh can be seen holding a lion, like a woman might hold her chihuahua. In Corrupting the Image Vol. 1, we determined that Og weighed about 3,125 lbs (1,417 kg), since he was 2.5 times an average man’s height today. Our formula required that we find the cube of 2.5 times 200 lbs. (91 kg). We used 2.5 because Og was 15 feet tall which is 2.5 times taller than an average man weighing 200 lbs., which yielded 3,125 lbs. (1,417 kg). Applying the same formula: the cube of 3 times 200 lbs. to Gilgamesh, we arrive at a weight of 5,400 lbs. (2,449 kg)! Someone that weighs that much could easily hold a four hundred poundxxxii lion! 

GILGAMESH’S TOMB FOUND 

In 2003, the BBC reported that archaeologist Jörg Fassbinder of the Bavarian Department of Historical Monuments in Munich used a magnetic imaging system to create a magnetogram, or a digital map of an area in the ancient city of Uruk. Fassbinder states: “The most surprising thing was that we found structures already described by Gilgamesh.” He believed they might have found the tomb of Gilgamesh under what used to be the bed of the Euphrates River, where it flowed in the ancient city of Uruk. Fassbinder states: “I don’t want to say definitely it was the grave of King Gilgamesh, but it looks very similar to that described in the epic.” BBC goes on to say, “Gilgamesh was described as having been buried under the Euphrates, in a tomb apparently constructed when the waters of the ancient river parted following his death.”xxxiii  

Amazingly, Revelation 9 predicts that four angels will emerge from the Euphrates River itself. “Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates” (Rev. 9:14KJV).  Could Gilgamesh be one of those beings?

Nimrod Became A Chimera

Chapter 10 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Nimrod Became A Chimera

In 2020, Chris L. of Reno, Nevada, learned that three months after his bone marrow transplant, “all of the DNA in his semen belonged to his donor.” The DNA in his sperm was not his—it was that of his German bone marrow donor. According to the article, Chris became a chimera and is on record saying, “I thought that it was pretty incredible that I can disappear and someone else can appear.”i Incredible, indeed! Before the transplant, Chris was simply Chris and any kids he would sire would be from his DNA. However, after the transplant, any children Chris might sire will not have his DNA, but that of his donor. When a donor’s DNA is implanted, the DNA signature of the original person is replaced by that of the donor. We can now scientifically state that Chris became a chimera! ii 

So too, Nimrod underwent a change of epic proportions; He began to “be a mighty one on the earth.” The Hebrew phrase [ה֣וּא הֵחֵ֔ל לִֽהְי֥וֹת גִּבֹּ֖ר בָּאָֽרֶץ hu heichel lihiot gibbor ba’aretz] means Nimrod “began to be a gibbor on the earth”iii—he started as a regular human and then became a gibbor. The transformation process may have been a type of overshadowing where Satan’s DNA merged and / or changed Nimrod’s DNA so he became a gibbor, a hero. He became a hybrid being—a god in the flesh and Satan’s agent in this world. Just like Chris, any children Nimrod would sire would not be his, but his donor’s!  

This post-flood transformation is likely what is intended in Genesis 6:4 which says at two distinct times, the sons of God came into the daughters of men when they bore them children.  These two times were: before the Flood and after. The relative pronoun “asher” translated “when” modifies two temporal clauses “in those days”, as well as “also afterward”. We can visualize this, as shown on the following page: 

A gibbor (hero) was not necessarily one of the Nephilim, but it could include the category. Nephilim comes from the root [נפל naphal] meaning “to fall”. It is masculine plural, and the conjugation is not clear, though it has the appearance of a hiphil, which is causative. Thus, it could mean the “fallen”, or the “fellerslike people who fell a tree”, for example. So, the focus of the word is not so much an indicator of their own state, but of what they do to others.  

 “That the fallen angels were, in some sense, the fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of antiquity,” according to William Whiston, translator of Josephus. After the Flood, Nimrod / Ninurta was the first gibbor. Furthermore, “The first named gibbor on earth was Nimrod.” iv It is incredibly interesting to note that the epithet, gibbor, like the “Akkadian gabbaru ‘strong’ and Aramaic al-jabbiir ‘the giant (i.e. Orion)’, identifies Nimrod’s prowess, notably as a mythical hunter, and lord of the kingdoms of Babel.” v In other words, the Bible is not the only source that mentions the might and power of Ninurta / Nimrod. Furthermore, Nimrod’s activities described in Genesis “resemble the exploits of the Mesopotamian hero Gilgamesh,”vi who we will examine in the next chapter.  

