Yarchetei Tzafon & Satan is the God of Death

Appendix 6: Yarchetei Tzafon & Appendix 7: Satan is the God of Death  

Gog is said to come from the “the farthest sides of the North,” a phrase used five times in Scripture. In Hebrew it is [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon]. It is used to reference to God’s abode.  

In the city of our God, In His holy mountain…Is Mount Zion on the sides of the north [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon], The city of the great King (Psa 48:1-2).  

That city is identified as heavenly: “Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem” (Heb 12:22). We also recall how Satan said he wanted to:  

“‘…ascend into heaven, [he said] I will exalt my throne above the stars [angels] of God; I will also sit on the mount(ain) of the congregation on the farthest sides of the north” [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon] (Isa 14:13).  

In Ezekiel 28, we are told that Satan was “on the holy mountain of God” (Ezek 28:14). These usages demonstrate how the phrase is not referring to a physical realm place but a spiritual / heavenly place. In other words, the spiritual dimension is a place. It is not just an abstraction; it is there in the geographical area compatible with God’s presence, but is in a dimensionally different space that we cannot see, walk, drive, or fly to. 

When Ezekiel used the phrase three times in Ezekiel 38-39, it was already established as a spiritual place rather than purely physical.  

  • “Gomer and all its troops; the house of Togarmah from the far north [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon], and all its troops–many people are with you. (Ezek 38:6)  
  • “Then you will come from your place out of the far north [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon], you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a mighty army. (Ezek 38:15) 
  • “and I will turn you around and lead you on, bringing you up from the far north [יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן yarchetei tzafon], and bring you against the mountains of Israel. (Ezek 39:2) 

We may conclude that the army coming from the far north may not merely be a topographical reference but likely has a dual reality: partly physical and definitely spiritual. This makes perfect sense when we see Satan and his angels, who had previously been confined only to the spiritual realm, forced into this realm: “nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer, (Rev 12:8) the great dragon was cast out…to the earth” (Rev 12:9). We also see these beings go out to gather the nations to the great battle:  

Figure 60. The approximate locations of people described in Ezekiel 38-39. 

For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. (Rev 16:14) 

So, we see the armies that will face each other: on one side Gog’s hordes comprised of humans who have become hybrids. On the other side the heavenly hosts who will now operate openly in the earthly realm. 

Appendix 7: Satan is the God of Death  

For us to make sense of some of the end times prophecies about Satan (the great dragon), we need to recall that before the cross, Satan had the “power of death” (Heb 2:14) and ruled mankind “through fear of death [who] were all their lifetime subject to bondage” (Heb 2:15). Satan is the god of death, the god of the underworld (Sheol / Hades) and known as a mountain, three points that will connect many dots.  

We recall from our studies in Corrupting the Image 2 how Satan’s secret logogram 12041 BAD death BAD, hidden in the Hermon inscription (BATios), revealed him as the god of death. 347 The plural and imperfect singular stem of uš (to die) is ug7, 348 Sumerologist John Halloran points out how one of the words for lion in Sumerian was “ug(2): n., rage, anger, fury; storm(-demon); lion; wild animal; lamentation.” He also notes it is related to “ug4,5,7,8: n., death; dead person. v., to kill; to die (singular and plural marû stem; plural ‹amu, which is sometimes reduplicated; cf., úš).” 349 

Professor Amar Annus notes that Dagan and Enlil “share the logogram BAD (=IDIM). The name of Dagan is written logographically dKUR … a shortened form of Enlil’s epithet KUR.GAL ‘great mountain.’”350 One of Enlil’s major epithets was KUR-GAL (great mountain) which was also ascribed to god the Amorites (Amurru / MARTU) demonstrating that they were “one and the same god.”351 Furthermore Frans Wiggermann notes how Nergal, god of the underworld was another syncretism of Enlil and was explicitly called the “Enlil of the mountain (kur netherworld).” 352 Additionally, Nergal / Ninurta was “the lion, whom the Great Mountain (= Enlil) engendered,”353 and also “Enlil the Great Mountain made obeisance to him.”354  

Hence Satan was the god of the dead (BAD), was god of the underworld (via Nergal) and was described as a mountain (KUR-GAL). These points are true for his aliases, the gods of death: Dagon, Molech, Addu, and Isthara.355  

We also recall that Satan was known definitively as the great dragon in the ancient world by the names Ushumgal, mušuššu and Basmu.  

 “Ušumgallu also designates a host of Mesopotamian deities, including Marduk … His exalted position over humanity is expressed in the appellation, “great dragon of the heavens and earth.” 356 The Ušumgallu was also known as the Anzu bird or ‘lion-dragon’ 357 whose foremost quality was “being a determined killer, killing probably with its venom, and frightening even the gods.”358  

Figure 61. UŠUMGAL or Anzu bird Icon By editor Austen Henry Layard, drawing by L. Gruner – Monuments of Nineveh. 

Another dragon was the Bašmu snake-dragon (Bashan in the Bible and sometimes as a catch all term for dragon). It was a determined killer, and was a suitable epithet for gods and kings! 359 Bashmu, in astronomy, was the constellation Hydra 360, the seven headed dragon361 killed “by the god Ningirsu or Ninurta.”362 “Nergal’s divine staff was as ‘awe-inspiring as a serpent’ and Ninurta’s mace consisted of seven snake-like heads.”363 Furthermore, Nergal / Ninurta / Enlil) was described as: “[ú-šum]-gal-lu ṣīru tābik imti elišunu “The majestic, great dragon who pours his venom upon them.” 364  

Figure 62. Ninurta killing one of the heads of the seven-headed serpent. Bible Review, Oct. 1992, 28 (=ANEP #671) (Early Dynastic). Courtesy of the Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem. 

Nergal god of the underworld and syncretism of Ninurta, Melqart, Marduk and Enlil, was called a seven-headed snake. The great dragon of Revelation has “seven heads and ten horns,” (Rev 12:3) as does the Beast, who has “seven heads and ten horns” (Rev 13:1). Not only does the iconography reveal a great dragon,365 but John saw “one of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and his deadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled and followed the Beast (Rev 13:3). Looking at Figure 62 above, we see that one of the heads is mortally wounded. God is revealing that the symbols in Revelation relate directly back to the false gods of Babylon.   

Figure 63. Ninurta with wings. 

There were many variations of the dragon, but they all lead back to a merging of Enlil and Ninurta (Satan and Nimrod). Jacobsen notes that with Ninurta “in time the animal forms were rejected in favor of imagining the god in human form only.”366 The lion with wings found in Old Babylonian, Akkadian (Assyrian), and Neo-Babylonian iconography is the same description we find in the Book of Daniel:  

“The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings. I watched till its wings were plucked off; and it was lifted up from the earth and made to stand on two feet like a man, and a man’s heart was given to it” (Dan 7:4).  

The next two creatures, the bear and leopard, are also predators like the lion.  

“And suddenly another beast, a second, like a bear. It was raised up on one side, and had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. And they said thus to it: ‘Arise, devour much flesh!’ (Dan 7:5) “After this I looked, and there was another, like a leopard, which had on its back four wings of a bird. The beast also had four heads, and dominion was given to it. (Dan 7:6)  

The bear, “raised up on one side” appears unbalanced, a likely reference to the supremacy of the Persians in the Medo-Persian empire who came after the Neo-Babylonian empire. This same imbalance is present in the vision Daniel has in chapter eight: “was a ram which had two horns, and the Two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher one came up last” (Dan 8:3). The angel gives a plain interpretation about the ram with “two horns–they are the kings of Media and Persia” (Dan 8:20). The imbalanced bear in chapter seven is also Medo-Persia. The meaning of the three ribs is not clear but Persia did indeed devour much flesh in the amount of territory they conquered, which included Babylon.  

In 331 BC, Darius III, the last Persian king, was defeated by Alexander the Great at the Battle of Gaugamela. The angel told Daniel “the male goat is the kingdom of Greece” (Dan 8:21). The leopard is known for its great speed and Alexander the great conquered Babylon and the entire Persian empire with incredible speed. The four wings and four heads are almost certainly referring to the four generals who succeeded Alexander the great. In chapter eight, the angel says plainly: “the male goat is the kingdom of Greece” (Dan 8:21a). He then follows up “The large horn that is between its eyes is the first king” (Dan 8:21b); the first king is Alexander the Great.  

Lastly, he interprets: “As for the broken horn and the four that stood up in its place, four kingdoms shall arise out of that nation, but not with its power” (Dan 8:22). The vision of chapters seven and eight are one and the same though chapter eight focuses only on Medo-Persia and Greece (and its subsequent kingdoms). John also notes characteristics of “the beast… like a leopard, his feet were like the feet of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion” (Rev 13:2). In each succeeding kingdom, the management changed but Satan’s (detestable) worship system remained in effect. 

The Beast that will ascend out of the abyss, therefore, is the culmination and composite of the three kingdoms which ruled Babylon and supported the woman. The Beast will possess all their power, strength, speed, influence, authority, glory, and pride. The Beast will have a fierce countenance (Dan 8:23) and his power will not be his own (Dan 8:24). The source of the beast’s power will come from Satan himself. “The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. (Rev 13:2) It will be a repeat of what he previously did with Nimrod (Ninurta), “whom Enlil has exalted above himself” 367  

These dragons and amalgamated creatures represent Enlil and his various syncretisms such as Nergal, Ninurta, Marduk, etc. Their common identifier is that they are fierce killers which is why their impersonator himself is called “death” and are often known as the god of the underworld. Hence Satan is the king (god) of death, the god of the underworld (Sheol / Hades). Put another way, Death (מָ֔וֶת Mavet) and Sheol or Death and Hades are epithets of Satan. It is important for us to have the right understanding of what comes next: the covenant with death and Sheol / Hades grants Satan authority over mankind.  

Gog and Magog in the Millennium?

Appendix 3: Gog and Magog in the Millennium?

Some have suggested Gog and Magog must be a reference to what is going to happen after the millennium since in Revelation 20:8 we read:  

“Now when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison Rev 20:7 and will go out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle, whose number is as the sand of the sea. Rev 20:8” 

After the thousand years have expired, when Satan has been put into the abyss, he is put into the bôr sometimes known as the bottomless pit, he will be there a thousand years and there will be this wonderful time on planet Earth. Satan will not be there, but then he will be released.  

However, since we know the meaning of Gog as enmity / death the mention of Gog after the thousand years of bliss is readily understandable: the enemy or that which has enmity and is hostile toward God’s kingdom, will reappear on earth after Satan’s release will allow him again to regain his quality of opposer, enemy warrior like first time and challenge God one final time. Now it makes so much more sense. Now Rev 20 doesn’t have to be placed before the tribulation. No, this can still happen after the thousand years reign of Christ. We are also told that there will be no more warfare in the age to come.  

“He shall judge between the nations, and rebuke many people; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” Isa 2:4  

The reference to bucklers and shields in Ezekiel 38 describes God’s strategy of driving Gog’s armies using the “hook” towards the great valley of Judgement. This event definitely happens before the great Armagedon battle. Hence we can exclude it from the Millennium time frame. After the thousand years, Satan the enemy will gather those with enmity against God after his release in Revelation 20. The only aggressive act that they perform is surrounding the beloved city. There is no mention of weapons; it does not say that they have any type of warfare other than that they surround the city and then fire comes down from God and destroys them. There is no reason that the Gog and Magog of Revelation 20 pose a conflict to what we see in Ezekiel 38-39; and that Ezekiel 38-39 is in fact the time of the tribulation. 

Comparison of Gog and Beast / Antichrist

Appendix 2: Comparison of Gog and Beast / Antichrist

In addition to the linguistic evidence, we also have a lot of Scriptural evidence that shows that Gog is the same person as the Beast. There are two different titles for the same individual. Gog in Ezekiel 38 and 39 is the same person that we read about as the little horn in the Book of Daniel and the beast in Revelation. He has a lot of different titles just as we discovered Satan had many titles in the ancient world such as Enlil, Marduk, Baal, etc.  

To properly demonstrate they are the same, we also have to consider the Two passages that speak of the battle they fight. The timing of the battle of Gog and Magog is sometimes considered to be years before the battle of Armageddon and questioning that timing is difficult to entertain because it means radical changes in one’s already crystalized beliefs eschatological systems which are built one on another. I am sympathetic if you consider them to be separate events; I once did as well. There have been many theologies I abandoned because I could not reconcile them with all of Scripture. If you are like me, however, knowing what really is going to happen is more exciting than holding on to a theology. Thus, I respectfully and sympathetically request you to consider the evidence with me to see if Gog’s war in Ezekiel 38 and 39 is the same as Armageddon. 

