Hybrids and the Iniquity of the Amorites

Chapter 15 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Hybrids and the Inquity of the Amorites

In the classic story, when the big bad wolf finds out that Little Red Riding Hood is going to her grandmother’s house, he races ahead in order to set a trap. Satan made a similar move on Abram. God called Abram out of the Babylonian system and promised to give him the land of Canaan. As Abram made his journey, Satan went ahead to set the trap.  

What is interesting is that God coordinated events that let Abram know that something weird was happening in the promised land with the Amorites. After Abram’s daring rescue of his nephew Lot, God told Abram not to be afraid of the people he had just confronted, which included “the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim” (Gen 14:5). God told him that the land was his, but his descendants would end up living in Egypt and would come back in the fourth generation because “the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet complete” (Gen 15:16). Just what iniquity were they committing?  

Abram did not raise his hand and ask God who the Amorites were or what their iniquity was; he seemed to know. Based on the account of his rescue mission to save Lot, he knew they were Nephilim. He also knew that Nephilim equal Rephaim and other tribes of giants, as we see in Scripture: “the descendants of Anak came from the giants [Nephilim]” (Num 13:33).  

Anakim = Nephilim. Moses said the “Emim… a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim… Anakim… are also counted as Rephaim, but the Moabites call them Emim (Deut 2:10–11 ESV). We can put an equal sign showing Anakim equals Rephaim which equals Emim, which of course equals Nephilim (Amorites = Anakim = Rephaim = Emim = Nephilim).  

Thus, the Nephilim, the angelic-human hybrids, were known by many names.  

  • Rephaim formerly lived there-but the Ammonites call them Zamzummim– a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim (Deut 2:20–21a, ESV). 
  • King Og of Bashan, he was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Bashan is called the land of Rephaim (Deut 3:11–13 ESV).  
  • His [Sihon] land and the land of Og, the king of Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites (Deut 4:47 ESV).  

The Septuagint frequently translates Nephilim (Num 13:32), Rephaim (Gen 14:5, Josh 12:3), and Anakim (Deut 1:27) as gigantes, which in Greek mythology signified a class of half-god, half-man beings. The Septuagint translates Nephilim and gibborim in Genesis 6:4 as “the giants” (oi gigantes). “Nimrod began to be a giant” [ηρξατο ειναι γιγας gigas] (Gen 10:8 LXX Brenton). The iniquity of the Amorites appears to have been something akin to what Nimrod did in becoming a gibbor. The Amorites became gibborim; They were becoming hybrids!  

We know that they did not start out as Nephilim because they are listed as children of Canaan in Genesis 10. We also know that they were not a remnant of giants from the days of Noah because God repeatedly stated, “All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, all that was on the dry land, died” (Gen 7:22). Contrary to later myths, no giants hitched a ride on the ark! Thus, a second incursion of the angels into this world occurred. (See Appendix 2 Angels Freewill). We already saw how it happened with Nimrod. Satan, then, repeated either directly or indirectly through Nimrod, a program to create hybrids. The name of the Amorite god provides clues that help us put together the story.  


The god of the Amorites, MARTUci / Amurru, went by many names such as Dagon, Molech, Addu, and Isthara,cii and had the epithet of KUR-GAL (great mountain) which was an epithet for Enlil.ciii A.T. Clay points out that epithet KUR-GAL was ascribed to both Amurru / MARTU and Enlil, demonstrating that they were “one and the same god.”civ This also means that all these gods are one-and-the-same god; and they are all disguises of Satan. The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible explains:  

Martu has many traits of a West-Semitic storm god such as Hadad. According to a Sumerian hymn, Amurru is a warrior god, strong as a lion, equipped with bow and arrows, and using storm and thunder as his weapons.cv 

The epithets and characteristics of Martu and Ninurta (Marduk, etc.), son of Enlil: the warrior, bows and arrows, and storm god, are perfect matches and indicators of Enlil. We must, therefore, conclude that we are speaking about the same entity, despite the variation of the names.  