The Nephilim (giants) were described as being gibborim (heroes), as were King David’s mighty men (gibborim); and, I do not believe the latter were anything but human. Thus, when Nimrod is called a gibbor, it does not necessarily have to mean that he was anything but mighty, but the biblical context and Mesopotamian literature strongly suggests he changed fundamentally. 

GIGANTES 

The Greek Septuagint translates the gibbor passage as “Nimrod began to be a giant” [ηρξατο ειναι γιγας gigas] (Gen 10:8 LXX Brenton). That is incredibly significant because the Septuagint also translates Nephilim and gibborim in Genesis 6:4 as “the giants” (oi gigantes). 

οι δε γίγαντες ησαν επι της γης [Now the giants were on the earth] … οι γίγαντες οι απ’’ αιώνος], [the giants of old] οι ανθρωποι οι ονομαστοι [the men of renown] (Gen 6:4 LXX) (English translation mine.) 

The Greek term Gigas was a loaded term from Greek literature, referring to divine, savage beings who were of both heaven and Earth, and in some cases, their father was Tartarus. To say Nimrod began to be a gigas, a giant, was saying that he began to be a hybrid being. The word “Gigantes” is thought by some to mean “of the earth”, though some consider this untenable.vii Nevertheless, according to etymonline.com: 

Greek Gigas (usually in plural, Gigantes), one of a race of divine but savage and monstrous beings (personifying destructiveviii natural forces), sons of Gaia and Uranus … Gaia is earth and Uranus is heaven – hence, “giants” were a comingling of heavenly and earthly beings.ix 

According to Hesiod’s Theogony, a genealogy of Greek gods, Tartarus, god of the underworld, was father of the Giants.x We need to keep in mind that the Greeks borrowed nearly all of their gods from Mesopotamia; hence, the god of the underworld is Melqart / Nergal and the like, who are all essentially Satan. 

It is significant that in the Greek translation, the word gigantes is used. This word already had an established definition, being used to speak of half-god, half-men kind of beings. In English, we use giant for a tall person. The giants were indeed tall, as Philo points out, xi but their height is not the point. Rather, the term gigas means they were mixed; they had two different natures—man and god (angel). When we look at the usage of the word Nephilim (Greek gigas) in Scripture, we find some interesting things. Keep in mind, according to the Septuagint, what was true of the Nephilim was true of Nimrod. 

ENLIL ENGENDERED NINURTA 

Looking to the history of the Mesopotamian Ninurta (Nimrod) as a template, we learn that Enlil engendered Ninurta, or in biblical terminology, Satan begat Nimrod. The Bible does not explain how this happened, but we have the prophecy from the Garden of Eden that it would happen, “I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed” (Gen 3:15)(Emphasis mine). We have also seen that Satan commanded angels to leave the spiritual realm and breed with women, a campaign which ended at the Flood. If Nimrod began to be a gibbor hero, that is a giga (hybrid), he must have a father; and, the texts from Nimrod’s fatherland supply the identity.  

Ninurta is … attested as the son of Enlil, bearing the epithet “the foremost, the lion, whom the Great Mountain (= Enlil) engendered.”xii 

In a poem written about Ninurta, we again hear how he is called a hero just like Nimrod in Genesis; that his kingship (which in Hebrew has the root [מלך] like the god Molech) is over the heavens and the earth; and he sits (reigns) with his father as a pillager or destroyer. Note also that he has three names (syncretizations) in this poem: Ninurta / Pabilsag / Ningirsu: 

[Hero, Enlil’s gatherer of the numerous functions, consummate hero, your king]ship is [eminently] mani[fest.] Hero [Ninurta], the (braided) crown [hangs loosely about your neck.] Hero Pabilsag, the (braided) crown hangs loosely about your neck. Hero Ningirsu, the (braided) crown hangs loosely about your neck; your kingship is manifest. Your kingship is over the heavens; it is over the earth. You sit with Enki upon the holy dais … With father Enlil you sit. You are the heroic son of father Enlil. In the Ekur you stand … Hero Ninurta is the pillager of cities for his father. xiii  

NIMROD THE HYBRID-HUNTER 

He was a mighty hunter [gibbor tzayid] before the LORD [לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה lifnei YHWH]; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD” (Gen 10:9). 