There are powerful reasons that Gog and Antichrist are the same person and Gog’s war, and Armageddon are one and the same event. God established the principle of two or three witnesses (Deut 19:15). That means, for an event as epic and literally earth shaking as the Gog-war it must have another witness, it cannot be an outlier. Indeed, God gave multiple witnesses about the Gog war when he spoke “in former days by My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied for years” (Ezek 38:17). 

The outline below presents a heading with the feature common to both Gog and his war and the Beast and Armageddon. The Ezekiel passage is first followed by other passages that speak of the Beast (Antichrist, man of sin, son of Perdition, little horn, etc.). We will see that many prophets before Ezekiel did indeed speak about Gog and his war. In another chapter we will consider the name Gog and how it is an excellent title of Israel’s coming enemy. 

  1. Gog and the Beast at the end of days / end of years 
  1. “After many days you will be visited. In the latter years you will come …mountains of Israel… (Ezek 38:8) It will be in the latter days that I will bring you against My land…(Ezek 38:16) 
  1.  “what shall happen in the latter time of the indignation; for at the appointed time the end shall be. (Dan 8:19) “And in the latter time of their kingdom, When the transgressors have reached their fullness, A king shall arise, (Dan 8:23) “…it refers to many days in the future.” (Dan 8:26)  
  1. sealed till the time of the end. (Dan 12:9) 
  1. God will bring Gog / Beast to Israel  
  1. “and I will turn you around and lead you on, bringing you up from the far north, and bring you against the mountains of Israel. (Ezek 39:2) 
  1. “But news from the east and the north shall trouble him; therefore he shall go out with great fury to destroy and annihilate many. (Dan 11:44) “And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and no one will help him. (Dan 11:45) 
  1. they gathered them together to the place… called in Hebrew, Armageddon. (Rev 16:16) 
  1. Gog and the world nations (featured in Gen 10 table nations) attack Israel  
  1. “Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief [rosh] prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him Persia, Cush, and Put333 are with them… Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-Togarmah…many peoples are with you. (Ezek 38:2, 5-6, ESV) 
  1. “I will make Jerusalem a very heavy stone for all peoples; all who would heave it away will surely be cut in pieces, though all nations of the earth are gathered against it. (Zech 12:3) “It shall be in that day that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem. (Zech 12:9) 
  1. I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem. (Zech 14:2) 
  1. Evil plans (thoughts) and boastful 
  1. thoughts will arise in your mind, and you will make an evil plan: (Ezek 38:10) “You will say, ‘I will go up against a land of unwalled villages; I will go to a peaceful people, who dwell safely….(Ezek 38:11)  
  1. “And in the latter time …A king shall arise, Having fierce features, Who understands sinister schemes. (Dan 8:23) His power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; He shall destroy fearfully, and shall prosper and thrive; He shall destroy the mighty, and also the holy people. (Dan 8:24)  
  1. Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God…(Rev 13:6) 
  1. “Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; And he shall exalt himself in his heart. He shall destroy many in their prosperity. He shall even rise against the Prince of princes; (Dan 8:25)  
  1. Global shaking because of God’s presence, walls fall  
  1. “For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath I have spoken: ‘Surely in that day there shall be a great earthquake in the land of Israel, (Ezek 38:19) ‘so that the fish of the sea, the birds of the heavens, the beasts of the field, all creeping things that creep on the earth, and all men who are on the face of the earth shall shake at My presence. The mountains shall be thrown down, the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground.’ (Ezek 38:20) 
  1. Upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up; (Isa 2:14) Upon every high tower, and upon every fortified wall; (Isa 2:15)  
  1. every mountain and island was moved out of its place. (Rev 6:14) 
  1. there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake. (Rev 8:5) 
  1. the temple of God was opened in heaven…there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake. (Rev 11:19) 
  1. there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth. (Rev 16:18) (so they are not found Rev 16:20) 
  1. Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the LORD of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger. (Isa 13:13)  
  1. The earth is violently broken, The earth is split open, The earth is shaken exceedingly. (Isa 24:19) The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall totter like a hut; Its transgression shall be heavy upon it, and it will fall, and not rise again. (Isa 24:20)  
  1. Every valley shall be exalted And every mountain and hill brought low; The crooked places shall be made straight And the rough places smooth; (Isa 40:4) 
  1. He stood and measured the earth; He looked and startled the nations. And the everlasting mountains were scattered, The perpetual hills bowed. His ways are everlasting. (Hab 3:6) 
  1. God’s Face is Seen, Fire and brimstone rain on Gog 
  1. “when Gog comes against the land of Israel,” says the Lord GOD, “that My fury will show in My face. (Ezek 38:18) “For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath (Ezek 38:19) 
  1. the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire. (Isa 66:15) For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many. (Isa 66:16) 
  1. when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2Thess 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God (2Thess 1:8) 
  1. and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! (Rev 6:16)  
  1. They shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isa 2:19) 
  1. He stood and measured the earth; He looked and startled the nations. And the everlasting mountains were scattered, The perpetual hills bowed. His ways are everlasting. (Hab 3:6) 
  1. “Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. (Matt 24:30) 
  1. The day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it. (Isa 13:9) 
  1. Their armies are confused and attack one another 
  1. “I will call for a sword against Gog throughout all My mountains,” says the Lord GOD. “Every man’s sword will be against his brother. (Ezek 38:21)  
  1. It shall come to pass in that day That a great panic from the LORD will be among them. Everyone will seize the hand of his neighbor, and raise his hand against his neighbor’s hand; (Zech 14:13) 
  1. Great hailstones  
  1. great hailstones, fire, and brimstone. (Ezek 38:22) 
  1. the temple of God was opened in heaven…there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail. (Rev 11:19) 
  1. And great hail from heaven fell upon men, each hailstone about the weight of a talent. (Rev 16:21) 
  1. Pestilence, bloodshed, fire brimstone 
  1. “And I will bring him to judgment with pestilence and bloodshed; I will rain down on him, on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him, flooding rain, great hailstones, fire, and brimstone. (Ezek 38:22) 
  1. Rev 19:11-21 Jesus treads winepress, Battle / Day of the Lord 
  1. Rev 14:16-20 winepress, earth reaped, blood to horses’ bridles  
  1. “I have trodden the winepress alone…And trampled them in My fury; Their blood is sprinkled upon My garments… (Isa 63:3) 
  1. there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood. (Rev 6:12) 
  1. “I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. (Joel 2:31) 
  1. Gog and the Beast are Destroyed at the end of the battle  
  1. “I will give Gog a burial place there in Israel…Therefore they will call it the Valley of Hamon Gog. (Ezek 39:11) 
  1. “the beast was slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning flame. (Dan 7:11) 
  1. Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet …These two were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone. (Rev 19:20) 
  1. “And they shall go forth and look Upon the corpses of the men Who have transgressed against Me. For their worm does not die, and their fire is not quenched. They shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.” (Isa 66:24) 
  1.  Birds Feast on Kings and horses (Nergal) at God’s supper 
  1. ‘Speak to every sort of bird and to every beast of the field: “Assemble yourselves and come; Gather together from all sides to My sacrificial meal Which I am sacrificing for you, A great sacrificial meal on the mountains of Israel, That you may eat flesh and drink blood. (Ezek 39:17) You shall eat the flesh of the mighty, Drink the blood of the princes of the earth… (Ezek 39:18) You shall be filled at My table With horses and riders, With mighty men And with all the men of war,” says the Lord GOD. (Ezek 39:20) 
  1. Then I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, “Come and gather together for the supper of the great God, (Rev 19:17) “that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all people, free and slave, both small and great.” (Rev 19:18) 
  1. After both battles weapons of war are destroyed  
  1. “Israel will go out and set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shields and bucklers, the bows and arrows, the javelins and spears… (Ezek 39:9) 
  1. They shall beat their swords into plowshares… (Isa 2:4) 
  1. God’s name no longer be profaned…  
  1. “Thus I will magnify Myself and sanctify Myself, and I will be known in the eyes of many nations. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.” ’ (Ezek 38:23) 
  1. “So I will make My holy name known in the midst of My people Israel, and I will not let them profane My holy name anymore. Then the nations shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel. (Ezek 39:7)  
  1. And the rest were killed with the sword which proceeded from the mouth of Him who sat on the horse. (Rev 19:21) 
  1. God pours out His Spirit and not hide face 
  1. ‘And I will not hide My face from them anymore; for I shall have poured out My Spirit on the house of Israel,’ says the Lord GOD.” (Ezek 39:29) 
  1. With a little wrath I hid My face from you for a moment; But with everlasting kindness I will have mercy on you,” Says the LORD, your Redeemer. (Isa 54:8) 
  1. “I will pour on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will look to Me whom they pierced. Yes, they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn. (Zech 12:10) 
  1. After both battles “It is done”  
  1. “Surely it is coming, and it shall be done,” says the Lord GOD. “This is the day of which I have spoken. (Ezek 39:8) 
  1. in the days of the sounding of the seventh angel…the mystery of God would be finished. (Rev 10:7) 
  1. 7th trumpet: “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!” (Rev 11:15) The nations were angry, and Your wrath has come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that You should reward Your servants the prophets and the saints…And should destroy those who destroy the earth.” (Rev 11:18)  
  1. 7th Bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” (Rev 16:17)  
  1. After Battle – God shows his glory among the nations 
  1. “I will send fire on Magog and on those who live in security in the coastlands. Then they shall know that I am the LORD. (Ezek 39:6) 
  1. “I will set My glory among the nations; all the nations shall see My judgment (Ezek 39:21) 
  1. the great city was divided…the cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon was remembered…(Rev 16:19) 

Table of Nations 

All nations will come against Jerusalem. All the nations in Ezekiel 38 and 39 represent all the sons of Noah, which are the stock that all people came from. Not every nation is mentioned as that would take a while and they change their names over time. Nevertheless, by comparing the nations of Ezekiel 38-39, we can see how they represent the people from the Genesis 10 Table of Nations. 

In Midrash Wayosha’ (Jellinek, “B. H.” i. 56) Gog is the leader of the seventy-two nations of the world, minus one (Israel), and makes war against the Most High; he is smitten down by God.334 

The names in Genesis 10 were the descendants of Japhet, Ham, and Shem, the three sons of Noah. They all went to their respective places, and they had children, and they became people groups. Over time, continued to spread out all over the world. Rather than trying to pin a biblical place to a specific geographical location (e.g., Cush = Ethiopia), we get a much broader view if we realize that the text is talking about the nations of the world. The peoples in Ezekiel 38 are the same as those of the table of nations. 

Ezekiel 38 Reflecting the Table of Nations Gen 10 Table of Nations Common References in both & Modern equivalent335 
“Son of man, set your face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief [rosh] prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him Persia, Cush, and Put336 are with them… Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-Togarmah…many peoples are with you. (Ezek 38:2, 5-6, ESV) The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. (Gen 10:2) The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. (Gen 10:3) The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. (Gen 10:4)The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. (Gen 10:6) The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. (Gen 10:7) The sons of Shem were Elam (Persia/Iran cf AmTrac Dic), Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. (Gen 10:22) Sons of Japheth  Gomer = Turkey (Cimmerians)  Magog = Turkey Tubal = Near Black Sea / Georgia  Meshech =Turkey Beth-togarmah – Asia Minor Countries including the “istan” countries and Georgia, Armenia Sons of Ham Cush = Ethiopia Put = Somalia Son of Shem Elam = Iran 

Table 14. Genesis 10 Table of Nations. 

Figure 59. Division of peoples throughout the world based on Genesis 10. 

Looking at the map, green are the sons of Ham, yellow are the sons of Shem, and pink are the sons of Japheth. These areas where the various people groups settled; and then they spread out from there. They went east to Asia, west to Europe, and eventually to America, and they went north and south. All these different groups have gone out from there. We do not have to look only exclusively around the nation of Israel. We do not have to only look in the Middle East even though it has a big part to play. The bottom line is we are looking at the entire world.  

Satan’s Air Cover 

Chapter 20 of The Corrupting The Image 3 :  Satan’s Air Cover 

Satan’s army of two hundred million chimera-manticores were effective in dealing with people, but they will not stop Jesus. Nevertheless, as his airborne detachment, they will create a front line against Jesus. Recall how we discovered the god of death, Nergal, (yet another syncretism for Satan and or Nimrod) was described perfectly as the creature coming out of the abyss in Revelation 9. Satan very possibly had hoped to release that army on the world at Jesus’ first coming, but he was thwarted by Jesus’ decree: that the gates of Hades would not prevail; and by his actions on top of Hermon, and ultimately by his resurrection. 

