Reasons You Should Read Revelation & Armageddon Thematically

A Thematic Approach to Interpreting Revelation

By Dr. Douglas Hamp

Introduction

The book of Revelation is an exhilarating prophesy that comes with a blessing to those who read it. Nevertheless, it is far from being easy to understand. Part of the challenge is due to a tendency to interpret the book chronologically rather than thematically. Though the book of Revelation presents a general sequence of events, it is primarily arranged thematically.

The thematic approach inherently searches for multiple witnesses to establish sound doctrine. In Scripture, matters are established by two or three witnesses (Deut 19:15). In other words, we are on solid ground when our dogma and scriptural understanding are supported multiple places in Scripture. Using a thematic interpretation of Revelation, and in particular, the judgments found in the seals, trumpets, and bowls, reveals multiple witnesses to a handful of events. In court, when there are several eyewitnesses to an event, each describes the scene with a unique perspective and with emphasis on varying details. Here, the biblical witnesses give us a description of end time events from each of their distinct vantage points. When we recognize the similarities in the thematic descriptions of the same events, the information reported in the book of Revelation becomes clear.

And the opposite is true. If we read the judgments of the seals, trumpets, and bowls with a chronological-sequential method, we see an extremely long sequence of events. In fact, taking each event separately would represent nineteen different judgments occurring consecutively during the tribulation. That is, the seal judgments would all play out, then the trumpets would[KS1]  begin and after the last trumpet judgment, the bowls would follow. As unlikely as this scenario appears, it is the majority opinion of scholars. It would look like this:

Graph showing how many people read Revelation in a linear / chronological fashion

In contrast, the thematic approach groups information about like events and compiles a story from the fragments. Within the seals, trumpets, and bowls, are recurring, interrelated themes with various levels of detail, perspective, and intensity. This means John laid out the series of visions in the order that they were communicated to him and acted as the special correspondent on-the-scene describing off the cuff, the unfolding events. John did not predict nineteen different, sequential judgments. When John viewed an event, it was as if he was looking at it inside a diamond with many facets yet seeing one event.

Similarly, it was as if John was given a tour of a television control room where before him were dozens of screens. For the sake of illustration, let us imagine that the show has seven distinct scenes. Each scene is complex and requires varying camera angles to appreciate the complexity. Some cameras are placed above the set to get a wide angel, top-down approach, some zoom in on the faces of the characters, while other pan to show the landscape.  In this example, John merely sees the video feed and reports what is on the screens before him.

http://markandwalt.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/tv-control-room.jpg

So too, the seals, trumpets and bowls are related events described from different vantage points, or if you will, camera angles, so the readers get a more detailed understanding. With the thematic understanding, think of it like a peanut butter and jelly sandwich: we take a bite of the whole sandwich with the stacked ingredients as one would normally eat a PB&J. Whereas, with the chronological approach, we would first eat a piece of bread, then the peanut butter, then the jelly, and finally the other slice of bread. When we stack the information from one part of Revelation with matching information from another section, we begin to see one event described in different ways.  In other words, the seals in Revelation 6 relate information that directly correlates with information revealed in the bowls in chapter 16.

Recapitulation

Revelation can be better understood by interpreting the seals, trumpets, and bowls as a series of recapitulations. A specific judgment is described in many reiterations (stacked layers) because John was initially given a grand, bird’s eye view and described what he saw. Then he sees closeups, and in subsequent chapters goes into supporting details of an event that has already been revealed. Using the idea of layers as employed in an animated movie, helps us picture how Revelation is organized.

Layering example from Monsters Inc. Story reel

Layering is illustrated nicely in modern animation techniques, like Monsters Inc. They start with a basic story reel sketch which lays out the events. Why don’t they just stop there? Because the subsequent layers will add depth, color, detail, lighting, and animation to create a composite image which is part of the story.

The narrative of the seals is like the story reel giving us the basic story overview. While lacking depth, color and detail, the seals take us from the beginning of the story to its finish. The trumpets and bowls add the texturing, color, and fine details so we have a rich composite image.

We see repeating themes and recapitulations in many books of the Bible. For example, Genesis chapters one and two are often accused of being different accounts. Yet we see in chapter one an overview of the entire creation week, and chapter two pulls in on the focus to give a close-up of day six and the creation of man. Hence, we can conclude that chapter two is thematically related to chapter one. Sure, chapter one comes first in the book, but the content of both chapters is thematically related and is the same story. If read sequentially, the reader gets confused, but when read thematically, chapter two fits within the framework of chapter one just giving the details of day six. We see the same literary device in Exodus 14 and 15. The events happen in Ch. 14, and then Moses and Miriam recount the events in Ch. 15. Thematically, the events described are the same; they are simply told in different ways.