When Genesis notes that Nimrod was known for being a mighty hunter, does it mean that he was good at shooting deer, very much like Esau was before his father, Isaac? Would this be significant enough for the Bible to record and to even mention that he was a good hunter before God? The Hebrew phrase gibbor tzayid [גִבֹּֽר־ צַ֖יִד] and Septuagint γιγας κυνηγος [gigas kunegos], implies he was a hunter with a dual nature of human and angel / god (not that he was hunting for giants). The Bible mentions his ability because he was a perversion that God noticed (not simply because he was good with a bow for catching his dinner). 

The phrase “before the Lord” suggests that Nimrod was boastfully defying God, just like his father, Enlil. It is also the same language as found in the prohibition “You shall have no other gods before Me [על פני]” (Exod 20:3), thereby suggesting Nimrod was set up as the other god before God’s face. Jesus states in John, “For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed” (John 3:20). (See Appendix 2 What is Evil?). Nimrod was unashamedly doing his exploits in the open for all, including God, to see. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the hero, Gilgamesh, did not care what the “gods” thought of his exploits. Ninurta, Marduk and others were worshipped openly and in defiance of what God thought of them.  

The Jerusalem Targum equates Nimrod’s “hunting” with a brazen disregard for the commands of God; it was Nimrod who encouraged men to follow his judgments rather than the judgments of Shem, who was following God’s directions. According to the Targum, Nimrod was not hunting for game to eat, but he was hunting men. He was a warrior:  

He was mighty in hunting and in sin before the Lord; for he was a hunter of the sons of men in their languages. And he said to them, Leave the judgments of Shem (who is following God), and adhere to the judgments of Nimrod. On this account it is said, As Nimrod the mighty, mighty in hunting and in sin before the Lord (Jerusalem Targum). 

The ancient historian Josephus relays more of this understanding of Nimrod, who, he says, swore to avenge the fathers for what God had done in the Flood.  

Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence upon his own power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers!xiv 

In the cylinder seal depicted in Figure 28 below, we can see Ninurta in action hunting. We see Ninurta’s star-studded bow with stars of eight-points, and on top of his head, he has ten horns. Ninurta is standing on an Anzu bird, or Mušuššu, or possibly Bašmu.  

He was a bearded god (Ninurta), … with star-tipped crossed bow-cases on his back, a sword at his belt, and a sickle-sword hanging from his right arm, draws a star-studded bow and aims an arrow at a rampant lion-griffin.xv 

Amar Annus notes how the lion hunt also fell into Ninurta’s domain in his capacity as the “god of hunting,” xvi a role that is amply attested in the iconography. Thus, we see that Nimrod was a hunter, but not for game. He was a hybrid, a chimera and the son of Satan, the Son of Perdition. His actions were so deplorable that God took notice, and that was okay by Nimrod. He even flaunted it with the Akitu festival by showboating his great success at stealing the world.  

NIMROD’S LIFESPAN 

If there is one thing in which we can take solace when a tyrant rises to power, it is that his life will typically end in less than a century. Nimrod, however, was a tyrant who would have lived for hundreds of years. Though Scripture does not tell us specifically how long he lived, we can estimate based on the lives of his first cousins. We know that Noah begat Ham who begat Canaan, who begat Cush, who begat Nimrod. Hence, Nimrod was in the fourth generation from Noah, and Noah lived until the ripe age of 950 years (Gen 9:29). Thereafter, the life spans decreased dramatically. Shem died at 600 (Gen 11:10–11), and his son Arphaxad lived 437 years (Gen 11:12–13). His son Salah lived 433 years (Gen 11:14–15), which was the fourth generation from Noah. So, we can extrapolate that Nimrod, who was also of the fourth generation, would have had a natural life of approximately 430 years.  

Once again, the Bible is by no means alone in stating that ancient people lived exceptionally long lives compared to today. The ancient Mesopotamian writings of the same period speak of the Flood as a fact as much as we would speak of World War II. It did not need explanation; everyone knew what it was. It was just part of the historical landscape. The Fields of Ninurta, an unpublished composition going back to the Ur III period, depicts Ninurta in charge of all fields in the Nippur area (Civil 1994: 98).” xvii A syncretism of Ninurta was Ningirsu. In a work of Sumerian literature, The Rulers of Lagaš, Ningirsu is credited with the invention of agricultural tools.  