Figure 42. 8th century BCE Assyrian Cylinder Seal, Source: Walters Art Museum/Wikimedia Commons. 

Nevertheless, once released, that army will quickly move into action. We know that they will use their serpent-head tails311 to inflict pain on all who do not have the mark of God for five months. However, once that task is complete, we can infer that their job will be to defend Satan’s strategic target of Jerusalem.  

Satan had tried to stand in Jesus’ way when Jesus was on a mission before. When Jesus crossed the Sea of Galilee with his disciples, Satan sent a furious storm to try to kill him and his disciples. The disciples panicked and woke their master, who seemed a bit disappointed that they interrupted his restful nap for such a small matter. ‘Oh ye of little faith, why did you disrupt my nap?’ While He was awakening from his sleep, He chastised them for having so little faith. Only after standing up did He rebuke the wind and waves! Satan had tried to put up a barrier to block Jesus from coming into his territory by stirring up the waves into a powerful storm. When they got to land, two demoniacs met them, at least one of whom had a legion of demons inside him, which is 4,000-6,000 demons! That was a whole army of unclean spirits that Satan had sent to prevent Jesus from accessing Bashan, the territory that formerly housed the “remnant of the giants” (Joshua 12:4) and was currently casting a “shadow of death” on the Galilee (Isa 9:2). Satan deployed a storm and legion of demons to shield the land of Bashan—his snake-dragon headquarters. Like Ronald Reagan envisioned his Strategic Defense Initiative, “Star Wars,” Satan went on the defense and in essence, raised the deflector shield. In the end, Satan will again try to stop Jesus by raising a protective dome over the Jerusalemites that He is coming to rescue, the ones who had just said “Baruch Haba B’shem Adonai.” Though Satan is on the defense, he may still have one final option. Because God said: “In that day the LORD will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (Zech 12:8), Satan may believe if he can destroy all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, he can prove God a liar and then be able to negotiate a “cease-fire.” Nevertheless, his back is now up against a wall; as this time, God is the one setting the trap. 

Satan knows Jesus is coming in the air to rescue those in Jerusalem; He may send those wall-scaling, hive-minded chimeras to form an interlocking dome over Jerusalem.  

“They look like horses … They scale walls like soldiers. Each one proceeds on his course; they do not alter their path. They do not jostle one another … The earth quakes before them; the sky reverberates. The sun and the moon grow dark” (Joel 2: 4a, 7–8a; 10 NET). 

They will provide air protection while his army of zombies attacks the remnant of Jerusalemites on the ground. We discover this from several passages. First of all, God says: 

“You will come up against My people Israel like a cloud, to cover the land. It will be in the latter days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me, when I am hallowed in you, O Gog, before their eyes” (Ezek 38:16). 

While we cannot deny that “like a cloud” could be interpreted just to mean something voluminous; alternatively, it may be understood to be a mimic of Jesus’ departure and return on the clouds (Acts 1:9–11). It appears that 200 million, battle-ready, horse-like chimeras will thunder into Jerusalem like bees who swarm but don’t bump into each other, to cover the land in a cloud-ceiling that blocks out the light from the sky. Satan has set his sights on defeating God, claiming Jerusalem (above and below) and sitting on God’s throne. He may deploy his own version of an “iron dome,” but God will fight in both realms. Isaiah tells us how God will fight at the time of the sky rolling up, and his sword will slaughter heavenly powers:  

“For the LORD is angry at all the nations and furious with all their armies. He will annihilate them and slaughter them (Isa 34:2). Their slain will be left unburied, their corpses will stink; the hills will soak up their blood (Isa 34:3). All the stars in the sky will fade away, the sky will roll up like a scroll; all its stars will wither, like a leaf withers and falls from a vine or a fig withers and falls from a tree (Isa 34:4). He says, ‘Indeed, my sword has slaughtered heavenly powers. Look, it now descends on Edom, on the people I will annihilate in judgment’ (Isa 34:5 NET).” 

Angels are Stars  

There are some important clues in this pericope: “All the stars in the sky will fade away” (“All the host of heaven shall be dissolved” NKJV). This refers to angelic beings, not the incandescent burning bodies that astronomy calls “stars.” If it were talking about astronomical stars, then ALL the stars from Alpha Centari to Beetlejuice to the super giants and our own sun would need to fall to the earth. If that happened there would be no earth, the planet would be done. 

Angels are often referred to as stars, especially in the book of Revelation. In chapter twelve, the “dragon” taking stars with its tail is the same as the dragon and his angels being cast to the earth. 

  • a great, fiery red dragon (Rev 12:3). His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth (Rev 12:4).  
  • the great dragon was cast out … and his angels were cast out with him (Rev 12:9). 
  • The seven stars are the angels [angeloi ἄγγελοι] of the seven churches … (Rev 1:20).  
  • it cast down some of the host [of heaven] and some of the stars to the ground, and trampled them (Dan 8:10).  
  • All the host of heaven [fallen angels] shall be dissolved … All their host shall fall down … as fruit falling from a fig tree (Isa 34:4; Rev 6:13).  
  • Then the third angel sounded: and a great star fell from heaven, burning like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water (Rev 8:10). 

In prophetic language, stars equal angelic beings.  

“And I saw a star fallen from heaven to the earth. To him was given the key to the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit” (Rev 9:1-2). 

That meaning is further underscored in the book of Job where the sons of God are also called stars. When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God (benei ha’elohim) shouted for joy? (Job 38:7). Nevertheless, the use of stars in the book of Revelation firmly establishes that “stars” is a reference to angels.312 Thus, without doubt, the picture drawn is that of God doing battle against some of Satan’s angels in the atmosphere, not on the planet’s surface. 

 So, the “host” are bad angels that face judgment on the “day that the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, and on the earth the kings of the earth” (Isa 24:21). 

The “stars falling to the ground like figs” in Revelation are referred to as the “host of heaven falling” in Isaiah. We see that many other places in Scripture the term tzevah hashamaim is talking about the armies of heaven, which is the literal translation demonstrated in a scene in 1 Kings in which God is surrounded by the host of heaven [הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם צְבָ֣א tzevah hashamaim] (1 Kgs 22:19).  

There are many examples that demonstrate that the phrase is typically referring to angels. In Jeremiah 19, the hosts of heaven are equated with “gods.”  

“Because of all the houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven [הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם [צְבָ֣א], and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods” (Jer 19:13 KJV).  

Those “gods,” “host of heaven” or “fallen angels,” are also referred to as the armies of exalted ones in the heavens, in Isaiah 24, which happens at “that time,” which is a reference to the Day of the Lord. 

“And it will come about at that time, the Lord will punish the armies [tzevah צְבָ֥א] of the exalted ones in the heavens, and the rulers of the earth on earth” (Isa 24:21 ISV).  

Paul, writing to the Ephesians, refers to the reality of the adverse cosmic powers (κοσμοκράτοράςας cosmokratoras). Those cosmic powers, which are all around us, are part of the spiritual forces that are in the heavenly realm, which is a reference to angels and not to balls of gas in outer space.  

“For our struggle is not against human opponents, but against rulers, authorities, cosmic powers in the darkness around us, and evil spiritual forces in the heavenly realm” (Eph 6:12 ISV).  

Now we are prepared to understand what Jesus meant when He said, “the powers of heaven will be shaken loose” (Matt 24:29 ISV). He was not referring to the sun, moon, and stars going away. Rather He was referring to the cataclysmic changes occurring among the heavenly powers and Satan’s angelic servants. 

Sword has Slaughtered Heavenly Powers  

We remember that Satan and his angels were cast to the earth. They lost their ability to be on the other side of the veil. In Corrupting the Image 2, we considered how Satan and his angels yearn for a body; this led them to create the Nephilim to serve as bio-suits, but the experiment failed. In the end times, Satan has now fused with the Beast, and his angels have fused with the Manticores, and potentially also humans who have taken the mark.  

Thus, Jesus is going to fight fleshly-spiritual beings; “Their slain will be left unburied, their corpses will stink; the hills will soak up their blood” (Isa 34:3). The location of this battle is clearly in the heavens, given the description, his “sword has slaughtered heavenly powers.”  

The heavenly powers that He slaughters are the lesser gods. God Almighty judges among the gods. The term “gods” does not mean entities that have real power to go against God, but angels, in the sense that He has arranged a hierarchy of positions. Some angels have been faithful; others have been unfaithful. And here He is speaking to the ones that have been unfaithful. This must be the fulfillment found in Psalm 82: 

“I said, ‘You are gods, and all of you are children of the Most High’ (Ps 82:6). But you shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes” (Ps 82:7). 

The fact that they will die like men is noteworthy. In other words, something has happened to them. We catch a glimpse of this in Isaiah 14 where God reveals what will happen to Babylon and the king of Babylon, who is Satan in this case. It says:  

“The LORD’s sword is dripping with blood, it is covered with fat; it drips with the blood of young rams and goats and is covered with the fat of rams’ kidneys. For the LORD is holding a sacrifice in Bozrah, a bloody slaughter in the land of Edom” (Isa 34:6).  

Dr. Bob Utley explains the imagery of the blood of young rams313 and goats: “here Edom (like Moab earlier) is symbolic of all the arrogant nations who rebel against God.” Lange and Schaff explain this section: 

“Isa 34:4 pictures the judgment that shall be executed on the heavens, but here the Prophet combines intention and performance. He contemplates the judgment of God as beginning in heaven, and continued on earth.”314  

Thus, the judgment begins with God’s sword being bloody in the heavens, and then being bloody from activity on the earth.  

“Wild oxen will be slaughtered along with them, as well as strong bulls [אַבִּירִ֑ים]. Their land is drenched with blood, their soil is covered with fat (Isa 34:7). For the LORD has planned a day of revenge, a time when he will repay Edom for her hostility toward Zion (Isa 34:8 NET).” 

In Corrupting the Image 2, we explored the phrase “bulls of Bashan,” [אַבִּירֵ֖י abirei] which TWOT defines as “mighty,” “strong,” or “brave,” and carries a connotation of a bull-god. TWOT notes “’ābı̂r relates to the Akkadian abāru “be strong.”… it may be an element in a divine name in Ugaritic “the Mighty One of Hadd.” Psalm 78 says, “Men ate angels’ [אַ֭בִּירִים abirim] food … ”(Ps 78:25), and the translators render it as angels, that is, mighty ones, instead of bulls. In other word, these bull are spiritual beings. They were present at the crucifixion, encompassing the crucified Jesus, with their hideous faces in a diabolic jubilation, thinking that Jesus and his work were defeated. They were so preoccupied with jeering and mocking Jesus, they were oblivious to the fact that Jesus was gaining supreme victory over death. Thus, Jesus is fighting angels who were “gods,” but will die as men. In the end times, they will have become corporeal and flesh and will be attempting to stop Jesus from getting to Jerusalem; just as they once tried to stop him from crossing the Sea of Galilee. Jesus will go toe to toe with the mighty bulls of Bashan—clones of Batios, the great bull-god of Mt. Hermon!  

“Look, it now descends on Edom, on the people I will annihilate in judgment” (Isa 34:5 NET).  

Later the same prophet asks,  

“Who is this who comes from Edom [מֵאֱד֗וֹם me’Edom], with dyed garments from Bozrah, this One who is glorious in His apparel, traveling in the greatness of His strength?– ‘I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save’ (Isa 63:1). Who is this who comes from Edom, Why is Your apparel red [אָדֹ֖ם adom], and Your garments like one who treads in the winepress? (Isa 63:2).” 

This of course, is the very same place where God said he would bathe his sword in blood in heaven (and then turn it to the earth). There is a clear word play going on between Edom and red [אָדֹ֖ם adom] (Isa 63:2), which both share the same root [אדם] “’ādōm, ’ādēm. To be red.”315 

Figure 43. Map of Middle East showing Teman. 

Isaiah is seeing that the one glorious in apparel and mighty to save (Yeshua) is coming from the same place where he said he would bathe his sword in blood in the heavens and on the earth. Jesus (Yeshua) answers:  

“I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no one was with Me. For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled upon My garments, and I have stained all My robes” (Isa 63:3).  

In other words, the same fury that would show on his face (Ezek 38:19), and the anger and fury toward the nations (Isa 34:2) will be expressed in part by a battle in the atmosphere. The prophet Habakkuk speaks of a battle in the same general area. We already noted from this passage how He will frighten the nations with a mere look (Hab 3:6 NET). The location of that event will be in Teman. 

“God comes from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor has covered the skies, the earth is full of his glory (Hab 3:3). His brightness will be as lightning; a two-pronged lightning bolt flashing from his hand. This is the outward display of his power (Hab 3:4). Plague will go before him; pestilence will march right behind him (Hab 3:5).” 