It is hard to ignore the similarities between the names. We have already considered how Ninurta was deliberately distorted in the Bible as “Let’s rebel” Nimrod, the root letters being N.R.D. with the initial N meaning “Let’s.” Marduk (a syncretism of Ninurta) is AMAR.UTU in Sumerian and “Marduk” in Akkadian. The root letters, M.R.T., are the same and so is the case with MAR-TU. Are the similarities coincidence, or simply further proof that we are looking at the same entity? Furthermore, if MARTU=Enlil and Marduk=Enlil, is it implausible to make the claim that MARTU=Marduk?  

The linguistic question aside, A. T. Clay has already gone on the record to say MARTU (Amurru) is Enlil, hence the god of the Amorites is ultimately Satan, or the son of Satan. We learned in the Sumerian literature that Enlil engendered Ninurta and Ninurta held the Tablet of Destinies, which is to say, he held all of Satan’s power, throne and authority. Amurru is a syncretization of Ninurta / Marduk, both the sons of Enlil. Ninurta / Nimrod, became a gibbor, or a giga (giant), or a hybrid. Rephaim derives from “Rapha”, which means to heal, mend or repair. In a sense, Nimrod was “healed” of his human frailties by becoming a hybrid. All of the Rephaim underwent this transformative “healing”, which was a grave sin. It was the iniquity of the Amorites.  


The term Rephaim strongly suggests that the progenitor of the race was the first rapha (healed or healer). The term Rephaim is usually considered to be from the root [רפא] meaning “to heal” and is generally understood to mean healers or “disease free”. The linguistic link between Rephaim and the root R.P., ‘to heal’, is “found in the LXX of Isa 26:14 and Ps 88:11: ‘The healers (iatroi) will not rise up’… the Rephaim, by virtue of their connections with the netherworld, were healers par excellence.” cvi This definition “healers” was accepted as the ancient definition and is accepted by most scholars.  

However, why were the Rephaim known as healers? The notion of healing had to come from somewhere, but we clearly see in Scripture that Rephaim were known as Nephilim or giants. We only see Rephaim after the Flood. The Nephilim and gibborim are translated as gigantes in the LXX. Nimrod was therefore, the first of the Rephaim. That is, he was the first “healer”. His Mesopotamian name, Ninurta (and syncretisms), carried the connotation of being a healed / healer.  

Ninurta, son of Enlil, known for being a dragon and hence the son of a dragon, was syncretized with a snake god known as Tišpak and Ninazu who “is clearly the ‘lord of healing’ according to the etymology of his name.”cvii Wiggermann notes that:  

Ninazu, “Lord Healer”, is a son of Ereshkigal is the “king of the snakes” in Old Babylonian incantations, and in several other ways related to death and the realm of the dead, perhaps at one time as its ruler. His dragon is the mušḫuššu.cviii 

Not only was Ninurta syncretized with a snake god healer, but he was also associated with a legend about Kirtu, one of the Rephaim who were “‘healers’ or ‘dispensers of fertility’ of the earth.”cix Furthermore, according to DDDB, Kirtu has been associated with the Akkadian word “qarradu”, which DDDB notes is “generally regarded as a personal name.” cx This is significant because “Ninurta … has qardu ‘fierce’, ‘heroic’ and qarradu ‘warrior’, ‘hero’ among his standard epithets.”cxi 

In company with these identifications, Ninurta certainly assumed some features of a chthonic healer god. These features were already inherently present in his form of the victorious hero because the beneficial character of the chthonic healer god could express itself in iconography in the motif of victory over a lion, dragon, griffin or other real or fantastic monster.cxii 

Thus, Ninurta / Nimrod was called a healer, a Rephaim, because he was changed from a mortal man to be an immortal. He became disease-free through his transformation from man to god. His powers to heal others were not the kind of power Jesus had over disease which made a person whole. Rather, Nimrod’s power was to transform people into the Nephilim, or Rephaim.  