Hence, the seals, trumpets, bowls, and in fact Revelation chapters 6-19 are a series of visions with many layers which form composite images. This means that there are repeating themes in the seals, trumpets, and bowls. Seals 1-7 are a template of the overall great tribulation. The subsequent trumpets and bowls are looking at those events in either greater detail or from different angles and with increasing intensity of events (from effecting 1/3 and increasing to effect everything). The seventh seal, trumpet and bowl judgments all end with the return of Jesus. The accounts are stacked one upon another (like our PB&J sandwich) or stair steps, where they keep getting more intense, and the timeframe keeps getting shortened, until they all culminate at the same moment with the return of Jesus.

We see the thematic arrangement throughout Revelation. Indeed, in the middle of the book, the angel told John: “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, tongues, and kings” (Rev 10:11). We will consider the recapitulations in depth in two themes: the greatest of all earthquakes and the opening of the heavens.

Earthquakes in Revelation Six and Sixteen are the Same

First, we will consider how the earthquakes from chapters six and sixteen are one and the same event. In Ch. 16, there is an earthquake in the seventh and last bowl which is described as:

“a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth” (Rev 16:18).

The language is of paramount significance because it states that this earthquake will be the greatest of all time. John adds, “every island fled away, and the mountains were not found” (Rev 16:20). This language is identical to the many biblical descriptions of the ultimate shaking that will take place on planet Earth.

The mini apocalypse in Isaiah 24 describes how “the earth is violently broken, the earth is split open, the earth is shaken exceedingly” (Isa 24:19). In this event, the Earth will be so utterly moved that it “shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall totter like a hut; its transgression shall be heavy upon it, and it will fall, and not rise again. (Isa 24:20). The phrase, “to fall and not rise again,” is parallel language to the passage in Revelation 16—this describes the unequivocal worst, eradicative earthquake, never to be duplicated.

Habakkuk spoke of Jesus’ return, “He stood and measured the earth; He looked and startled the nations” and of an earthquake that destroys mountains, “the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills bowed” (Hab 3:6). The Psalmist expressed how “the mountains melt like wax at the presence of the LORD” (Ps 97:5). Many other passages describe a shaking of such magnitude that the hills and mountains are flattened. Isaiah 2 explains how:

the day of the LORD of hosts shall come upon everything proud and lofty, upon everything lifted up– And it shall be brought low– Upon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills that are lifted up (Isa 2:12, 14);

That passage goes on to say in the Day of the Lord when the mountains fall:

They shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isa 2:19).

In chapter thirteen, Isaiah says:

Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the LORD of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger (Isa 13:13).

The description is identical to what we find in Revelation 6 in the sixth seal: “every mountain and island was moved out of its place” (Rev 6:14). Isaiah 2 merely says “they” whereas Revelation says:

“the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hidthemselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains” (Rev 6:15).

Thus, we have multiple witnesses reporting an unprecedented earthquake in which every mountain and island moves and then everyone hides in caves. Just like in Isaiah 2, they hide because it is the Day of the Lord.

and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! (Rev 6:16) “For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:17).

Utilizing the thematic method, we have seen multiple sketches picturing the psychological and geological effects of the Day of the Lord.  We reviewed many descriptions giving witness to one event. If we read the descriptions in Revelation as being presented on a timeline, we miss the 3-D effect that layers into a realistic depiction of each event. Are we to believe that the kings of the earth are throwing in the towel in Revelation 6 while fully admitting that the day of Jesus’ wrath has come, only to continue reading in chapter 16 that “the kings of the earth” and “the whole world” assemble for “the battle of that great day of God Almighty” (Rev 16:14)? It is illogical to believe there is life-as-usual after the earth-flattening earthquake or that the day of wrath comes and is followed in time by an assembling of people for that battle.   

Interpretating scripture with the thematic method allows us to see parallel language and themes as witnesses of the same event, but merely from different perspectives and with varying details. Revelation 6 and 16, Isaiah 2 and 24, Habakkuk 3, and others speak of the kings of the earth gathered to the battle of the great Day of the Lord. This is the Day of the Lord and the time of the mother of all earthquakes that will utterly shake the entire Earth so that every mountain and island is moved out of its place and the Earth will fall and not rise again. This day is so scary that the kings, commanders, and all involved in the battle run into the caves for protection. Although the event is described in many places with emphasis on different aspects, the Day of the Lord is a singular event.