The prophet notes that God (Jesus) is coming from a southernly direction to Israel. Both Teman and Bozrah are around Edom (modern day Jordan). Isaiah said He was glorious in his apparel, and Habakkuk notes his splendor covered the skies, revealing that Jesus is in the sky. The prophet also reveals his weapon; Jesus has bolts of lightning “flashing from his hand … the outward display of his power.” Clearly, Jesus is coming to do battle in the sky and He will shoot bolts of lightning against His enemies. Isaiah explains the motivation for this mighty warrior:  

“For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed has come (Isa 63:4). I looked, but there was no one to help, and I wondered that there was no one to uphold; therefore My own arm brought salvation for Me; and My own fury, it sustained Me (Isa 63:5).” 

Jesus does not come back and merely snap his fingers to end Satan’s rule. As God, He presumably could do such a thing, but for a good reason He chooses not to. Rather than speculate why He does not, it is better to discuss what He does instead. He comes with lightning bolts in his hand and fights against the two hundred million Manticores that Satan has released from the abyss. Satan had prepared for this day, and like a good general, he brought out his secret weapon to use against his foe at an “above earth” level in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, Jesus will ultimately vanquish them; “Their slain will be left unburied, their corpses will stink; the hills will soak up their blood” (Isa 34:3). Ezekiel notes, concerning Satan’s forces:  

“You shall fall upon the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the peoples who are with you; I will give you to birds of prey of every sort and to the beasts of the field to be devoured” (Ezek 39:4). 

Jesus eventually breaks through the manticore dome surrounding Jerusalem, which Satan hoped would stop Jesus from getting through to save His redeemed.  

In Isaiah 63, the prophet asks,  

“Why is Your apparel red … (Isa 63:2) ‘I have trodden the winepress alone [see also Revelation 14, Micah 4:12 and in Joel 3], and from the peoples no one was with Me. For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled upon My garments… (Isa 63:3) For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed has come (Isa 63:4). For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled upon My garments… (Isa 63:3) For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed has come’ (Isa 63:4).” 

Jesus’ Army of Holy Ones  

YHWH (LORD) of hosts is a common epithet of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. “Hosts” [צְבָא֜וֹת Tsavoth] means “armies.” God came with his armies, that is, his holy angels when he came down to Sinai in a show of lightning, thunder, fire, and earthquake (Exod 19). 

“The LORD came from Sinai, and dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came with ten thousands of saints [holy ones]; from His right hand came a fiery law for them” (Deut 33:2). 

King David describes the incredible number of chariots coming with God in the same Psalm where he talked about Bashan (Mt Hermon – the very place where Jesus later took three disciples and transfigured before them); and where the angels had descended in the days of Noah, as we studied in Corrupting the Image 2. “The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of thousands; the Lord is among them as in Sinai, in the Holy Place” (Ps 68:17).  

“When Elisha and his servant woke to find themselves surrounded by the army of the Syrians, Elisha asked and “[YHWH] the LORD opened the eyes of the young man, and he saw. And behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha” (2 Kgs 6:17).  

Notice how Isaiah envisions the Lord God when He comes down to judge the world: 

“For behold, the LORD will come with fire and with His chariots, like a whirlwind, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire and by His sword the LORD will judge all flesh; and the slain of the LORD shall be many” (Isa 66:15–16).  

This very description is said of Jesus who will be “revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2 Thess 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God” (2 Thess 1:8). 

Jesus himself said that he, “the Son of Man will come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and then He will reward each according to his works” (Matt 16:27, see also 25:31). John wrote of this retinue coming with Jesus, as well: “And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses” (Rev 19:14). It is impossible to say this retinue does not include humans. However, the emphasis is clearly on angels, in light of the other passages we have just reviewed; and, in light of Jude, who also states how the “Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints [holy ones], to execute judgment on all” (Jude 1:14–15). Jesus is coming to do battle against the millions in Satan’s freshly created hybrid army. 

Jerusalem Leaders will Look to Me 

Chapter 18 of Corrupting The Image 3 : Jerusalem Leaders will Look to Me 

The spirit of grace and supplication will then cause the leadership to realize not all hope is lost; they will look to the only one who can save them.  

“I will pour out on the kingship of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to [אל el] me, the one they have pierced” (Zech 12:10 [NET2]).  

The preposition el [אל el] (Greek pros) means “to or toward” and not al which means “upon, over, above.” Translations erroneously view this preposition as “al” which means upon, over, or above. Sadly, based on this unfortunate translation, commentators266 have implied Jesus is returning to destroy the inhabitants of Jerusalem and when they look “upon” him they will cry with fear and terror, “Oh no!! Here comes Jesus, we are in trouble!” This false teaching, which also considers prophecies to be already fulfilled, such as the theory that Jesus already came back, is the essence of Preterism: Jesus came back on the dust clouds of the Roman army to destroy the Jews. That is not what the Bible teaches. Jesus is not coming to destroy Israel, but to save her;267 and his people will call him with hope and expectation of final redemption, not with terror. 

The Septuagint of Zech 12:10 reads epiblepsontai pros me), “they will look to me/toward me,” which is the same preposition we find in “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with [pros] God,” (John 1:1). Pros means “facing” or “toward”; it expresses a relationship. In this beautiful relationship recorded in John’s gospel, the Logos (Jesus) and the Father are looking at each other.  

The meaning of the preposition in Zechariah 12 is that they will look to Him as a little baby looks to his mother or father to give him sustenance and clothing and protection. This will occur when the leadership finally looks to Jesus to save them. Suddenly, many texts will flood into their minds, and they will have their “aha moment.” 

The passage from Numbers Rabbah could come to mind: 

“When King Solomon speaks of his ‘beloved,’ he usually means Israel the nation. In one instance he compares his beloved to a roe, and therein he refers to a feature which marks alike Moses and the Messiah, the Two redeemers of Israel. Just as a roe comes within the range of man’s vision only to disappear from sight and then appear again, so it is with these redeemers. Moses appeared to the Israelites, then disappeared, and eventually appeared once more, and the same peculiarity we have in connection with Messiah; He will appear, disappear, and appear again” (Numb. Rabba 11). 

The meaning will become clear that Jesus the Messiah came then left and will return. Then the Midrash Ruth could come to mind:  

“The fourteenth verse in the second chapter of Ruth is thus explained. ‘Come thou hither’ is the prediction of Messiah’s kingdom. ‘Dip the morsel in the vinegar,’ foretells the agony through which Messiah will pass, as it is written in Isaiah (chpt. 53), ‘He was wounded for our sins, He was bruised for our transgressions.’ ‘And she set herself beside the reapers’ predicts the temporary departure of Messiah’s kingdom. ‘And he reached her a parched corn’ means the restoration of His kingdom” (Midr. Ruth 5). 

God will pour out his spirit of grace and supplication so that they can look to Yeshua for the first time in their collective history. The weight of the moment will be grave. Hours may pass until someone breaks the deafening silence with a verse:  

“My servant grew up in the LORD’s presence like a tender green shoot, sprouting from a root in dry and sterile ground. There was nothing beautiful or majestic about his appearance, nothing to attract us to him’” (Isa 53:2). 

Another may add:  

“He was despised and rejected—a man of sorrows, acquainted with bitterest grief. We turned our backs on him and looked the other way when he went by. He was despised, and we did not care” (Isa 53:3). 

With hot tears running down her cheeks, another may interject:  

“Yet it was our weaknesses he carried; it was our sorrows that weighed him down. And we thought his troubles were a punishment from God for his own sins!” (Isa 53:4). 

There is silence for some time. Hearts are heavy, and then another with his face to the ground quietly says:  

“But he was wounded and crushed for our sins. He was beaten that we might have peace. He was whipped, and we were healed!” (Isa 53:5). 

Then they all confess together:  

“All of us have strayed away like sheep. We have left God’s paths to follow our own. Yet the LORD laid on him the guilt and sins of us all. He was oppressed and treated harshly, yet he never said a word. He was led as a lamb to the slaughter. And as a sheep is silent before the shearers, he did not open his mouth. From prison and trial they led him away to his death. But who among the people realized that he was dying for their sins—that he was suffering their punishment?” (Isa 53:6–8). 

The painful reality of their rejection of HaMashiach, the only one who can save them, will truly sink in. They will contemplate how the one they had pinned their hopes on for thousands of years was the chief cornerstone that the builders, their leaders, had rejected; and who, though he had done no wrong, was whipped and sent to his death on a cross like a criminal and was put in a rich man’s grave (Isa 53:8, 9). 

They will Mourn  

The gravity of having rejected the Messiah, the one they pierced, will be parallel to that of Joseph’s brothers finally recognizing their brother as a fellow Hebrew and not a pagan Egyptian. When the leadership of Jerusalem sees Jesus as their brother and savior and not as a Christian (or pagan) invention, they will lament and weep bitterly, just as they would mourn at the death of an only child!  

“Yes, they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn. In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem … all the families that remain, every family by itself, and their wives by themselves” (Zech 12:10, 11–14). 

Parents can imagine the sorrow they would feel at losing a child; their mourning would not last for five minutes but would carry on for days, weeks, even months. That will be the same heartfelt mourning they will feel when they realize they rejected the chief cornerstone. Each person will lament alone in profound sorrow, broken and in agony over the centuries of rejecting their Promised One—the very one who loved them more than any other and had come to His Own. Their hearts will be broken with contrition as they desperately call out to the One they had despised. Their hearts will be vexed realizing all the misery that might have been avoided if they had embraced him sooner.  

They will mourn at how their leadership, two thousand years previously, did not see their true King “due to our sins.” They will consider how the masses said, “Baruch Haba B’shem Adonai,” but their leadership said, “Crucify him.” They will weep, but for the first time ever, the leadership in Jerusalem will acknowledge their offense; and that will be the key to Messiah’s return. 

“I will return again to My place till they acknowledge their offense. Then they will seek My face; in their affliction [tribulation] they will earnestly seek Me” (Hos 5:15).  

All these things will have led up to this grand-finale climactic moment where all is lost, but then a faint ray of hope begins to shine through. The Jewish people’s history taught them that however deep the mourning and however grave the situation, they always kept a flicker of hope alive within their souls. Just as God had stated, through the tribulation of those days, they will earnestly seek him. It will be then that the “scornful men, who rule this people who are in Jerusalem” (Isa 28:14), who made a covenant with death and Sheol and said, “we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood we have hidden ourselves” (Isa 28:15) will seek him. In their affliction—Jacob’s trouble—they will fully understand Jesus to be the chief cornerstone. 

I will praise You, for You have answered me, and have become my salvation (Yeshuah) (Ps 118:21). The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Ps 118:22). This was the LORD’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes (Ps 118:23). This is the day the LORD has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it (Ps 118:24).  

In that day, the words of Isaiah the prophet will ring true: 

Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: “Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, A tried stone, a precious cornerstone,268 a sure foundation; Whoever believes will not act hastily (Isa 28:16).  

They will accept Yeshua as the sure foundation because the tribulation will have swept “away the refuge of lies” (Isa 28:17). It will be like a veil lifted from their eyes. They will see that:  

It pleased the LORD to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand (Isa 53:10).  

God’s spirit of grace and supplication will be at work telling them: 

“So rend your heart, and not your garments; Return to the LORD your God, for He is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness; and He relents from doing harm” (Joel 2:13). 

Thus, with all their heart they will call upon Jesus to save them. At the top of their lungs, they will shout and join the throngs of people who welcomed Jesus at his first coming by saying “Save now [Hoshianna], I pray, O LORD; O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD” “Baruch Haba B’shem Adonai,” (Ps 118:25–26); come Yeshua, “We welcome you in the name of Yehovah.” Just as they anticipated in the Babylonian Talmud, their confession will bring them to say: 

“Come, and let us return to the LORD; For He has torn, but He will heal us; He has stricken, but He will bind us up. After two days He will revive us; On the third day He will raise us up, That we may live in His sight” (Hos 6:1–2). 

Thomas Constable points out that “Corporate Israel has never prayed like this. The fulfillment must still be future, at the beginning of Christ’s millennial reign.”269 


God divorced the ten northern tribes of Israel, but He intends to marry his bride upon his return. Judah was not divorced, but was declared an adulterous wife. How can the marriage supper of the Lamb take place under these circumstances? There must be a legal mechanism for the marriage to happen. The beautiful thing is that there is such a mechanism. Briefly stated, the “old covenant” was a marriage contract that God and Israel entered at Sinai.  