After the flood had swept over and brought about the destruction of the countries; when mankind was made to endure, and the seed of mankind was preserved and the black-headed people all rose; when An and Enlil called the name of mankind and established rulership, but kingship and the crown of the city had not yet come out from heaven, and Ningirsu had not yet established for the multitude of well-guarded (?) people the pickaxe, the spade, the earth basket and the plough, which mean life for the Land – in those days, the carefree youth of man lasted for 100 years and, following his upbringing, he lasted for another 100 years.xviii 

According to that composition, centenarians were still regarded as kids, (just like in Isaiah 65:20). Then after the tender age of one hundred, people could expect to live until two hundred years of age. For Nimrod, therefore, it would have been normal for him to have lived until he was into his four hundredth year. However, due to becoming a gibbor, he likely lived far longer than his normal life expectancy; he would have essentially been immortal, unless killed outright.  

SATAN’S POWERS BECAME NIMROD’S  

We also need to consider the powers that Satan would have afforded Nimrod. Whether he was able to use all of these, we cannot say. However, we do know that the coming Beast will receive and utilize all of Satan’s power, throne, and great authority (Rev 13:2). Thus, it is likely that Nimrod was able to exploit some or all of these powers, such as:  

  • Astral perception: perceive the true forms of beings that are invisible to the human eye. 
  • 2 Cor 11:14 And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light.  
  • Biokinesis: manipulate biological aspects.  
  • Exod 7:11 But Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers; so the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. 
  • Job 2:7 So Satan went out from the presence of the LORD, and struck Job with painful boils from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head. 
  • Electrokinesis: control electrical things.  
  • Rev 13:13 He performs great signs, so that he even makes fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men.  
  • Flight 
  • Rev 8:13 And I looked, and I heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice. 
  • Pathokinesis: make people feel a certain way. 
  • Eph 6:11 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.  
  • Power augmentation: enhance people’s abilities. 
  • Exod 7:11 But Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers; so the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.  
  • Power granting: give a slice of his power. 
  • Rev 13:2 Now the beast which I saw was like a leopard, his feet were like the feet of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority.  
  • Power negation: keep lesser beings from using their powers. 
  • Mark 9:25 When Jesus saw that the people came running together, He rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to it: “Deaf and dumb spirit, I command you, come out of him and enter him no more!”  
  • Precognition: forecast the future. 
  • Rev 12:12 Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time.  
  • Telepathy: read minds and influence emotions.  
  • Matt 16:23 But He turned and said to Peter, “Get behind Me, Satan! You are an offense to Me, for you are not mindful of the things of God, but the things of men.” 
  • Teleportation: travel anywhere in the universe without occupying space in between. 
  • Matt 4:5 Then the devil took Him up into the holy city, set Him on the pinnacle of the temple.  
  • Matt 4:8 Again, the devil took Him up on an exceedingly high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory.  
  • Thermokinesis: alter temperatures drastically. 
  • Job 1:16 While he was still speaking, another also came and said, “The fire of God fell from heaven and burned up the sheep and the servants, and consumed them; and I alone have escaped to tell you!”  
  • Weather manipulation 
  • Job 1:19 “and suddenly a great wind came from across the wilderness and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell on the young people, and they are dead; and I alone have escaped to tell you!”  
  • Mark 4:39 Then He arose and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, “Peace, be still!” And the wind ceased and there was a great calm.  

Merging of Satan and Nimrod-BW

In summary, we can visualize the merging of Satan and Nimrod as follows: Satan and Nimrod begin as completely separate, then they fuse together in the “gibbor” state, then they become fully one, as Satan and the Antichrist (Beast) will be. We will see another example of this in the tale of Gilgamesh.  

Nimrod the Rebel, Ninurta Lord of the Earth, Satan’s Anti-Hero?

Chapter 9 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Nimrod the Rebel, Satan’s Anti-Hero

 

From Revelation, we know that Satan, the dragon with seven heads and ten horns, will give his power, throne and great authority to the Beast who shares the same features (Rev 13:1–2). Satan and the Beast share the same qualities because they become one in power, one in purpose and one in authority. Satan will only transfer these resources to someone if it serves his purpose and furthers his kingdom. This merging of roles and transference of power to the Beast discussed in Revelation is not the first time that Satan melded with a man.