Consider how the 2011 Fukushima 9.1 earthquake caused phenomenal damage to buildings and great loss of life. Now imagine the kind of destruction planet Earth will experience when every island is falling into the sea and every mountain is crumbling! The word “every” precludes the event from happening twice; that means it happens once and there will be no repeat. Therefore, Revelation 6 is the same event as Revelation 16 and Isaiah 24. Such an event will happen only once, never to be repeated. The Earth will fall and not rise again. The language in all the passages speak of the singular “Day” of the Lord when this will happen.

Heavens open

Another prevalent theme in Revelation and other scriptures is the opening of the heavens. Much like the Day of the Lord, the opening of the heavens is an end of the world event that will only happen once. We first see it described in the sixth seal.

Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place (Rev 6:14).

This event is explained in Revelation 19 and pictures the time when Jesus will make war against the Beast and the world’s armies.

Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True… And I saw the beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against Him who sat on the horse and against His army (Rev 19:11, 19).

This same battle (Armageddon) is described in Revelation 16 and other passages where the Beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies are ready to fight against Jesus:

the beast…the kings of the earth and of the whole world…to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty (Rev 16:13, 14).

In the seventh bowl, at the time of the that battle, we are told:

Then the seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” (Rev 16:17). And there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth (Rev 16:18) and great hail from heaven fell upon men… (Rev 16:21).

We see the imagery in Revelation 11, after the sounding of the seventh angel, where voices state that: “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!” (Rev 11:15). The time of the kings of the earth is over. The voices continue: “The nations were angry, and Your wrath has come, And the time of the dead, that they should be judged…” (Rev 11:18). The time of wrath and judgment, including the dead has arrived. The texts describe the wrap-up event of this age.  If read sequentially, Rev. 16 describes the gathering and preparations for the Day that has already occurred in Rev. 6 and 11.  If read thematically, all of the details accumulate to picture one day that comes more into focus as each witness’ account is examined.

Lastly in the period of the seventh trumpet we see the same theme in the phrase: “noises and thunderings and lightnings” and hail falling just like in Revelation 16: Then the temple of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of His covenant was seen in His temple. And there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail (Rev 11:19).

The opening of the heavenly temple happens in chapter fifteen as well: “the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened” (Rev 15:5). After the opening of the temple of God in heaven, the final judgments commence on the Earth because, as we saw in chapter nineteen, that is when Jesus comes back to engage in the great battle of the Day of the Lord.

The opening of the heavens is found in many other places in Scripture, as well. Peter describes the Day of the Lord and the opening of the heavens:

But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up (2 Peter 3:10).

Isaiah 34:4 is identical to Revelation 6:13-14 where stars fall like figs and the sky recedes like a scroll:

the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; All their host shall fall down As the leaf falls from the vine, And as [fruit] falling from a fig tree (Isa 34:4).

Isaiah speaks of this moment repeatedly, saying “the heavens will vanish away like smoke… (Isa 51:6) and then “Oh, that You would rend the heavens! That You would come down!” He gives the important detail “That the mountains might shake at Your presence” (Isa 64:1), which provides us with the same details as we have seen in the other passages. Jesus then reiterates this moment concerning His return.

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken (Matt 24:29). “Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory (Matt 24:30).

Jesus simply summarizes Joel’s report about the sun, moon, and stars, and then reiterates Isaiah regarding the falling of the stars. He then tells us how people will mourn and be distressed when they see Him, just like Isaiah said in chapter two. Paul also spoke of this same event by mentioning the uncovering / unveiling / revelation of Jesus where apokalupsi, apo = “away from,” kalupsis = veil to the Thessalonians: “when the Lord Jesus is revealed (apokalupsi)  from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance…” (2 Thess 1:7-8). Paul’s language of “revealing” is parallel to Isaiah: “the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together” (Isa 40:5). Paul then combines this message of the revealing with that of Jesus’ coming with fire in vengeance, just like Isaiah said:

  • For behold, the LORD comes out of His place To punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity (Isa 26:21).
  • For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire (Isa 66:15).

The opening of the heavens is an event that only happens once, at the return of Jesus, on the Day of the Lord, which will cause the elements to melt, mountains to shake and the greatest of all earthquakes the world has ever known. The event will be accompanied with “noises and thunderings and lightnings”, which is first mentioned in the seventh seal.