  • “I spread My wing over you and covered your nakedness. Yes, I swore an oath to you and entered into a covenant with you, and you became Mine,” says the Lord GOD (Ezek 16:8). 
  • … the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD (Jer 31:32). 

However shocking it may sound, Scripture tells us clearly: God divorced the northern kingdom of Israel because of their adultery:  

“Then I saw that for all the causes for which backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a certificate of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear, but went and played the harlot also” (Jer 3:8). 

God did not divorce Judah “for the sake of My servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel” (1 Kgs 11:32). Paul explains how the old marriage (old covenant) is annulled by the death of the husband. 

“For the woman who has a husband is bound by the law to her husband as long as he lives. But if the husband dies, she is released from the law of her husband. So then if, while her husband lives, she marries another man, she will be called an adulteress; but if her husband dies, she is free from that law [of the husband], so that she is no adulteress, though she has married another man. Therefore, my brethren, you also have become dead to the law [of the husband] through the body of Christ, that you may be married to another–to Him who was raised from the dead, that we should bear fruit to God” (Rom 7:2–4). 

The northern tribes of Israel are forever mixed with the nations; but Judah is still under the old marriage covenant with its stains of adultery and infidelity. By welcoming Jesus in the name of the Lord, they recognize him as the husband who died and “the one they pierced” (Zech 12:10). Paul says, because of that “you also have become dead to the law [of the husband] through the body of Christ” (Rom 7:4). Isaiah speaks of this time when Jesus comes (Isa 4:2) and purges the blood of Jerusalem:  

“And it shall come to pass that he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy–everyone who is recorded among the living in Jerusalem. When the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purged the blood of Jerusalem from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning” (Isa 4:3–4). 

Their acceptance of Jesus will bring many verses into focus: 

“And it will be said in that day: ‘Behold, this is our God; we have waited for Him, and He will save us. This is the LORD; we have waited for Him; we will be glad and rejoice in His salvation [Yeshuah]’” (Isa 25:9). 

Indeed, they will be comforted after the great tribulation of the time of Jacob’s trouble through which they passed: 

“Comfort, yes, comfort My people!” Says your God (Isa 40:1). “Speak comfort to Jerusalem, and cry out to her, That her warfare is ended, That her iniquity is pardoned; For she has received from the LORD’s hand Double for all her sins” (Isa 40:2). 

Furthermore, the words of Joel will take on a greater significance: 

“And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, as the LORD has said, among the remnant whom the LORD calls” (Joel 2:32). 

Ephraim Ransomed 

God also specifically states he will ransom Ephraim (the house of Israel) from Sheol and Death, the curse that has plagued man since the Fall in the Garden of Eden. The leadership of Jerusalem has repented and embraced Yeshua, the One who broke the curse of sin and death. This is the same duo with which the leaders of Jerusalem had made a deal:  

“The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up; his sin is kept in store (Hos 13:12). Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol [שְׁאוֹל֙]? Shall I redeem them from Death? O Death [מָ֗וֶת Mavet], where are your plagues? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion is hidden from my eyes” (Hos 13:14). 

Paul uses this passage to speak about the resurrection and the transformation that will take place at the gathering of the saints. 

“So when this corruptible has put on incorruption, and this mortal has put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written: ‘Death is swallowed up in victory” (1 Cor 15:54). “O Death, where is your sting? O Hades, where is your victory?” (1 Cor 15:55). 

The confession of the Jerusalem leadership will bring forgiveness and reconciliation, and will turn the tables. Up until then, “The same horn was making war against the saints, and prevailing against them” (Dan 7:21) “until the Ancient of Days came, and a judgment was made in favor of the saints” (Dan 7:21-22). Just as Jesus said that they would not see him “from now until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” (Matt 23:39 NET). Nothing will change for the saints “until” then; and then the judgment is made for them because of what they confess.  

For the Love of the Saints 

Jesus alluded to this shift as well when He said:  

“For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be (Matt 24:21). And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake [δια δε τους εκλεκτους dia de tous eklektos] those days will be shortened” (Matt 24:22). 

Why will they be shortened? It took me a long time to put the pieces together and to understand how it works. If we know that the tribulation will be 1,260 days long, how can the days be shortened? 

When the word: sake, Dia is followed by an accusative (objective) case, according to BDAG Lexicon, it means, “the reason why something happens, results, exists: because of, for the sake of.”270 Based on the Greek grammar, the saints are not passive recipients of an act of pity from God. The shortening of the days of Tribulation is not done to them, but is caused by them, based on an action they performed. 

Rather, the time of the affliction gets reduced “as a result of [something] the elect [did], those days will be shortened;” the elect cause the shortening of the days. What will they do? They will finally answer Jesus’ challenge and welcome Him in the name of the LORD, and say “Baruch haba b’shem Adonai” (Matt 23:39). 

Their welcoming Jesus in the name of the Lord will set in motion his return! Immediately prior to this, there seems to be a time of silence, “Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD; for He is aroused from His holy habitation” (Zech 2:13). It is as if He were drawing a deep breath followed by:  

The LORD also will roar from Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem; the heavens and earth will shake; but the LORD will be a shelter for His people, and the strength of the children of Israel (Joel 3:16).  

The Day of the Lord will finally commence when, “the LORD comes out of His place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity” (Isa 26:21). The world will shudder at his coming.  

Ninurta the Star, Arrow and King of Hades 

Chapter 16 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Ninurta the Star, Aroow and King of Hades

The god of death known as Enlil / Ninurta continued to seduce Northern Israel with promises of fleshly pleasures; but then, they demanded child sacrifice. The Northern Kingdom eventually became so bad that Isaiah wrote about them: “The people who walked in darkness . Those who dwelt in the land of the shadow of death” (Isa 9:2). 

Ironically, the false god that Israel worshiped would be the same god that their conquerors worshipped: “So Israel was carried away from their own land to Assyria, as it is to this day” (2 Kgs 17:23). The House of Israel was removed from the land God had given them and taken to Mesopotamia where they could worship the gods they had been pursuing. We learn that “Sennacherib king of Assyria … was worshiping in the temple of Nisroch his god” (2 Kgs 19:36–37). We now know that:  

The Assyrian deity who hides behind the name Nisroch may be identified with Ninurta. The ‘spelling נסרך is probably best understood as a textual corruption fromנמרד …ultimately Nisroch relates to Ninurta (Nimrod).cxxxviii 

Before they were hauled off to Assyria, the prophet Amos relayed a lamentation on account of the terrible practices they did in honor of Ninurta.  

“You also carried along Sikkuth your king and Kiyyun, your images, the star of your gods which you made for yourselves. (Amos 5:26 NASB)cxxxix 

We now know the identity of Sikkuth and Kiyyun, due to the discovery of ancient libraries and documents from the ancient near east, and due to scholars investing lifetimes in translating and understanding those texts. 

Amar Annus notes the identification of an astral divinity with Ninurta where Sakkud: dsakkud = dnin-urta: 

Sakkud is attested in a famous biblical passage in the book of Amos 5:26 where the prophet criticizes his people: “You carried skwt, your king and kywn, your star, images which you have made for yourselves.” It is possible, according to some scholars, that skwt originates from SAG.KUD and the deity Sakkuth was worshipped in Samaria during Amos’ time (cf. 2 Kgs 17:30). What is curious in the biblical passage is they attribute “your king” (mlkkm) to skwt which fits Ninurta as the god of kingship.cxl  

Encyclopedia.com gives a helpful summary of the two gods Sikkuth [סִכּוּת] and Chiun [כִּיּוּן], whom they identify as a pair of Mesopotamian astral deities associated with Ninurta (Nimrod). 

In other “non-Western” lists of gods and stars, Sikkuth has recently been identified with Ninurta, one of the chief Mesopotamian deities … Sikkuth in Amos is a perfect transliteration of this star deity. Its appellation, melekh (Akk. šarru, “king”), alludes to the high rank of this deity, a (translated) classification device known from Ugaritic and other sources. This means that in the ritual to which Amos alludes, Sikkuth is the most important figure. Chiun is identified with the Akkadian Kajamānu (in Akkadian intervocalic m comes to be pronounced like w, and so m was often written even for original w), “the steady one” (sometimes sag.uš), the appellation of the star god Saturn (hence Aramaic Kewan, Ar. Kaiwan).cxli 

As we saw in the chapter on Og King of the Bashan, one of Og’s titles was Milcom / Molech. The same epithet was used by Ninurta because Ninurta was the god and driving force behind the practices and iniquity of the Amorites and the Rephaim. Amar Annus continues:  

One might suggest that the Amos passage reflects peripheral Mesopotamian traditions diffused into Samaria. The second divine element, kywn, almost certainly corresponds to Akkadian kajjamanu (SAG.UŠ) “Saturn.” cxlii 

We must not overlook the significance of Saturn’s Sumerian name SAG.UŠ. SAG means “chief, head”cxliii and UŠ means “death, dead, dying,” related to UG.cxliv We see again the death cult associated with Ninurta, Og and Nergal, along with Melqart, Heracles and the like.  

A deity Sakkuth was called “your king” in Israel as Sakkud in Mesopotamia was associated with Ninurta. For the court scholars of the Neo-Assyrian empire, the conjunction of Mercury, that is the star of Ninurta/Nabû, and Saturn, the star of the king, constituted the sign of kingship. In Mesopotamian astrology, Orion was comparably the celestial image of the dying king Dumuzi/Tammuz (called Sipazianna, “faithful shepherd of heaven”).cxlv 

The northern kingdom of Israel was worshiping Ninurta, son of Enlil, which is to say they were worshiping Satan and the world system he created. The Canaanite headquarters of this worship were in the land of Bashan, Zebulun and Naphtali, being the land of the shadow of death. They were worshiping the beast that carries the woman. Satan uses the woman who represents lust to seduce people to fornicate, and then to justify child sacrifice. The fathers and mothers were willing to throw their infants into the deadly hands of Molech / Saturn / Ninurta, and then parade him around as their king! Thus, the identity of “your king” in Amos 5:26 is firmly established as Ninurta because “he is one of the gods who is explicitly called ‘the king’ in hymns,” and his “kingship is eminently manifest.” cxlvi  


In Acts 7:43, Steven recounted Israel’s history (drawing from Amos 5): “You also took along the tabernacle of Moloch and the star of the god Rompha, the images which you made to worship” (Acts 7:43 NASB). Due to a scribal error in the letters, the Hebrew k, כ [kaph], was replaced by the Hebrew r, ר [resh], and in Greek, ph (φ) substituted for v. cxlvii Thus the Hebrew Chuin or Kewan, was rendered in the Septuagint, as Ῥαιφάν [Raiphan]. To be clear, there was no ancient god known as Remphan. It is the result of a scribe misreading some letters that are easy to confuse, and out came the fictitious Remphan. 

Unfortunately, the star of Israel’s false god to whom Stephen and Amos referred, has been erroneously associated with the six-pointed Magen David (Star of David). However, the pagan star in question is NOT the Magen David. Rather, it was the Star of Ninurta, which has eight points, as we have seen, not six points.  


Sikkuth, of course, sounds nothing like Ninurta; so, why does it represent Ninurta? The name Sukuth was a Hebraized form of the Babylonian Shukudu (“the Arrow”), a name of Sirius,cxlviii the brightest star in the night sky. It was associated with the god Ninurta.cxlix Thus, the star was associated with Sirius and Saturn, and had nothing to do with the Magen David. Amar Annus notes the following about arrow epithets used for Ninurta: 

  • The arrow (šukudu) … is astronomically Ninurta’s star Sirius (see CAD s.v.), and the Arrow might be a metaphor for Ninurta himself … The terrible arrow of Marduk is compared to a merciless lion … šiltahu 5.cl 
  • Ninurta is the Arrow (= Sirius), the great warrior, who slit the throats of the enemies of Assurbanipal with his pointed arrowhead 
  • Ninurta himself is an ‘arrow’.  