After the Flood, Satan carried on with his scheme of world domination through his anti-hero. Satan (Enlil) found his rebellious champion and caused him to be a gibbor, a hero. [1] His champion was Nimrod, the son of Cush. In him, Satan found a willing participant who wanted to be the Son of Perdition, and who, for the promise of becoming a demigod (a gibbor), would lead a life in rebellion to God. He would also lead people to Babylon, the great whore who God vowed to destroy at the end of days.

Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be [heichel lihiot] a mighty one [gibbor] on the earth. He was a mighty hunter [gibbor tzayid] before the LORD; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD”. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. From that land he went to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (that is the principal city) (Gen 10:8–12).

Satan did not have his former beauty and glorious covering to seduce Nimrod, which means he may have used his angel of light disguise to beguile him to follow his plan. Satan “transforms [μετασχηματίζω] himself into an angel of light” (2 Cor 11:14). He can appear like a hologram in spectacular beauty, but he cannot materialize at will (as far as we know). The word “transform” means “to feign to be what one is not, change/disguise oneself.”[2] In other words, Satan can pretend to be an angel of light which is not his true form; he is simply donning a disguise.

It is likely that before Satan offered the promise of his power, throne and authority to Jesus (and as we see in Revelation, he will later give to the Beast), he had first offered these enticements to Nimrod, who gladly accepted. By throwing himself down and worshiping Satan, Nimrod gained a legendary physique and handsome appearance, and earned the unique status of master of the world, patron of the hunt and supreme hero. He would be so great that humanity would worship him for generations to come. He would be immortal, invincible and immune from all hurt or illness.

Nimrod’s Name

In ancient rabbinical literature, “Nimrod is the prototype of a rebellious people, his name being interpreted as ‘he who made all the people rebellious against God.’”[3] Targum Jonathan (Targum Palestine) also plays on the root of Nimrod’s name as rebel:

“Nimrod … was a mighty rebel [lemrada למרדא] before the Lord; therefore it is said, From the day that the world was created there hath not been as Nimrod, mighty in hunting, and a rebel [meruda מרודא] before the Lord.”[4]

His name in Hebrew means “let us rebel” or “rebellion” [מרד]. Nimrod amassed a huge following by saying, “Let’s revolt! We will build our own cities with new rules contrary to God’s repressive ways.” However, Nimrod was not his given name; instead, it is the moniker that describes his nature and actions. His dad, Cush, did not look over at his wife and say, “Let’s name him Rebellion!” Can you imagine his parents saying: “Hey Rebellion, clean your room!” Parents want their kids to not be rebels. Rather, the biblical writer intentionally distorted[5] Nimrod’s name to reveal his character: the epitome of rebellion.

Nimrod is from the land of Shinar (Sumer); hence, the origin of his name is Sumerian rather than Hebrew. The evidence shows, “Nimrod is a corruption of the Sumerian god-name Ninurta, patron of the hunt.” [6] ANE scholar Amar Annus says it is “a clearly Sumerian name …. The element urta (= IB) has been most frequently interpreted to mean “earth”… thus, Nin-urta ‘the Lord (of) Earth.’” [7]

This name reflects the biblical truth that Satan was Lord of the Earth, and:

  • the ruler of this world [cosmos κόσμος] will be cast out (John 12:31, 14:30, 16:11).
  • the god of this age [aion αἰών] has blinded (2 Cor 4:4).
  • the whole world lies under the sway of the wicked one (1 John 5:19).

According to the Epic of Anzu, Ninurta’s “exploits … placed him in charge of the Tablet of Destinies—he ‘won complete dominion.’”[8] The fact that Ninurta was in possession of the Tablet of Destinies meant that Satan had conferred on Ninurta all of his authority. Similarly, Satan will give the Antichrist his “power, his throne and his great authority” (Rev 13:2). The Bible is giving us an interpretation of the things that happened in Shinar to Ninurta—the person behind the name who was a rebel who defied the Most High. Thus, Ninurta, Lord of the Earth, was a haughty but accurate title.