Then the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it to the earth. And there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake (Rev 8:5).

Hence, the noises, thunderings, lightnings, and earthquake of the seventh seal are an aspect of the opening of the heavens—a theme we have found repeatedly in Revelation and in a host of other Scriptures.

The seventh seal, seventh trumpet and seventh bowl all include the theme of the opening of the heavens. The thematic approach resolves the burden of trying to explain how each judgment is a different judgment from a chronological perspective. Rather, the thematic interpretation says if one verse quacks and walks like a duck and another passage quacks and walks like a duck, then they are the same event, but from different perspectives. The thematic approach also satisfies the requirement for multiple witnesses to establish doctrine.

The Seven Seals as a Template of the Tribulation

By viewing the text through the lens of the thematic method, we recognize the seven seals as an independent template for the entire tribulation. Moreover, we see that the other judgments are parallel, meaning they fit inside the seals. Our goal in this section is identify the repeating themes. I have outlined the texts and highlighted and underlined keywords so you can see the recurring thematic ideas. I explain the background when necessary and point out the original language to aid in spotting and tracking with the theme. I have indicated a progressive intensification of a theme with these arrows: >>. 

The opening of the seals is the schematic progression that culminates in Jesus’ reclamation of absolute authority and the restoration of the world. As Jesus begins reclaiming dominion of the cosmos, Satan makes counter moves to ensure he retains control. At the heart of Satan’s scheme is the Beast who was, is not, and ascends out of the abyss—who was Ninurta / Nimrod, a hybrid of Satan. Please consult Corrupting the Image 2 for the many interesting details of that relationship. In this outline, we will continue to consider how the seals are a template for the tribulation and how their themes are repeated throughout Revelation and prophecy. Let us examine the details of each seal and consider additional thematic parallels in other prophetic verses:   

1st Seal: Rider on white horse with bow, crown, goes out conquering (Rev 6:2)

  • The rider on the white horse with a bow is an iconic picture of the beast who was, and is known in the ancient world as Ninurta, son of Enlil. He held the power, throne, and authority of Satan, and essentially merged with him. And I looked, and behold, a white horse. He who sat on it had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering and to conquer (Rev 6:2).
    • Rev 13:1-4: Beast w/ characteristics of former empires & 7 heads & 10 horns, receives dragon’s power, throne, authority
    • Rev 17:3 Beast with 7 heads & 10 horns carries the woman
    • And it grew up to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and some of the stars to the ground, and trampled them (Dan 8:10). He even exalted himself as high as the Prince of the host; and by him the daily sacrifices were taken away, and the place of His sanctuary was cast down (Dan 8:11).
    • “And in the latter time of their kingdom, When the transgressors have reached their fullness, A king shall arise, Having fierce features, Who understands sinister schemes (Dan 8:23). His power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; He shall destroy fearfully, And shall prosper and thrive; He shall destroy the mighty, and also the holy people (Dan 8:24). “Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; And he shall exalt himself in his heart. He shall destroy many in their prosperity. He shall even rise against the Prince of princes; But he shall be broken without human means (Dan 8:25).
    • “Are you he of whom I have spoken in former days by My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied for years in those days that I would bring you against them? (Ezek 38:17).

2nd Seal: Rider on red horse takes away relative peace, men kill each other (Rev 6:4)

  • Another horse, fiery red, went out. And it was granted to the one who sat on it to take peace from the earth, and that people should kill one another; and there was given to him a great sword (Rev 6:4).
    • According to the New York Times, “Of the past 3,400 years, humans have been entirely at peace for 268 of them, or just 8 percent of recorded history.”[1] Hence, the Red Rider takes away a Pax Romana peace where the world is mostly prospering as opposed to the global conflicts of World Wars I and II.
  • Jesus spoke of men killing each other:
    • For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom (Matt 24:7).
  • Rev 11:5-6: 2 Two (Elijah & Moses?) witnesses begin their ministry and will torment “those who dwell on the earth” (Rev 11:10).
    • “Remember the Law of Moses, My servant, Which I commanded him in Horeb for all Israel, With the statutes and judgments (Mal4:4). Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD (Mal 4:5). And he will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, And the hearts of the children to their fathers, Lest I come and strike the earth with a curse” (Mal 4:6).
    • “Whoever is deserving of death shall be put to death on the testimony of two or three witnesses; he shall not be put to death on the testimony of one witness (Deut 17:6).
  • Other Scriptures of relative peace transitioning to fear, destruction, and no peace overtaking the inhabitants of the Earth:
    • The city of confusion is broken down; Every house is shut up, so that none may go in (Isa 24:10). There is a cry for wine in the streets, All joy is darkened, The mirth of the land is gone (Isa 24:11) In the city desolation is left, And the gate is stricken with destruction (Isa 24:12). …Fear and the pit and the snare Are upon you, O inhabitant of the earth (Isa 24:17).
    • Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; And he shall exalt himself in his heart. He shall destroy many in their prosperity” (Dan 8:25).
    • Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; And he shall exalt himself in his heart (Dan 9:27a).