So, when Abram’s kids finally did return from Egypt, Satan had a house-warming gift waiting in the form of the “iniquity of the Amorites”: the Rephaim, Emim, Zamzummim and Anakim, who were once regular people, but who became gibborim, that is, hybrids. The twelve spies fearfully reported, “The Amorites … are stronger than we are … and all the people that we saw in it are of great height. And there we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak, who come from the Nephilim)” (Num 13:29–33, ESV). The spies were not exaggerating, because God says in Amos 2:9, “Yet it was I who destroyed the Amorite before them, Whose height was like the height of the cedars” (Amos 2:9). God Himself also used the height of a cedar in comparison with the tail of the behemoth, described in Job 40: “the behemoth … moves his tail like a cedar(Job 40:15–18). A cedar of Lebanon is about 40 to 80 feet tall. (See Figure 51).The behemoth is the Diplodocus dinosaur, and their tails measure 40 feet long. The Israelite spies were not overstating the danger; They saw giants in the land. 


Figure 51 Cedar of Lebanon. 

From the time God told Abram about the perversions of the Rephaim, until his descendants returned to the land was about six hundred years. Thus, Satan had time to race ahead and prepare for their arrival. The big bad wolf had set the trap for Abram’s kids.  

According to an Ugaritic text, the region of Bashan was known as the abode of the god-king “mlk ‘lm, the dead and deified king.… his place of enthronement as rpu was in ‘Štrt-hdr’y, in amazing correspondence with the Biblical tradition about the seat of king Og of Bashan.” cxiii  

The Bible records, “The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites, who lived in Ashtaroth and Edrei” (Josh 12:4). “Egyptian documents and two Amarna letters mention rulers of Ashtarot in the fourteenth century BCE.”cxiv Thus, an Ugaritic text speaks of a “dead and deified king” living in the area of Bashan, and the Bible tells us that it was King Og, who was a Rephaim (the same as rpu).  

Ugaritic textscxv further reveal that a Rephaim god called “king” was in the area of Bashan. They state, “as the abode of the god mlk [“king”], the eponym of the mlkm [Milcom], the deified kings, synonym of the rpum.”cxvi Amazingly, a “Phoenician tradition also seems to record the existence of a deity ‘g’ [“Og”].cxvii 

We saw earlier that the Rephaim were counted among the Amorites and Nephilim who were sometimes called gibborim. Looking at the Septuagint, the word Rephaim is sometimes simply transliterated (e.g. Gen 14:5, 15:20); though most of the time, it is translated as gigantes (giants).  

Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite [Gath]. […] at Gath, […] he also was descended from the giants [Rephaim, LXX reads: giants, γιγαντες]. […] These were descended from the giants in Gatt, (I Chron 20:5–6, 8 ESV; see also Josh 12:4; 13:12; 17:5; 2 Sam 21:18,22; 1 Chr 11:15; 14:9, 13). 


“Then we turned and went up the road to Bashan [הַבָּשָׁ֑ן the Bashan]; and Og king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei (Deut 3:1).” “And at that time we took the land from the hand of the two kings of the Amorites who were on this side of the Jordan, from the River Arnon to Mount Hermon (Deut 3:8) “(the Sidonians call Hermon Sirion, and the Amorites call it Senir)” (Deut 3:9).  

Og is called King of the Bashan. King, in Hebrew and Ugaritic, is M.L.K. or Milcom, hence Og is likely Milcom himself, or a carbon copy. Also, Og was a Rephaim, and they were also known as snake gods. This may explain why a giant (Rephaim) named Og was king of the Bashan (the word “the” is in the original Hebrew but omitted in many translations). What is “the Bashan”? It actually had a double meaning: “fertile land” and “snake-dragon.” cxviii The designation of snake-dragon was no joke. “For the ‘Canaanites’ of Ugarit, the Bashan region, or a part of it, clearly represented ‘Hell’, the celestial and infernal abode of their deified dead kings,—Olympus and—Hades at the same time.” cxix 

The land of Bashan is just on the other side of the Jordan River, across from the Sea of Galilee in the region of the tribes Zebulun and Naphtali. See Figure 52). We can now appreciate why it was later called the land of the shadow of death (Isa 9:2; Matt 4:16); they truly were in the shadowland of death! This area, of course, has Mt. Hermon as its highest peak, which was where the angels came down in the days of Noah in order to make Nephilim bodysuits. DDDB notes, “It is possible that this localization of the Canaanite Hell is linked to the ancient tradition of the place as the ancestral home of their dynasty, the rpum.” cxx 

Figure 52 Map of Galilee, Israel. 