The reason Nimrod is mentioned within the first eleven chapters of Genesis, which covers thousands of years, is that he was amazingly notable. He simply became known as “Let us rebel.” He was the first to become a gibbor and was a hunter / warrior in the face of the Lord. He founded Babel and inspired or helped build the Tower of Babel. The memory of Nimrod is all over the ancient world—just not by the name “Nimrod”. To find him in extra-biblical texts, we look for his traits:

  1. Rebel
  2. Hero of renown (god or demigod – made into a god)
  3. Hunter
  4. Founder of cities such as Erech, Babel and Akkad
  5. Builder of a ziggurat
  6. Controller of cosmic mountain
  7. Known by names with similar root letters as Nimrod

When we look for these qualities, we find a number of matches. We hear echoes of a deified Nimrod under a number of names such as Ninurta, Ningirsu, Marduk, Nergal, Ba’al, Melqart, Pabilsag, Heracles (Hercules), Tammuz and Gilgamesh. These associations from the Ancient Near East suggest that Nimrod, indeed, became a gibbor. The same epithets of Nimrod were used for these “gods”. In fact, we are going to see many parallels that will show us that the memory and legend of Nimrod lived on. According to David Rohl, in The Lost Testament: From Eden to Exile the Five-Thousand-Year History of the People of The Bible, Nimrod was:

“represented as both semi-divine hero and god. The Babylonians knew him as Ninurta, the hunter-god armed with bow, and linked him with Marduk, warrior-god and lord of vegetation. The Sumerians of Eridu themselves elevated the mortal King Enmer-kar (‘Enmer the hunter’) to godhood as Asar, ‘son’ of Enki. The Sumerians of the Early Dynastic times named him Ningirsu, god of war and agriculture. In the city of Lagash they built the House of Ninnu (E-Ninnu) as Ningirsu’s temple and gave him the epithet Enmersi after his ancient and original name. The Assyrians recognized Enmer/Asar as their state deity, Ashur. When the author of Genesis calls him Nimrod, this is a play on words in which the name Enmer is Hebraised into nmrd (‘we shall rebel’) because this king rebelled against Yahweh by building the Tower of Babel.”[9]

Scholars Sayce, Pinches and others agree regarding “the signs which constitute the name of Marduk, who also is represented as a hunter, are read phonetically ‘Amar Ud’; and ideographically they may be read ‘Namr Ud’—in Hebrew ‘Nimrod.’”[10] We thus see a linguistic connection between Nimrod and Marduk.

Ninurta, Hero of the Tablet of Destinies

Satan will give his “power, throne, and great authority” (Rev 13:2) to the Beast described in Revelation, which will be nothing more than a repeat of what he previously did with Nimrod (Ninurta), “whom Enlil has exalted above himself” and “Enlil the Great Mountain made obeisance to him.”[11]

We can be sure that Satan has no intentions of raising up a man and then bowing down to him! Satan does not imagine himself taking a back seat to a human; He hates Adam and refused to serve something lesser than himself. In Satan’s kingdom, he is the best, greatest, top dog; He is top of the food chain and the big cheese. If he thought he was so great that he staged a coup against God, why would he suddenly bow down to Ninurta? He does not really bow; rather, he makes empty promises to Ninurta / Nimrod that he would become a god; and then, Satan’s personality seeps inside and takes over the person until only Satan remains.

We will see this blending between Enlil (Satan) and Ninurta in many texts. We need to also keep in mind the melding together of traits and characteristics between the dragon (Satan) and the Beast in Revelation. We see that he will in fact give the Beast his power, throne and his great authority! What does that really mean?

Power is the ability to do something, to work and to accomplish. It is the energy in your battery that makes your phone work. It is the electricity coming into your home that runs your dishwasher, lights, washer, dryer and popcorn maker. Power is also the force of the sword. Roman soldiers enforced the will of Rome by using the sword against all who would not acquiesce to their demands. Satan lends the power of his energy and force to his lackey.

Throne is where a king sits. A king rules a kingdom, has subjects and servants, and in an absolute monarchy like Nebuchadnezzar’s, his word was law. When he spoke, people jumped. When he decreed the death of the wise men of Babylon, there was no appeal, no judges challenging his orders and no congress demanding his removal. Soldiers were immediately dispatched and began fulfilling his command. When the king ordered his troops to siege Jerusalem, they complied and even laid down their lives. We have seen that Enlil gives Ninurta his throne just as the dragon will give the Beast his throne.