“Ninurta’s identity with the star is explicit in a šu-ila prayer which begins with the words atta Kaksisa Ninurta ašared ili rabûti “you are Sirius, (that is) Ninurta, the first among the great gods” (Mayer 1990: 467ff).” cli 

In other words, Ninurta is known as the Arrow, and the Arrow, in an astronomical setting, is the star Sirius. The imagery of gods as stars reminds us of the language of Revelation in which angels are frequently symbolized as stars. In John’s vision of Revelation, Jesus has seven stars in his right hand. Jesus reveals the mystery: “The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches” (Rev 1:20). Thus, there are seven stars or seven angels (messengers) to God’s redeemed people. It is interesting that another word for “arrow” (mulmullu, Sumerian mul.mul) is related to the Pleiades. Amar Annus explains that:  

The Pleiades were thought to bring war and destruction – “the warlike gods, who carry bow and arrow, whose rising means war.” It is worth noting that the month of Ningirsu in Astrolabe B, Iyyar, is also referred to as “the month of the Pleiades, the Seven Great Gods”.clii 

The name of the star Sirius derives from the Babylonian word for arrow; The Sumerian word for arrow is linked with the Pleiades. The star was a symbol of Ninurta, and the warrior’s terrible, merciless arrow is also connected to astrological bodies. Annus comments that:  

Marduk’s arrows (mulmullu) … are said to “rain down on the mountains” (i-sal-la-hu KUR.MEŠ, l. 14). All the gods, good and evil, are vanquished by these arrows. Thus both mulmullu and šukudu referred to the god’s arrow which killed his enemy, despite their different astral identities. cliii 

The first century Jewish apocalyptists used similar language suggesting Belial and his hordes will come out of the underworld with arrows flying. What the apocalyptists were envisioning was the image that Satan (Mesopotamian Enlil) had been projecting all along: Satan, or his proxy, was the great dragon, the invincible dragon that you did not want to encounter or challenge. Yoder notes the epithet: “ú-šum-gal-lum la maār “the great dragon, who cannot be faced.”cliv He also notes regarding Nergal: “The majestic, great dragon who pours venom upon them”. Nergal’s divine staff was as “awe-inspiring as a serpent” and Ninurta’s mace consisted of seven snake-like heads.clv 

In Mesopotamian astrology, Orion was comparably the celestial image of the dying king Dumuzi/Tammuz (called Sipazianna, “faithful shepherd of heaven”). According to K. van der Toorn, it is even possible that a conflation of traditions could have resulted in the idea that, to the Greeks, the constellation Orion instead of Sirius was the heavenly counterpart of the hunter Orion. In this connection it might be interesting to note that in Syriac Orion is called gabbar, “hero” (1990: 11).clvi 

From the previous evidence, we see that Sikkuth (šukudu) refers to an arrow, as well as Ninurta. Kiyyun means “steady one”. However, both names also refer to planets or a constellation. Sikkuth is associated with Saturn, Sirius and possibly, the Pleiades or Orion, while Kiyyun relates to the “steady one”, meaning Saturn. Both Sikkuth and Kiyyun are appellations that involve a hero and a bow and arrow. This a description of the hero, Nimrod, with his bow and arrow, the one who became a gibbor, which translated is “hero”. Nimrod was a gibbor hunter, and of course, he has been positively identified as Ninurta.  

It was Ninurta’s command that drove his beloved Tiglath-pileser I to go hunting bulls, elephants, lions and birds. The weapons used by him include “my strong bow, iron arrowheads (šukud AN.BAR) and sharp arrows (mulmulliya zaqtute)” (Grayson 1991: 25 vi 65-67). The arrow (šukudu), mentioned by Tiglath-pileser I is astronomically Ninurta’s star Sirius, and the Arrow might be a metaphor for Ninurta himself.clvii 

Wiggermann notes how “As a god of war, Nergal is very similar to Ninurta, with whom he shares the title ‘a strong warrior, son of Enlil.’” Furthermore, he notes how a god appearing as “Nergal was” explicitly called the “Enlil of the mountain (kur netherworld).” clviii  

In fact, “from Ur III onwards the god of Kutha starts appearing in the south as Nergal “The Lord of the big city”, and he is explicitly called the “Enlil of the mountain (kur netherworld)”.clix 

Thus, Nimrod, the rebel is also represented as Nergal, the supreme god of the underworld who governs the dead. Hades, his equivalent in ancient Greek myth, was also lord of the dead and king of the underworld. At the Gates of Hades, located at Caesarea Philippi at the foot of Mt. Hermon, Jesus said, “On this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it” (Matt 16:18). Jesus directly confronted the king of the underworld on his turf and declared war. We have explored Nimrod in his persona as the celestial archer and arrow, which related to being king of the underworld. We will now look at Nimrod from another angle, where he was known as Pabilsag, the chief ancestor.  


Pabilsag is a variation of Ninurta or Nimrod; the origin of the name is fascinating, and the iconography is shockingly biblical. When we compare Pabilsag’s bio with Revelation 9, a startling realization comes into focus: The gods that the House of Israel once worshiped will return in the last days. As we look at the ancient past, we get insight into the end times. Let me explain. I’ll start with the name.  

Pabilsag comes from Old Babylonian and means a “relation”. In Akkadian, it is “abu”, which of course is related to the Hebrew  אבAb (father), or Aramaic, Abba. The infix “bilga”, also Old Babylonian, means “male ancestor”. Lastly, saĝ, which is Old Akkadian, means “head; person; capital”, and in Akkadian, qaqqadu; rēšu, similar to the Hebrew “rosh”.clx Pabilsag, then, was the chief or “principal ancestor”. Pabilsag, as indicated by his name, was clearly someone the Mesopotamians believed to be of great importance, who was the chief of all their ancestors.  

Pabilsag was considered a son of the god Enlil according to the most common tradition … Pabilsag was merged with several deities, the most prominent one Ningirsu / Ninurta. The syncretism with Ningirsu/Ninurta probably took place during the Old Babylonian period (Krebernik 2003-05: 162). Pabilsag’s association with the netherworld could be due to his syncretism with the underworld deity Nergal.clxi  

Thus, Pabilsag is the principal ancestor who is also known as Ninurta, who was the son of Enlil—who of course, was Nimrod, the rebel who became a hybrid.  

Gavin White discusses the name: “Additional epithets like ‘the weapon with a burning tip’ or ‘he who strikes with a burning point’ can be derived from the individual signs used to write Pabilsag’s name.” clxii This weapon with a burning tip could be a reference to Ninurta’s arrow (Shukudu).  

We see again that Nimrod or Ninurta shows up by another name. We noted at the beginning of our study how Satan has many names, and once we start making this connection, we see Satan was manifesting through his proxies everywhere in the ancient world; So too, with Nimrod. However, we do not find evidence of Nimrod anywhere else under the name Nimrod, because that is not his name. It is the Bible’s renaming of the rebellious person who became a gibbor. Yet, in each of the epithets of Nimrod that we examine, we learn more of his character and his significance with the people who venerated him. The Bible has already established that he was a rebel. Nevertheless, the Mesopotamian version portrays him as Lord of the Earth, the great mountain, the arrow, Sirius, the brightest star. Now we see his appearance as Pabilsag, and we learn he is also known as the chief ancestor and god of the netherworld, like Nergal. The Dictionary of Deities and Demons notes some of the epithets Ninurta possesses:  

Ninurta who has qardu ‘fierce’, ‘heroic’ and qarradu ‘warrior’, ‘hero’ among his standard epithets … Astronomers of the 8th-7th century added further connotations, identifying Ninurta (or Pabilsag) with Sagittarius or, alternatively, associating Ninurta with the planet Sirius (called Šukudu ‘arrow’), the major star of Canis major (Akk qatsu ‘bow’).clxiii  

What emerges from our investigation is the image of the constellation Sagittarius, which is familiar to many of us as a horse-centaur that is armed with a bow and arrow. The centaur-like god Sagittarius turns out to be, yet another version of Ninurta / Nimrod known as Nergal or Pabilsag. The ancient Mesopotamian versions reveal a composite being “with a number of features not seen in the Greek version, such as a set of wings, a scorpion’s tail and the head of a dog.”clxiv We know exactly how Nergal looked due to the recently discovered iconography. (See Figure 55, next page). Remarkably, the image appears to be the same creatures who come out of the Abyss in Revelation 9. (See also Appendix 8 Joel’s Army). I will demonstrate how they match soon, but first let’s examine the Kudurru Stone.  

Figure 55 Nergal / Pabilsag from a 12th century entitlement (Kudurru) Stone 


The Woman who Rides the Beast Revealed

Chapter 14 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: The Woman who Rides the Beast Revealed [Part-1]

The woman who rides the Beast and the ancient idolatrous system behind her is an important link in understanding how Satan has been fighting God. We recall that Satan was in the Garden of Eden (Ezek 28:13), the place of pleasure, created for Adam and Eve. But he lusted for more (Isa 14:13) and staged a coup. As a result of the slanderous lies Satan told to Adam and Eve, they began to covet when they already possessed everything. Their coveting resulted in their expulsion from the Garden of Eden (Gen 3:23). Man has been trying to get back to Eden (pleasure) ever since and Satan has gladly exploited this craving in humans. 

John saw “a woman sitting on a scarlet beast which was full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns” (Rev 17:3). The Beast represents the culmination of all that Satan has been working toward.  

And on her forehead a name was written: MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I marveled with great amazement (Rev 17:5-6). 

Figure 41 Rain Goddess. Cylinder seal. Mesopotamia. Akkad period, c. 2334-2154 B.C. Shell. 33.5 X 19.5 mm. New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, Corpus 220. 

Somewhere in the Akkad period, around 2334-2154 BC, a small cylinder seal was fashioned, showcasing Satan’s basic strategy to keep mankind enslaved, and prone to welcome his hostile takeover. (See Figure 41). In their 1983 book, Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer, Diane Wolkstein and Samuel N. Kramer, explain the figures on the seal:  

Inanna / Ishtar may appear on this seal in her manifestation as Rain or Thunderstorm Goddess, as suggested by Elizabeth Douglas Van Buren. Nude except for her horned crown, she stands between the wings of a lion-bird or griffin, probably a manifestation of the embodiment of the thunder-bird, Anzu. Streams of rain are held by the goddess and vomited by the lion-bird as it draws the chariot of the Weather God, who snaps his lightning whip. The clatter of the wooden wheels may be accompanied by the roar of the lion-bird as thunder. This scene gives mythopoeic form to the visual phenomena of rain, lightning, and thunder — its aural accompaniment in nature.lxx 

Inanna, “queen of heaven”, also known as Ishtar, is the woman who rides the Beast in Revelation 17. The Beast she rides is the Anzu, a form of snake-dragon, associated with Ninurta, Pabilsag or Enlil. We recall F. Wiggermann’s study on Mesopotamian protective spirits, in which he argues for the original association of Anzû with Enlil, not Ninurta (a syncretization).lxxi This reveals that the hybrid creature first represented Enlil, and then later, stood-in for the syncretizations.  

The point Wiggermann is making is that Ningirsu (Ninurta) is typically associated with the Anzû, but in reality, the Anzû represents Enlil, master of them all. We might liken it to Lord of the Rings—“the one ring to rule them all and in the darkness bind them.” Satan has different faces and agents, but in the end, all roads lead back to him.  

Ninurta (or Ningirsu) is actually the biblical Nimrod, the great rebel, the one who became a gibbor. However, Ninurta was known as the son of Enlil and eventually syncretized with Enlil so that his qualities were the same as Enlil’s.  

Lastly, the one in the chariot is the storm god. As noted earlier by Wendy Doniger, a lot of syncretism was happening; “Bel”, meaning “lord”, who was a syncretization of Marduk, Enlil, and the dying god Dumuzid.”lxxii Therefore, the storm god Bel (Baal) is Enlil, who we also learned was Dagan, and went by the logogram BAD / BAT (BATios) and gave the command on Mt. Hermon. 

Thus, we have an icon in which Ishtar, queen of heaven, the great harlot, is riding Ninurta (Nimrod the rebel) and Satan is driving in a chariot on wheels with eight pointed stars. Stated another way: Lust is riding on the back of Rebellion, and they are driven by the Great Dragon. (See Figure 42, next page). 

Figure 42 Rain Goddess. Cylinder seal. Mesopotamia. Akkad period, c. 2334-2154 B.C. Shell. 33.5 X 19.5 mm. New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, Corpus 220. 

God revealed to John in Revelation what Satan has been doing. Only recently, with the discovery of the thousands of documents and cylinder seals from ancient Sumer, are we able to look in the ancient world and recognize the symbols that John was given. The woman riding a beast was not an allegorical fable, but a physical image that would have been a common sight in ancient Babylon.  

Even though we did not recognize the reference to a woman riding a beast in modern times, the ancients would have understood: “I will tell you the mystery of the woman and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and the ten horns” (Rev 17:7). John also discovered in his visions that the dragon with seven heads and ten horns (Rev 12:3), gave his power, throne, and authority to the Beast (Rev 13:2).  

The cylinder seal provides an excellent graphic representation of what is really happening: The trio of Satan and the Beast, also includes the harlot, with all the perversions the world craves. While the world worships the lustful goddess, the Beast establishes his kingdom; and Satan is the one behind the scenes, driving it forward.  