It is significant to note that the place was known as the abode of the god Milcom, who was worshipped by the Rephaim in the land of Bashan. In fact, the Bible informs us “all Bashan, was called the land of the giants [Rephaim] (Deut 3:13), which DDDB notes is “an ambiguous wording that could equally be translated as ‘the ‘hell’ of the Rephaim’”.cxxi 

James H. Charlesworth of Princeton likewise notes the dual meaning of Bashan:  

When most biblical scholars studied Hebrew philology, they were told that “Bashan” denoted a mountain east of the Kinnereth (the Sea of Galilee). Now, the contributors to the most recent Hebrew lexicons rightly point out that “Bashan” in the second millennium BCE denoted both a mountain and a mythological creature that was a serpent, the “dragon-snake.” The most help in comprehending בשן as having a second meaning, “dragon-snake,” comes from cognate languages. The Ugaritic bthn and the Akkadian bašmu are cognate to the Hebrew bšn and the Aramaic ptn. These terms are equal to the Arabic bathan. All these nouns denote some type of “dragon” or “snake”. The compilers of the new and expanded Koehler-Baumgartner indicate correctly that the Hebrew בשן can denote a type of serpent similar to פתן, “cobra.”cxxii 

Understanding Bashan’s dual meaning as fertile land and snake-dragon might seem incompatible, but they are not. In fact, we have such usages in our day. Let us consider: “Aspen” means “tree” for most, but to some it means a ski resort in Colorado. “Nashville” means “near an ash tree,”cxxiii though few are aware of that. The popular designation is a city where budding artists break into the music industry—it is music city. And of course, Las Vegas is commonly known as sin city. Thus, we can understand “Bashan” as both a rich fertile land (like Aspen the ski resort) and as a snake-dragon (like aspen the tree).  

Og and company occupied the territory east of the Jordan River and south of Mt. Hermon. It became known as the land of the Bashan, land the snake-dragon, per Akkadian bašmu (bashmu), and Ugaritic batan. However, the land of Bashan was also rich and fertile, and so the region became associated with its incredible fertility. Once Og and the people of the snake-dragon were gone, the land was primarily associated with fertility. Yet, because the name stuck, Bashan became defined by its rich and fertile land.  


Next, we will consider the meaning or etymology of Og’s name. We know that he was an Amorite king. The Amorites’ god was MARTU, who was Enlil, or son of Enlil. He was a survivor of the Rephaim; Rephaim means healers and Ninurta (et al.) was known as “Lord Healer.” According to Ugaritic texts, a king of the dead, associated with the god Milcom, was also associated with Bashan. Thus, Og was king of the Bashan, that is, king of the snake-dragons. His land was at the base of Mt. Hermon where the angels came down in the days of Noah. This survey brings us to the question: What does “Og” actually mean?  

Gesenius speculates “Og” may come from oneg [עֹנֶג oneg] coming from onek [עֹנֶק onek] deriving from, or anak [עֲנָק] meaning “in stature, long necked,” “gigantic.”cxxiv On the other hand, according to DDDB, the meaning is unknown, though they note the possibility that “some connection with Osa gaig (?), Soqotri ‘aig, Hatraean ‘g’ ‘man’ could be established.”cxxv  In light of Og’s association with the Amorites and the god MARTU, perhaps a return to Shinar (Sumer), where Nimrod originated, is warranted. Looking at Sumerian, we make an interesting discovery: “ug” means “to die,” cxxvi which in Akkadian is mâtu or mītu.cxxvii Leiden University notes that the logogram (the cuneiform symbol) of mitu is: 

BAD (mītu, bēl) IDIM (kabtu) d IDIM (Ea) IdAG-BAD-TIN-iṭ Nabû-mītu-uballiṭ BAD for bēl is rare, and used only without the determinative DINGIR – no attestations yet in the database (but in Nbn 67:18, EN 65:23)cxxviii 

BAD (IDIM) is the logogram of Enlil and the Syrian god Dagan. Bel is also one of the definitions of BAD.IDIM and means “kabtu”, which is the same as Hebrew “kavod” meaning “heavy, important, glorious.” Amar Annus explains the intentional syncretism between Enlil and Dagan (who was in the Canaanite area) and Ninurta son of Enlil as son of Dagan:  