Authority is the legal right to do something. After the Persians conquered Babylon, Daniel’s Babylonian enemies entrapped him through their understanding the Persian legal system. Persuading the king to sign a legal document, a decree, against anyone who would worship any other god for a set time, they then sprung their trap and found Daniel guilty of praying to another God. Realizing he had been tricked, the king sought a means of saving Daniel. Although he was king, he lacked the authority to overturn his own decree. With no authority to change the law, he was forced to have Daniel thrown into the lion’s den.

Satan / Enlil boasted to Jesus that he could give his authority “to whomever I wish” (Luke 4:6), and he is going to give the Beast his “power, throne and his great authority” (Rev 13:2). In ancient Sumer, Enlil’s authority was embodied in something called the Tablet of Destinies; The holder possessed the power to decree fates. Amar Annus explains:

The Tablet of Destinies was one of the cosmic “bonds” which chained together the various parts of the Mesopotamian cosmos, like some of the Mesopotamian temples and cities. It is called “the bond of supreme power” … Holding of the cosmic bonds (markasu) was a privilege which conferred absolute control over the universe on its keeper.[12]

The sad reality is that Satan successfully swindled Adam out of his dominion. Instead of being a faithful steward of the inheritance God granted to Adam, Satan stole it for himself. Then Satan gave this authority to Nimrod / Ninurta, who became the keeper of the Tablet of Destinies.

“Ninurta, ensigal of Enlil” is impressed on a sale document … important documents can be seen as the earthly counterparts of the Tablet of Destinies … Ninurta, as the seal-bearer of Enlil in Nippur, was probably authorized to act with Enlil’s authority and ratified the decrees issued by the divine council. Ninurta … the divine patron of scribal arts and is often invoked as the “Bearer of the Tablet of Destinies of the Gods”[13] (Emphasis mine).

“In Enuma eliš, the Tablet of Destinies is associated with the powers of Anu.”[14] Remember: Anu is the creator god in the Mesopotamian tradition. Enlil (Satan) boasts about taking control of the Earth from the Creator. The authority usurped by Enlil is flaunted in the ancient texts through a reenactment of Anu’s death in an annual celebration.

Akitu: A Blasphemous Reenactment of Killing the Creator

Satan flaunted his victory and his unchallengeable authority in the ancient world in the Akitu festival by reenacting the death of the creator (Anu)[15] and his theft of the dominion God gave to Adam. The ceremonial killing of Anu the creator and the taking of his authority illustrates the disdain Enlil (Satan) had for God; the same contempt is revealed in Revelation by the Beast with blasphemous names:

And I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. He had ten horns and seven heads. On his horns were ten diadems, and on his heads were blasphemous names (Rev 13:1).

In the Akitu reenactment, the king and Marduk (Enlil / Satan) melded into one.[16] Then the earthly king performed reenactments of defeating the creator, and the celebration:

“day (of) Wrath is the day the King defeated Anu, the day King Marduk defeated Anu. … The house where he killed Anu … when the king wears a crown, is (when) Bel slashed […] Anu’s neck; having assumed kingship, he bathed and donned the royal garb.[17]

Again, while we are not necessarily equating Anu with the God of Abraham, it is still revealing that there would be an event in which the killing of the creator was reenacted in great detail. We also should not miss that the event, the day of wrath, is the day Anu is defeated. In the Bible, the Day of the Lord is the day when God will ultimately defeat Satan and his forces. Lastly, putting on the royal garb reminds us of the fallen one’s longing for clothing (covering) that was lost when God stripped Satan and his followers of their fire.

The reenactment is full of Satan slandering God. He assumes the “anutu,” that is to say, the creator’s authority (the Anu-ship). Nabû (a syncretization of Ninurta / Nimrod) becomes supreme god because he holds the “anutu” in the text below:

“Nabû … is dressed in the garment (befitting) his rank as supreme god (anutu).” He goes to the temple of his beloved Nanaya … and on the 7th day Nabû enters Anu’s garden near his temple Eanna in Uruk, takes Anu’s seat, assumes his kingship and wears Anu’s crown.[18]

Satan appears to be getting the last laugh through the Akitu reenactments. He is ridiculing God through drama and expressing his rage at Him.