3rd Seal: The black rider brings starvation on a global scale which affects wheat, barley, plus oil and wine (increasing intensity until Jesus’ return) (Rev 6:5-6)

  • Behold, a black horse, and he who sat on it had a pair of scales in his hand (Rev 6:5). And I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures saying, “A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; and do not harm[2] the oil and the wine” (Rev 6:6).
    • A day’s wage for a quart of wheat. One bushel of wheat costs roughly $5 in 2021. There are about 37 quarts in one bushel: one quart of wheat costs about $0.14. A day laborer makes about $100. Therefore, a quart of wheat would cost $100. That is approximately a 57,000% increase—starvation-level-crisis.
  • The Two Witnesses strike Earth w/ plague of no rain leads to 1st trumpet with vegetation burned!
    • If anyone tries to harm them, fire flashes from the mouths of the prophets and consumes their enemies. This is how anyone who tries to harm them must die. (Rev11:5) They have power to shut the skies so that no rain will fall for as long as they prophesy [1st trump] (Rev11:6a).
  • 1st trump: 1/3 trees and grass burned up >> 4th bowl: sun scorches with heat (Rev 16:8-9).
    • The first angel sounded: And hail and fire followed, mingled with blood, and they were thrown to the earth. And a third of the trees were burned up, and all green grass (chortos χόρτος) was burned up (Rev 8:7).
      • “Grass is pastureland, hay, or herbs in a general sense. Wheat and barley are variations of “grass” (chortos χορτος). Trees and grass are susceptible to the drought and fires brought on by the two witnesses
  • Joel mentions, with almost identical language to the first trumpet, the field is wasted, grain ruined, wine dried up, oil fails, and the food is cut off. Also, trees of the field, (fruit bearing trees: fig, pomegranate, palm, and apple) that mankind cultivates are burned sending food prices skyrocketing.
    • The field is wasted, The land mourns; For the grain is ruined, The new wine is dried up, The oil fails (Joel 1:10). For the wheat and the barley…the harvest of the field has perished (Joel 1:11). The vine has dried up, And the fig tree has withered; The pomegranate tree, The palm tree also, And the apple tree– All the trees of the field are withered… (Joel 1:12) the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as destruction from the Almighty (Joel 1:15). Is not the food cut off before our eyes (Joel 1:16), for fire has devoured the open pastures, and a flame has burned all the trees of the field (Joel 1:19). The beasts of the field also cry out to You, for the water brooks are dried up, and fire has devoured the open pastures (Joel 1:20).
  • Isaiah likewise predicted the burning of the earth, the lack of wine and other food with destruction across all socio-economic ranges:
    • “Behold, the LORD makes the earth empty and makes it waste, Distorts its surface And scatters abroad its inhabitants” (Isa 24:1). As with the servant, so with his master…As with the lender, so with the borrower; As with the creditor, so with the debtor (Isa 24:2). “The earth mourns and fades away, The world languishes and fades away; The haughty people of the earth languish” (Isa 24:4). The earth is also defiled under its inhabitants, Because they have transgressed the laws, Changed the ordinance, Broken the everlasting covenant (Isa 24:5). Therefore the curse has devoured the earth, And those who dwell in it are desolate. Therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men are left (Isa 24:6). The new wine fails, the vine languishes, All the merry-hearted sigh (Isa 24:7).
  • The Two Witnesses, acting as God’s agents, “have the power to turn the rivers and oceans into blood [2nd trump], and to send every kind of plague upon the earth as often as they wish” (Rev11:6) because mankind transgressed the laws (Isa 24:5-6)
    • 2nd trump: 1/3 of seas become blood, 1/3 die >> 2nd bowl: All seas blood and every creature dies (Rev 16:3).
      • 2nd trumpet: And something like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood (Rev 8:8). And a third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed (Rev 8:9).
        • >> 2nd bowl on the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man; and every living creature in the sea died (Rev 16:3).