The Sumerian logographic writing for an unknown Syrian god is dNIN.URTA at Emar in the late Bronze Age. This Ninurta is the city-god of Emar, and remarkably also “son of Dagan,” like the Ugaritic Baal. The god Dagan is identified with Sumerian Enlil, father of Ninurta, already in Old Babylonian times and they share the logogram BAD. In any case, it was conscious syncretism which introduced Sumerian writing for the West-Semitic god. The constant epithet of Marduk in Enuma Elish is Bêl ‘Lord,’ which is also Ninurta’s common epithet, and points to a connection with West-Semitic Baal. Marduk came to replace Enlil in the Mesopotamian pantheon, so he took over conjointly the position of the father Enlil and the mythology of his son Ninurta. Similarly, Dagan in the West was partly manifested by his son Baal cxxix (Emphasis mine). 

In other words, Dagan and Enlil are the same entity as far as the scribes were concerned because they both share the cuneiform symbol: BAD. Furthermore, they understood Bel and Ninurta were either the same entity or the son of the same father-god entity, or possibly both. Annus comments about a passage where Ninurta is with Dagan’s wife and notes that if Dagan (Enlil) is his father, then it would be incest, however, “it may be neither adultery nor incest but reappearance of the father Dagan himself.” cxxx That is to say, it is just Satan with one of his many aliases: Enlil, Dagan, Ninurta, Bel, etc. However, hidden in the etymology of the cuneiform logograms and their meanings is the notion of death, the dead, or killing. Og’s very name, then, is simply “death” and is the Sumerian pronunciation (ug) of the logogram BAD.  

There are some other potential meanings of the word “Og” listed by the University of Pennsylvania Sumerian website that are rather insightful. We have looked at the meaning stated in Number 1 already (see below). Number 3 is especially interesting, as in Akkadian, it is simply transliterated as “aggu” or “uggu.” Number 6 “a mythical lion” is also insightful.  

  1. ug [DIE] (259x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ug7; ug5; ugx(|BAD.BAD|) “plural and imperfect singular stem of uš “[to die]” Akk. mâtu 
  1. ug [EXALTED] (1x: ED IIIa) wr. ugx(EZEN) “(to be) exalted” 
  1. ug [FURIOUS] (2x: Ur III) wr. ug; ug2 “(to be) furious; anger” Akk. aggu; uggu 
  1. ug [LAMENTATION] wr. ug2 “lamentation” Akk. nissatu 
  1. ug [LIGHT] wr. ug; ug2 “light” Akk. nūru 
  1. ug [LION] (23x: Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. ug; ugx(|PIRIG×ZA|) “lion; a mythical lion; a large cat” Akk. mindinu; nešu; ūmucxxxi 

Do we have any linguistic verification of the Sumerian “u” sound becoming the open “o” sound in Hebrew; which is to ask: Can the Sumerian “Ug” turn into the Hebrew “Og”? The answer is yes. According to Abraham Even-Shoshan, “the Hebrew word “Kor” comes from Sumerian “GUR, “a bundle of barley; standard unit of capacity.”cxxxii The Sumerian “u” vowel sound in “GUR” changes to the open “o” vowel sound in the same word in Hebrew, “Kor”. If the word for this unit of measurement, GUR / Kor, changes vowel sounds when moving from Samarian to Hebrew, then “Og” very likely would have the same change of vowel sound. The word was borrowed in Akkadian as “kurru”, and then in Hebrew as kor [כֹּר֙] “Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty kors [כֹּר֙] of fine flour” (1 Kgs 4:22). 