This beast symbol of a winged lion is on the very walls of the Ishtar gate, one of the eight gates of Babylon. The lion has wings just like in Figure 42―Ishtar is standing on a winged lion griffin, pulling the chariot, which is controlled by Enlil.  

In the book of Revelation, we see that the dragon gave the Beast his power, his throne and his authority. Everything―he gave to the Beast. We know that according to Revelation 17, the ten (horns) kings upon the Beast are going to hate the woman and destroy her―this idol that so many individuals, kings, priests, pastors and everyday people bow down to worship. I am not only talking about pornography and perversions; Her worship also involves the idolatry of pursuing illicit pleasures and abominations. The world bows down willingly to these things, and Satan allows us to worship these counterfeit pleasures because they serve his purpose—for now.  


The counterfeits, however, are designed to enslave us; and once enslaved, the façade will come off. The Great Harlot, Babylon the Great, will be unnecessary at that point, and Satan will destroy it.lxxiii  

Has God also vowed to destroy her? ―Yes, because she is a counterfeit. She is the epitome of idolatry, established at the gate of the gods in the land of Shinar, where Nimrod the rebel began his kingdom of rebellion against the Most High God.  

There is a very curious passage in Zechariah 5; and it has everything to do with Revelation 17, where we see the woman who rides the Beast and this Mystery Babylon, this mother of harlots. An angel speaks with Zechariah the prophet, in a vision about a woman sitting inside a lead basket, about whom he says: “This is Wickedness! [harisha הָרִשְׁעָ֔ה fs] And he thrust her down into the basket, and threw the lead cover over its mouth” (Zech 5:8). Zechariah asks where the women, who look like storks, are taking the basket and the angel responds: “To build a house for it in the land of Shinar; when it is ready, the basket will be set there on its base” (Zech 5:11).  

Wickedness, with its “resemblance throughout the earth,” is personified in the vision as a woman in a basket going to Shinar, which is Sumer, Mesopotamia—the capital of Enlil’s kingdom. The place where Nimrod became a gibbor, and where the Tower of Babel was established, along with the false religious system that came with it.  

The woman that rides the Beast is known as Mystery Babylon. “Babylon throughout the Bible symbolizes the focus of anti-God sentiment and activity”lxxiv The Greek word for “wickedness” is ανομία (anomia / lawlessness). The apostle Paul speaks of “the mystery of lawlessness [ανομία],” and reveals that it “is already at work” (2 Thess 2:7). Paul tells us that the return of Christ will not happen until the lawless one (ανομος anomos, same root) appears first. Thus, Zechariah’s vision shows us a picture of lawlessness or wickedness, contained in a basket, but trying to get out. For some reason, it is in the land of Israel and it is going to be taken to the land of Shinar (Babylon / Mesopotamia), where it will have an entire temple with much more room than a small bushel basket. We see, amazingly, that Paul says: “The mystery of lawlessness [ανομία] is already at work” (2 Thess 2:7), meaning Mystery Babylon is at work; She is the harlot riding on the back of the Beast, the personification of lawless wickedness.  


The scene on the cylinder seal in Figure 41 is precisely what was revealed to John. It also gives us insight into what is happening in the spiritual realm: 

Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and talked with me, saying to me, “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot [porne] who sits on many waters with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth were made drunk with the wine of her fornication” (Rev 17:2).  

The features of the great harlot that John saw and that God has vowed to destroy include:  

  1. Sits on many waters 
  1. Fornicated with kings of the earth 
  1. Whole planet involved in her fornication 
  1. Sits on a beast 
  1. Sumptuously dressed 
  1. Holds a cup of abominations 
  1. Babylon the great 
  1. Mother of harlots 
  1. Drunk with the blood of saints 
  1. Rides a beast with seven heads, ten horns that was, is not, and will ascend 
  1. The horns hate and burn the woman 
  1. The woman is the great city 

The word for harlot is the Greek word porne. As we trace this back in the literature in the Scripture, we see that porne is the same as k’desha. In Genesis 38, Judah went to his daughter-in-law, and “thought she was a harlot [zona זונה πόρνη]” (Gen 38:15). When he later tried to locate her, he asked the men of the city, “Where is the harlot [kedesha קדשה πόρνη]?“(Gen 38:21)  

The word zona, which means prostitute, was interpreted by Judah and the people of that village as kedesha. What is a kedesha? God says in Deuteronomy 23: “There shall be no ritual harlot [porne קדשה πόρνης] of the daughters of Israel, or a perverted one [kadesh קָדֵ֖שׁ] of the sons of Israel (Deut 23:17). What’s astounding is that the word “kadosh”, which means “holy”, as in “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of hosts,” is the word used to describe this woman.  


Figure 43 The Egyptian goddess Qedeshet and Min. Stele of Houy-C 86 14th Cent BC on display Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Louvre. 

The word does not mean the person is pure and morally unblemished; but rather that the person is set-apart for a particular purpose, whether good or bad. The word qedesha and qadesh (or kadesh) means female and male prostitutes. They were holy; they were wholly set-apart, completely set-apart for a purpose, but not a good purpose. 

An example is the goddess, Qadesh, found in the New Kingdom ca. 14th century BC in Egypt, but imported from Canaan. (See adjacent Figure 43). The inscription says: “Qedesh[et], lady of heaven, mistress of all the gods, eye of Ra, without her equal.”lxxv She is standing on a lion to the right of the Egyptian gods Min, who has an erect phallus.lxxvi In Isaiah 47, God speaks directly against Qadesh, which we will look at later.  

A marriage is holy, not because the man is perfect or the woman is perfect, nor because they never have unfortunate thoughts or say mean things. The reason that a marriage is holy is that it is designed for only two people, because it is exclusive. Those two people are what make it a holy matrimony. If you bring in a lover from the outside, it is no longer a holy matrimony. If you leave your socks on the floor, it is still the holy matrimony. If you leave the toilet seat up, it is still a holy matrimony. If you burn dinner, it is still a holy matrimony. But if you bring in another woman or another man, it is no longer holy. That is the difference. Thus, Babylon the Great is described as a great zona, a great kedesha, porne, harlot, the one in the crosshairs of God—she is the other woman in what is supposed to be an exclusive relationship between God and mankind.  

A harlot sells the pleasure of her body for payment to many lovers. God is not against sexual union; He created it. However, pursuing illicit, perverted and warped pleasure outside of the instructions He has given us for living, is what God is against, because it is harmful. The man involved with a harlot believes that sexual union with her will bring him satisfaction, though as the Rolling Stones lead singer, Mick Jagger, put it, “I can’t get no satisfaction … but I try, and I try, and I try.” The sexual relationship outside of marriage is a grave perversion of the joy, peace and prosperity God desires to freely give us and, incidentally, is an exploitation and objectification of the lover, as well.  

The harlot, in a word, is the embodiment of violating the tenth commandment: coveting, lusting for something that you should not have. All things are permissible, Paul says, but not all things are beneficial. (See Appendix 7 Leaven). For example, Adam and Eve were physically capable of eating the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, but it was not beneficial. Lust and coveting seek gratification outside of God’s commandments and right order. God has vowed retribution against the harlot because she exacts a terrible price on mankind; her lie separates us from Him. The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible notes the price the goddess Inanna exacts:  

Even as the dead goddess is brought back to life, it is at the price of another’s death as her substitute … lshtar spends most of her life without a husband or children, for her husbands change their nature almost immediately after consummation or die before their time. Everything is premature. Aborted.lxxvii  

It is the same lie Satan posed in the Garden: “Did God really say you can’t …?” It separated Adam and Eve from God; They coveted something that was outside of God’s purview.  


The Sumerian goddess, Inanna (Akkadian, Ishtar), is the patron-goddess of whores and temple prostitutes.lxxviii Her name likely comes from nin-an-ak, meaning “Lady of Heaven.”lxxix J. Black and A. Green in Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, speak of Inanna, who is the epitome of the woman-who-rides-the-beast:  

One aspect of Inanna’s personality is that of a goddess of love and sexual behavior, but especially connected with extra-marital relationships with prostitution. Inanna is not a goddess of marriage, nor is she a mother goddess. The so-called Sacred Marriage in which she participates carries no overtones of moral implication for human marriages. Inanna is always depicted as a young woman, never as mother or faithful wife, who is fully aware of her feminine power and confronts life boldly without fear of how she will be perceived by others, especially by menlxxx (Emphasis mine). 

Most people hope to keep their youthful appearance; however, this goddess is forever young, always budding, but never with child. This is the myth, the lie that has confronted humanity, but this is just part of it. This theme of eternal youth is brought out in the “Burney Relief.” lxxxi The goddess standing on the beasts in Figure 44 (next page) is believed to represent either Ishtar or her older sister Ereshkigal (c. 19th or 18th century BC). Her body is blended with the features of an owl. She is also flanked by owls, nocturnal creatures, which is fitting for a lady of the night. John’s vision of a woman riding a beast is all over the Ancient Near East in the iconography and character of the goddess Ishtar. We have seen it already in Egypt, and now, in the Burney Relief. (See Appendix 4 Easter). 


Figure 44 The “Burney Relief,” Either Ishtar or her older sister Ereshkigal (c. 19th or 18th century BC) By Babel Stone (Own work), commons.wikimedia.org /w/index.php?curid=10862243 

Figure 45 The Ancient Akkadian cylinder seal depicting the goddess Inanna resting her foot on the back of a lion c. 2334-2154 BC ANEP #526 (Akkad). Courtesy of The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 

We further see it in the “Ancient Akkadian cylinder seal depicting the goddess Inanna resting her foot on the back of a lion, c. 2334-2154 BC” lxxxii in Figure 45. The dominating restless spirit of “Ishtar reminds us of Gilgamesh, a powerful individual with great energy who always remains dissatisfied with the allotted role or portion and is constantly driven to go beyond. They seem to be male and female counterparts.”lxxxiii 

Enlil Thwarted from Opening the Gate of the Gods 

Chapter 13 of Corrupting the Image vol 2: Enlil Thwarted from Opening the Gate of the Gods

Just as God intervened with a Flood when the sons of God came down on Mt. Hermon to create hybrids, God also had to intercede to prevent an extinction level event at Babel. Satan created a scenario so cataclysmic that God had to intervene, once again, before it was too late.  

But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built. And the LORD said, “Indeed the people are one and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do; now nothing that they propose to do will be withheld from them (Gen 11:5–6).  

Genesis gives us an incredible window into what was really happening. God observes the Tower and notes that with all humans speaking one language, there is nothing they cannot do. “The tower is called by the Rabbis ‘the house of Nimrod,’ … a house of idolatry which the owners abandoned in time of peace.”l We recall that the word for idols is elilim, which is plural and means “Enlils”. God was not against tall buildings or mankind working together; indeed, Jesus even prayed, “Father, let them be one” (John 17:21). The problem was the intent behind the Tower: To open a portal and inaugurate a reign of terror, similar to the days of Noah which corrupted the whole Earth. Hence, God came down and confused [בָּלַ֥ל balal] the languages. 

“Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. So the LORD scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city. Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the LORD confused [בָּלַ֥ל balal] the language of all the earth; and from there the LORD scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth (Gen 11:7–9). 

The Hebrew word for “confusion” is a different root than Babel. It is significant that the original meaning of “babel” was not confusion, but because of what happened at Babel, the meaning was altered to denote “confusion”.li We might liken it to Chernobyl (which ironically means wormwood), a city in northern Ukraine, which lies completely abandoned and is synonymous with “a major nuclear-energy accident.”lii We sometimes speak of not having another “Chernobyl”. In the same way, “Babel” became a “Chernobyl” because it had a “linguistic meltdown” which resulted in that “gate of the gods” becoming known as “confusion”. 