In another text at Ninurta’s Akitu festival, Ninurta (son of Enlil) brings the vanquished gods, featuring Anu; and then even goes to the cosmological mountain, just like Satan claimed he would do in Isaiah! “Ninurta brought the vanquished gods before Enlil,” and “Enlil rejoiced over him (Ninurta) and sent a message of well-being (bussurat šulmi).”[19] Ironically, the message of well-being “bussurat šulmi” that Enlil receives about the death of his enemies (which includes the creator) is parallel to Hebrew besurah (gospel) and shalom (peace)! As the height of blasphemy, Enlil (Satan) revels in receiving the “gospel of peace” message of the Creator’s death.  However, such actions are completely in line with Satan the slanderer.

The mention of “the king of the Holy Mound,” in the calendar text implies that Ninurta, after having presented his vanquished enemies to Enlil, goes to the cosmological… to the “Mt. Olympus” of the gods in the middle heavens which was the place for assembly.[20]

The Akitu festival was clearly Satan thumbing his nose at God and reminding Him of his boast: “I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God [אֵ֖ל El](Isa 14:13); I will be like the Most High” (Isa 14:14). He was exulting in the fact that he got away with it, and God did not stop him. Satan is clearly so full of himself that he is convinced that his wisdom equals that of God. Ancient History Encyclopedia boils down his insolent attitude:

“Enlil as the rebel who defies the laws of the gods to pursue his own desires changes in other myths into the authority who wields the power of divine law and whose judgments cannot be questioned.[xxi]

Is that not exactly what Satan / Heilel bragged in Isaiah? It was almost like he would have said: “Yeah, the Creator God is over there, doing other stuff. But if you humans want something done, you have to come to me. I am the one with all the authority.”

While the Akitu festival was not the means by which Satan and Nimrod merged, the fact that Satan gives his power, throne, and great authority to Ninurta, (the Beast who was) is evidence that a merge occurred; It strongly suggests they are the same person. Furthermore, it demonstrates that for Satan to give everything he has to this person means that the person would cease to act independently of Satan. The person is so completely controlled and owned by Satan that they cease to be who they were. Thus, when Nimrod became a gibbor, he unwittingly gave up his rights to be himself. His lust for power, fame and longevity ended in his essence being extinguished. Just as Nimrod became a gibbor, so too, Satan became Nimrod. They became one and the same for as long as the man’s body continued to live.


[1] Annus also notes the hero title of Ninurta / Ningirsu: “In Pre-Sargonic Lagaš the most popular divine epithet was that of Ningirsu, who was called very frequently ur-sag-dEn-líl-(lá), “the hero of Enlil.” Amar Annus, The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia, State Archives of Assyria Studies, Volume XIV Helsinki 2002. Pg. 138

[2] BDAG

[3] http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11548-nimrod; cf. Pes. 94b; comp. Targ. of pseudo-Jonathan and Targ. Yer. to Gen. x. 9., and Midrash Haggadah.

[4] The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee By J. W. Etheridge, M.A. First Published 1862

[5] The place name “Tophet” and the false god “Molech” both have the vowels from “boshet” meaning “shameful.”

[6] Amar Annus, The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia, State Archives of Assyria Studies, Volume XIV Helsinki 2002. Pg. 106

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] David Rohl, he says: The Lost Testament: From Eden to Exile the Five-Thousand-Year History of the People of The Bible – 17 Oct. 2002.

[10] The Jewish Encyclopedia notes: “The difficulty of reconciling the Biblical Nimrod, the son of Cush, with Marduk, the son of Ea, may be overcome by interpreting the Biblical words as meaning that Nimrod was a descendant of Cush.” http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11548-nimrod

[11] Amar Annus, The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia, State Archives of Assyria Studies, Volume XIV Helsinki 2002. Pg. 122

[12] Ibid. Pg. 83-pg 88

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid. Pg. 14.

[15] While Heilel in Isaiah 14 is undoubtedly the Sumerian Enlil, an absolute identification of Anu with the biblical creator should be tentative.

[16] Amar Annus, The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia, State Archives of Assyria Studies, Volume XIV Helsinki 2002. Pg. 59

[17] Ibid. Pg. 67

[18] Ibid.

[19] OECT 11 69+70, Cf Amar Annus, The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia, State Archives of Assyria Studies, Volume XIV Helsinki 2002. Pg. 78

[20] Ibid.

[xxi] https://www.ancient.eu/Enlil/ Mark, Joshua J. “Enlil.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified January 24, 2017. https://www.ancient.eu/Enlil/.