An example of Sumerian “a” becoming a Hebrew “o” is the Sumerian “allanum” (oak, acorn) which was borrowed by Akkadian ʾallānu, alyānu, “oak; acorn” which then came into Hebrew as “elon” [אֵלוֹן (elon)]. And “u” (oo) becoming an “a” is seen in Dumuzid into the Hebrew Tammuz as well as Sumerian “dub” “tablet” becoming “daf” in Hebrew.cxxxiii  

Thus, we have the linguistic evidence attesting that “ug” could become “og.” We also have a meaning that fits the data—Og king of the Bashan (snake-dragons) was also king of the Amorites and known as a Rephaim. In addition, Ugaritic text spoke of the god-king “mlk ‘lm”, the dead and deified king .… his place of enthronement as rpu was in ‘Štrt-hdr’y, in amazing correspondence with the Biblical tradition about the seat of king Og of Bashan.” cxxxiv The preponderance of evidence leads us to conclude that the meaning of “Og” is from Sumerian which is “dead, dying, furious, exalted, lion.”  

John A. Halloran, in his Sumerian Lexicon, lists all of the above meaningscxxxv and points out that a reduplicated form of “ug” is “gug5: hostility, war (might be reduplicated ug5,7,8, ‘to kill; to die’).” In linguistics, reduplication is the process in which a part of a word is repeated, sometimes with a slight change. Here, the Hebrew Og or “ug” may have morphed to the Hebrew Gog or “Gug”. The University of Pennsylvania confirms “gug5 ‘enmity, hostility’”cxxxvi “Enmity” naturally draws our attention to Genesis 3:15, where Satan the dragon swindled Adam and Eve, and God declared war: “And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed” (Gen 3:15). This is an accurate description of Satan and his kingdom. He is the enemy; and we often refer to him as our adversary. Peter tells us: “Your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion” (1 Pet 5:8). Thus, there may be a connection between the historic Og, King of the Bashan and the future Gog, who comes against the land of Israel in Ezekiel 38-39, a topic we will dive into in the next book. 


In the area of Bashan, about thirty-five miles south of Hermon and ten miles from the Sea of Galilee, is an interesting circular rock formation known as Gilgal Rephaim, “circle of the Rephaim.” It is a sort of Stone Henge in the area of Bashan. Special thanks to Derek Gilbert of Skywatch TV for pointing out to me that there is what looks like a gigantic snake etched in the ground. (See the picture, courtesy of Google Earth.) It is possibly nothing but a naturally occurring design, but I doubt it. At the bottom of the picture, Gilgal Rephaim is clearly visible and due north is the snake geoglyph which measures .681 miles (1,096 meters) from mouth to tail. It is visible with the eye up to twelve miles (20 km) in the air. The snake at its closest point is .25 miles (390 m) away from Gilgal Rephaim. At the west (left) side of the picture there appears to be two eyes. This geological formation adds just one more piece of evidence that Bashan was known as the land of the snake-dragon.  

Figure 53 Bashmu Snake Geoglyph by Gilgal Rephaim, Israel courtesy Google Earth 

When we compare the pictures of the geoglyph and the Bašmu (Bashmu), they appear to be exactly the same creature. The Bašmu has only front legs, just as we see on the geoglyph to the right of the head.  

Figure 54 Bashmu-Bashan Snake-Dragon comparison 

Thus, we have strong evidence from the Bible and Ugaritic literature that Rephaim or Nephilim once inhabited the land known as Bashan. From the Ugaritic inscriptions, we know that Milcom was one of their gods and that he demanded child sacrifices. Despite God’s warnings to the Hebrews about adopting their neighbor’s customs, the Hebrews fell for the trap and even King Solomon, sadly, became ensnared by the practices and allowed child sacrifice in Israel. It is therefore, no wonder God hated the entire area of Bashan. It was truly a hellish area that promoted the cult of death.  

This coincidence of the ‘celestial’ and ‘infernal’ levels is congruent with the Canaanite mythology that locates here the abode of its deified dead kings, the mlk(m)/rpu(m) that dwell(s) in ‘Štrt-hdr’y. Again the parallelism clarifies the issue, making plain the infernal character of Bashan.cxxxvii 

The iniquity of the Amorites was turning much of the Amorite population into unnatural hybrids, people of the snake-dragon. These non-human beings had traded their humanity to become gods; they corrupted the image of God within them. This is why God had Moses completely destroy Og and the Snake-dragon people. Even after their destruction, sadly, Satan’s anti-Hero Ninurta (the Rebel) continued to infiltrate and corrupt Israel until God had to remove the people of Israel from the land. (See Appendix 6 Abominations of Babylon).