God’s strike against the city was recorded by the Mesopotamians. According to the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, the building of a certain ziggurat-temple was an offense and had to be stopped:  

“The building of this temple offended the gods. In a night they threw down what had been built. They scattered them abroad, and made strange speeches. The progress they impeded.”liii 

Why would building such a tower and temple offend the gods of Babylon? In truth, it did not. The reality is the building of the Tower was impeded by the God of Israel, but the Babylonian theologians scrambled to find a way to explain the theological conundrum by re-writing history. It is the same kind of excuse Sennacherib wrote on his prism when explaining that he shut up King Hezekiah in Jerusalem “like a caged bird.” The Assyrians were not known for just coming to town and leaving peaceably. They were ruthless predators who had no inhibitions when it came to torturing their prey in heinous, inhuman ways. According to the Bible, God defended Jerusalem by sending just one angel to kill 185,000 Assyrians (2 Kings 19:32–35). The doubtfulness of Sennacherib’s flimsy story gives credibility to the Bible’s account. In the same way, the doubtfulness of the Babylonian account of attributing the halting the Tower’s construction to an act of their god, gives credibility to the Bible’s account.  The Mesopotamian gods seemed to thrive on ziggurats and temples being built in their honor. Why would the Etemenanki (Tower of Babel) upset them? They were not displeased; it was only the true God of Israel who was offended. A Babylonian inscription in the British Museum reports:  

Babylon corruptly proceeded to sin, and both small and great mingled on the mound … All day they founded their stronghold, but in the night, he put a complete stop to it. In his anger he also poured out his secret counsel to scatter them abroad, he set his face, he gave a command to make foreign their speech.”liv 

The biblical account of the confusion of languages is confirmed from a hostile witness—that is, one who is not trying to confirm our point of view, but yet does corroborate the biblical rendition of events. The ancients treated the narrative as real history. In the epic of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta inscription, we read: 

In those days, the lands of Subur (and) Hamazi, 

Harmony-tongued (?) Sumer, the great land of the decrees of princeship, 

Un, the land having all that is appropriate (?), The land Martu, resting in security, The whole universe, the people in unison (?) 

To Enlil in one tongue [spoke].[…] 

(Then) Enki, the lord of abundance (whose) commands are trustworthy, 

The lord of wisdom, who understands the land, 

The leader of the gods, 

Endowed with wisdom, the lord of Eridu 

Changed the speech in their mouths, [brought (?)] contention into it, 

Into the speech of man that (until then) had been onelv (Emphasis mine). 

Incredibly, the text reveals that mankind, until then, had been speaking one language which was changed in the course of one night. Not only was the one tongue turned into many, but it was brought about through the building of a tower! God stopped short the dastardly plan Satan concocted.  

There is solid evidence from texts as early as the second millennium BC that this tower, called the Etemenanki, existed. In Sumerian, Etemenanki, meaning “temple of the foundation of heaven and earth”, is the name of the ziggurat dedicated to Marduk. This is the same tower that Nebuchadnezzar’s family repaired in the 6th century BC during the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. Construction of the tower was started 42 ages before Nebuchadnezzar and was most likely the actual Tower of Babel. A model-reconstruction of the Etemenanki, depicted in Figure 37 which originally measured 91 meters in height is at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.  

Figure 37 Reconstruction of the Etemenanki, Courtesy Pergamon Museum, Berlin. 

Andrew George explains, saying:  

The reference to a ziqqurrat at Babylon in the Creation Epiclvi is more solid evidence … a Middle Assyrian piece of this poem survives to prove the long-held theory that it existed already in the second millennium BC. … There is no reason to doubt that this ziqqurrat, described as ziqqurrat apsî elite, “the upper ziqqurrat of the Apsû”, was E-temenanki.lvii  


Satan’s attempt to create a portal was a huge undertaking, and we find extrabiblical, textual, and archaeological remains of it even today. All of the evidence is a powerful witness to the veracity of the Bible and the audacity of Satan’s schemes.  

In the 7th– 6th century BC, Nabopolassar, father of Nebuchadnezzar, the one who performed repairs on the tower, stated:  

At that time, my lord Marduk told me in regard to E-temen-anki, the ziggurat of Babylon, which before my day was (already) very weak and badly buckled…lviii 

Nabopolassar did not begin the construction of the tower or lay its foundations; he tried to repair what someone long before him had abandoned. His next statement: “to ground its bottom on the breast of the netherworld, to make its top vie with the heavens”, echoes the purpose of the ziggurat as a bridge between heaven and Earth. He then states how it was “Through the craft of exorcism, the wisdom of Ea and Marduk, I purified that place and made firm its foundation platform on its ancient base.” Thus, Nabopolassar was attempting to reconstruct an ancient tower that had been abandoned ages before him. In addition, He used exorcism in the name of Marduk, a god whom we know is a syncretism for Enlil (Satan). The king is so dedicated to building the tower that he personally gets involved in the project:  

In its foundations I laid out gold, silver, gemstones from mountain and sea. …I bowed my neck to my lord Marduk. I rolled up my garment, my kingly robe, and carried on my head bricks and earth (i.e. mud bricks). I had soil-baskets made of gold and silver and made Nebuchadnezzar, my firstborn son, beloved of my heart, carry alongside my workmen earth mixed with wine, oil, and resin-chips.lix  

Both King Nabopolassar and his son, Nebuchadnezzar, get into the work. They do not just have the slaves do it, but they themselves roll up their sleeves and go to work. He then, talks about his younger boy:  

I made Nabûsumilisir, his brother, a boy, issue of my body, my darling younger son, take up mattock and spade … I constructed the building, the replica of E-sarra, in joy and jubilation and raised its top as high as a mountain. For my lord Marduk I made it an object fitting for wonder, just as it was in former times.”lx 

Nabopolassar did not create the Tower of Babel, he simply repaired it. But of course, these things would take a long time; hence, Nebuchadnezzar continued the work.  

Figure 38 Tower of Babel Courtesy Google Earth. 


His son Nebuchadnezzar II, likewise, recorded in an inscription at Borsippa, seen in Figure 39 on the following page, how he worked on the tower and repaired it, but was not the original builder. The tower was already incredibly ancient and had been abandoned for a long time. He says:  

The tower, the eternal house, which I founded and built. I have completed its magnificence with silver, gold, other metals, stone, enameled bricks, fir, and pine. The first which is the house of the earth’s base, the most ancient monument of Babylon; I built and finished it. I have highly exalted its head with bricks covered with copper. We say for the other, that is, this edifice, the house of the seven lights of the earth, the most ancient monument of Borsippa. A former king built it, (they reckon 42 ages) but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time, people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words.lxi 

Figure 39 Inscription on Borsippa, by Nebuchadnezzar II, Courtesy schoyencollection.com 

Amazingly, Nebuchadnezzar admits that he did not build the tower, but it had been built “42 ages” earlier by a former king. We do not know exactly what he meant by 42 ages, though we could speculate that an age was a generation, which could be twenty years from the time a child is born until the child might have their own, or it could be speaking of the lifetime of a person, maybe 70 years? In any event, that would give us a figure of 840 years on the low end and 2,940 years on the higher end.  

Figure 40 Inscription on Borsippa, by Nebuchadnezzar II, Courtesy schoyencollection.com 

Nevertheless, he reported he was simply trying to repair the tower because “people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words,” a phrase that strongly implies something catastrophic happened. Did Nebuchadnezzar believe it was the same tower that had displeased the “gods” and that caused the confusion of languages? His statement, “without order expressing their words,” very much gives us the impression that he did. The ancients did not record a reason for abandoning the work because their speech was confused.  

With language remarkably similar to Genesis: “Let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly” (Gen 11:3), his inscription continues: 

Since that time, the earthquake and the thunder had dispersed the sun-dried clay. The bricks of the casing had been split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps. Merodach [Marduk], the great god, excited my mind to repair this building. I did not change the site, nor did I take away the foundation.lxii 

Is it possible that Satan was trying to get both Nebuchadnezzar and his father to rebuild the Tower of Babel for another nefarious scheme? It seems plausible.  


While God clearly threw down Satan’s hopes of building a gateway of the gods, Satan did, nevertheless, create a cosmic mountain where worship was directed to him. He ensured that man’s attention would be drawn away from the true source of life and blessings. Satan tried to overtake God’s mountain, and when he failed, he used it as a model for his own mountain city of pleasure which would serve as the abode of the gods.  

Satan created a believable counterfeit, a “copy and shadow of the heavenly things” (Heb 8:5), because he knows the heavenly things intimately. When he said, “I will also sit on the mount of the congregation on the farthest sides of the north” (Isa 14:13), he did not need to “go” anywhere; he was already there! It was from the “holy mountain of God” (Ezek 28:14), that Satan was expelled. We see that God’s holy mountain was (and is) called “Mount Zion … the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem” (Heb 12:22). It is on the sides of the north, a phrase found in Isaiah 14, where Satan boasted that he would occupy: “I will also sit on the mount of the congregation [בְּהַר־מוֹעֵ֖ד be’har moed] On the farthest sides of the north” (Isa 14:13)—like a phrase the Psalmist used, “the city of our God … Mount Zion on the sides of the north” (Ps 48:1–-2).lxiii 

One of Enlil’s major epithets was KUR.GAL, Sumerian for “great mountain”, which is also a title for Dagan and Amurru. Revelation tells us that the dragon has seven heads and ten horns and that the “seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sits” Rev 17:9. Micha F. Lindeman, in the Encyclopedia Mythica, says, “Enlil … is sometimes referred to as Kur-Gal, the great mountain. And in one of the texts, ‘The Great Mountain Enlil cried to Ninlil.’”lxiv Amazingly, Satan is getting his wish of reigning on the holy mountain—so much so, that he casts himself as the mountain! 

Satan offers man a counterfeit mountain in place of the New Jerusalem. God has declared: “the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord [הַ֣ר בֵּית־ יְהוָ֤ה har-beit-YHWH] shall be established as the highest of the mountains” (Mic 4:1 ESV, also Isa 2:2–3). By contrast, Amar Annus speaks of Enlil’s mountain (ekur):  

Ekur is the temple of the supreme god Enlil in Nippur, the temple to which Ninurta returns after performing his great exploits. The name means ‘mountain house’ and it is the Assembly of the gods.lxv 

Creating counterfeit cosmic mountains was just another way to contravene God. Though Satan was expelled from the holy mountain, he, nevertheless, stole the Earth and would still get to be king of the mountain of his making. He succeeded in getting man to worship him and perform in dramas like the Akitu festival, the reenactment of the killing of the Creator and the usurpation of his authority. 

However, in the Book of Jeremiah, God says he is going to destroy this mountain and calls him, not a great mountain, but “O destroying mountain, Who destroys all the earth” (Jer 51:24–25). Of course, referring to anything in Babylon as a mountain is illogical since there are zero natural mountains there. Thus, the only mountain to which God could be referring is Enlil the “great mountain”. This conclusion is underscored by God also saying, “I will punish Bel in Babylon”(Jer 51:44). 


Consequently, it was also believed that Babylon was the abode of the gods and the temple known as ‘E-sangil,’ was “‘the palace of the gods’ … the temple of Marduk … was no ordinary sanctuary … it was the cosmic abode of the king of the gods, the place from where he ruled the universe.” lxvi 

Andrew George notes that the E-Sangil was the “archetypal cosmic abode, modelled exactly on the cosmic abodes of … the Apsû of Ea and the E-sharra of Enlil,” which he notes was not only a temple but “the city of Babylon … not just the tower, but the whole city … [was] the abode of the gods.” lxvii The E-sangil was the whole city of Babylon, the pleasure-palace of the gods of heaven. George notes how, according to ancient Babylonian commentary, there are ceremonial meanings in the names of Marduk’s temples. Of great interest is the fourth temple, which is “E-sangil = Pleasure-palace of the gods of heaven [and underworld],”lxviii which demonstrates how Satan was using pleasure to seduce man to worship at his temple. In fact, “Babylon, then, is the home of the pantheon because it is where all the gods of the universe gather for the divine assembly.”lxix 

Satan (Enlil) set himself up at Babylon where man would worship him and experience heaven-on-earth through the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of the eyes and the pride of life. Satan wants us to be satisfied on an Earth without God, yet he understands God has put eternity in the heart of man (Eccl 3:11), and therefore our hearts crave to be home with God where there are pleasures at His right hand forevermore (Ps 16:11). The Psalmist declared we will be “abundantly satisfied with the fullness of Your house, And You give them drink from the river of Your pleasures” (Ps 36:8). Isaiah stated, “In this mountain The LORD of hosts will make for all people a feast” (Isa 25:6). 

Thus, there are two cities—God’s city, Mount Zion, which is pure, holy, true and original and where there are joy and pleasures without end. God created the Garden of Eden: Eden means pleasure. God wanted to give Adam and Eve pleasure. The afterlife in Hebrew is referred to as Gan Eden, hence, a return to the garden of pleasure. He wants to give us joys beyond our comprehension. 

Then there is Satan’s city of Babel, with its perversions of what is good, true and right. The pleasures therein are real and feel good, but are gone in a moment leaving people stuck in the cycle of chasing the dragon. Ironically, it would seem like God’s promise of true joy and pleasures would win hands down. However, mankind has bought Satan’s lies from the beginning; and Babel, brimming with its fleeting pleasures, has historically been more appealing than God’s city. Satan’s city is here now, tactile and fleshly; it feeds the self—whereas God’s city is a paradise of selflessness, where lusts of the flesh have no place. Satan’s city is the ultimate rebellion to God’s order, and it was started by Nimrod, the Rebel.