The third seal / Black Rider reveals a starvation-level-crisis brought on by the plagues of the two witnesses who cause it not to rain, which leads to drought and then massive fires destroying farmland and orchards, and also waters turning to blood.

4th Seal: Death and Sheol gain authority over all humans (around the middle of Daniel’s 70th week) allowed to kill (Rev 6:8)

  • Behold, a pale horse. And the name of him who sat on it was Death, and Hades [Sheol] followed with him. And power [exousia = authority] was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger, with death, and by the beasts of the earth (Rev 6:8).
  • 3rd trumpet: 1/3 of rivers bitter (wormwood) >> 3rd bowl: all rivers blood
    • 3rd Trumpet: a great star fell from heaven, burning like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water (Rev 8:10). The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many men died from the water, because it was made bitter (Rev 8:11).
      • [The dragon’s] tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth (Rev 12:4).
      • So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him (Rev 12:9).
        • 5th trumpet: star fallen from heaven to the earth. To him was given the key to the bottomless pit (Rev 9:1). – he opens the bottomless pit with a key. Satan and his angels are called stars and one falls to earth in the third trumpet.
    • When they finish their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them, and kill them (Rev 11:7).
      • “The beast that you saw was, and is not, and will ascend out of the bottomless pit and go to perdition (Rev 17:8).
      • they had as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit (Hades / Sheol), whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon [destruction / death] (Rev 9:11).
        • You have said, “We have made a covenant with death, And with Sheol [Hades] we are in agreement” (Isa 28:15).
        • It was granted to him [the beast] to make war with the saints and to overcome them. And authority was given him over every tribe, tongue, and nation (Rev 13:7).
        • He shall speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall persecute the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to change times and law. Then the saints shall be given into his hand [hence authority] (Dan 7:25).
          • 6th trump: “Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates” (Rev 9:14). …were released to kill a third of mankind (Rev 9:15).
            • >> 6th bowl Rev 16:12: Euphrates runs dry & nations gather (preparation) for the battle / day of the Lord.
    • “Through his cunning He shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule [hence authority] (Dan 8:25).
    • Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week” (Dan 9:27).

5th Seal: Martyred souls under altar given white garment (Rev 6:9-11)

  • I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the testimony which they held (Rev 6:9). they cried…“How long, O Lord, holy and true, until You judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” (Rev 6:10) Then a white robe was given to each of them (Rev 6:11).
    • a great multitude… of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes… (Rev 7:9) “These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation, and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb (Rev 7:14).
    • the dragon was enraged with the woman, and he went to make war with the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony [μαρτυριαν] of Jesus Christ (Rev 12:17).
      • I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness [μαρτυριαν testimony] to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image… (Rev 20:4)
        • the image of the beast should…cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed (Rev 13:15).
  • Other martyr Scriptures:
    • Behold, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have tested you in the furnace of affliction (Isa 48:10).
    • “some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end (Dan 11:35).
    • “when the power of the holy people has been completely shattered, all these things shall be finished (Dan 12:7). “Many shall be purified, made white, and refined… (Dan 12:10)
    • I will bring the one-third through the fire, Will refine them as silver is refined, And test them as gold is tested. They will call on My name, And I will answer them. I will say, ‘This is My people’; And each one will say, ‘The LORD is my God’ ” (Zech 13:9).
    • They will seek My face; In their affliction they will earnestly seek Me” (Hos 5:15).
    • He will sit as a refiner and a purifier of silver; He will purify the sons of Levi, And purge them as gold and silver (Mal 3:3).

6th Seal: Sun, moon, stars darkened, sky recedes, mountains & islands move, battle-day of Lord, world armies hide from Jesus (Rev 6:12-17)

  • (6th seal) sun black as sackcloth, moon like blood. (Rev 6:12)
    • He opened the sixth seal, and behold, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood (Rev 6:12).
    • 4th trumpet: a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day did not shine, and likewise the night (Rev 8:12).
      • “I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke (Joel 2:30). The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD (Joel 2:31).
    • 5th trump: the sun and the air were darkened because of the smoke of the pit. (Rev 9:2) (increasing intensity) Pabilsags (Manticores emerge)
      • >> 5th bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom became full of darkness (Rev 16:10).
    • Other darkening Scriptures:
      • The day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it (Isa 13:9). For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine (Isa 13:10).
      • sun darkened; moon will not give its light (Matt 24:29)
    • (6th seal) stars of heaven fell to the earth as a fig tree. (Rev 6:13)
      • the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones (Isa 24:21).
      • All their host shall fall down…as fruit falling from a fig tree (Isa 34:4).
      • the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken (Matt 24:29).
    • (6th seal) the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up (Rev 6:14)
      • Rev 11:19 the temple of God was opened in heaven
      • Rev 19:11 heaven opened…He judges and makes war
      • Other Scriptures: Isa 34:4, 64:1; 2 Pet 3:10
    • (6th seal) Every mountain & island moved (Rev 6:14)
      • 7th bowl Rev 16:18 largest ever earthquake – affects all mountains and islands (so they are not found Rev 16:20), hail,
      • Isa 2:13-15; 13:13; 24:19-20; 40:4; Jer 4:24; Hab 3:6; (Ezek 38:19-20 all shake, all mountains thrown down)
    • (6th seal) Battle w/ Jesus / kings, great men, commanders, hide in caves & in the mountains, “the great day of His wrath has come” (Rev 6:15, 17)
      • Rev 19:11-21 Jesus treads winepress, Battle / Day of the Lord
        • Rev 14:16-20 winepress, earth reaped, blood to horses’ bridles
        • they gathered them together to…Armageddon (Rev 16:16).
        • “I have trodden the winepress alone…And trampled them in My fury; Their blood is sprinkled upon My garments… (Isa 63:3)
          • Rev 19:17-18 Birds called to eat flesh of kings, commanders, etc., Ezek 39:4, 17-20
      • Isa 2:10, 19; 26:21; 63:3; 66:15-16; Joel 2; 2 Thess 1:7-8; Matt 24:30; Ezek 38:18 fury on my face

7th seal (Rev 8:1-5): (& trump & bowl): Lightning, thunders, noises, earthquake, It is finished, Babylon destroyed

  • Lightning, thunders, noises, earthquake
    • the seventh seal…silence in heaven for about half an hour (Rev 8:1). there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake (Rev 8:5).
    • the temple of God was opened in heaven…there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail (Rev 11:19).
    • there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake (Rev 16:18).
    • Ezek 38:22 hail, brimstone
  • It is finished!
    • in the days of the sounding of the seventh angel…the mystery of God would be finished (Rev 10:7).
    • 7th trumpet: “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!” (Rev 11:15) The nations were angry, and Your wrath has come, And the time of the dead, that they should be judged, And that You should reward Your servants the prophets and the saints…And should destroy those who destroy the earth” (Rev 11:18).
    • 7th Bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” (Rev 16:17)
      • Ezek 39:29 God hides his face no longer
  • Babylon judged
    • Rev 14:8 “Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city
    • the great city was divided…the cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon was remembered…(Rev 16:19)
    • Rev 18:2 Babylon is fallen
    • Rev 19:2 Jesus judged the harlot
    • Ezek 39:21 God sets glory among nations, Isa 48:1-8

Conclusion

We have seen that the thematic method, with its many recapitulations, is used frequently in Scripture from Genesis to Revelation. Revelation itself, first tells us the story from the beginning to the end, which is the Day of the Lord, and then tells the story again from many perspectives. The seals provide a template for the entirety of the tribulation. The seventh seal is the end of the tribulation. Although the trumpets and bowls come next in the sequence of the book, they are in fact a flashback to supply color, texture and describe the intensification of the judgments.

To interpret the book chronologically yields a problematic result where every mountain and island moves out of its place twice, which the text indicates is impossible. The thematic approach to understanding the book focuses on discerning parallel language and imagery. When we focus on identifying themes, we find an abundance of identical passages in the prophets and the words of Jesus. When these passages are read alongside John’s report of end time events in Revelation, we glean a colorful, multi-dimensional picture of a concise set of events that have often been misinterpreted to be a multitude of sequential events.   


[1] https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html

[2] One of the four creatures is not instructing the rider to not harm the oil and wine but rather, is just reporting: Wheat and barley go for this much; be careful concerning oil and wine, because what is stored is all you have.


 [KS1]I added a space between the rows of arrows so that the reader is not tempted to read it from top to bottom, like Seal 1, Trumpet 1 Bowl 1.

Praise for the Millennium Chronicles (and coupon!)

Click here to get the book (createspace) and use thiscoupon 83VP27CY to get 25% off! Millennium Chronicles Thumbnail

Praise for the Millennium Chronicles

“Hope for the future!” Lisa Madsen 

I love this story – the author vividly portrays the events at the end of the 1000 year reign of the Lord Jesus. I like that it’s all based on Scripture and it’s a compelling story – makes me long to be there in the holy city of New Jerusalem – I can hardly wait!!! I appreciate all the research and insights into the Millennium and the love the author has for the Word of God. Well done!

“It’s History too!” Al S. 

Biblical prophecy begins to make more sense when biblical history is clearly understood. Doug masterfully weaves together narratives from the past with revelation of the future. I often found myself marveling over insights I picked up in every chapter while reading the book. At times, what Doug described was far more reasonable than the traditional explanations I’ve grown up with! For example, I’ve often wondered how – if Lucifer was so smart as God’s highest created being – how could he entertain the notion that he could over-power the God of the universe?! Well, Doug answered that dilemma so smoothly and simply in “The Millennium Chronicles” that I shook my head at how obvious the answer is!If you’re willing to challenge some of your assumptions about both the future and the past, then read this book!

“Brought Scripture to life!” By Paula David –

This book does a great job presenting the struggle the characters face in making the most important decision of their lives. It fills in the story with great detail, based on Scripture, yet allows the reader the flexibility to play it out in their own minds. Much like the “Left Behind” series allowed me to “see” what the tribulation period might be like, this book does the same for the Millennial Reign. For me, that is HUGE in making Scripture a reality, I am able to play it over and over again AND refer to the Bible to understand where and how he was able to present the story as he did. I look forward to any future sequels. “JRR Tolkien + CS Lewis x Correct Bible Eschatology = The Millennium Chronicles,” By Gonz Shimura –

If JRR Tolkien and CS Lewis got together and worked out accurate Bible eschatology and produced a fantasy fiction, this would be it! Douglas Hamp has achieved what many authors only dream of…accurate research presented in fascinating storytelling.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL4f0LvhiFc The Millennium Chronicles Thumbnail Book Description: Lucifer and his minions have regained their freedom after Yeshua’s thousand-year reign and are enticing the Adamites to rebel. Earth dwellers Ben and Kristiana are forced to decide—will they remain loyal to Yeshua and His kingdom or will they believe Lucifer and side with him? Too young to remember the horrific battles of the former age, their quest for information becomes a virtual journey through the Chronicles of the Court,  where they learn the truth about the apex of Lucifer’s former reign, known as the “time of trouble.”  In a race against time before their protective shield is removed and their fate is sealed by default, they urgently seek in the Chronicles the Key they need to enter the New Jerusalem and gain immortality. Want to read more of the book? Click here for the prelude and here for chapter one.

The Final Rebellion: Menorah Radio Interview 3/3 (Audio)

Part 3 of 3 interview with author/lecturer Douglas Hamp as we conclude the discussion on the Millennial Kingdom and his latest project “Twilight of Eternity.”

The Final Rebellion ThumbnailTwilight of Eternity Trilogy Thumbnail

Purchase here

A Graphic New Look at the Second Coming and Armageddon:

•What are the conditions of the Earth before Jesus comes?
•How do the heavens pass away?
•What happens to the earth at Jesus’ fiery return?
•Where is the Battle of Armageddon?
•How will Jesus fight when he comes back?

Millennium:

If the earth is destroyed and the heavens pass away at the second coming of Jesus, then what will there be during the Millennium? What is the beloved city that Satan will attack after the thousand years? Why is the New Jerusalem called the bride of Christ?  These and questions are answered in this teaching Power Point presentation!

 

The Final Rebelliion:

Douglas examines the Scriptural  clues of Satan’s final rebellion when the 1000 years have expired and he and the nations come up against the beloved city.  Further clues considered to unlock this strange passage:
•The bodies  and role of immortals
•How will high tech be low tech?
•How will the Millennial sacrifices act like a protective shield for the mortals?
•Will mortals have a one hundred year grace period?
•How will the river of life and the tree of life transform mortals?
•How long will Satan have to deceive the nations?
•Why will fire come from  God?
Messianic Age: The Millennium and Beyond ($30 value – free)
Much of our eschatology rightly deals with the events that lead up to the Second Coming of Jesus. However, little attention is given to looking at the events that happen thereafter. This class explores from a very Bible-centric perspective the Messianic Age / Millennium. We begin by understanding how taking God’s Word literally reveals many exciting details of our glorious future. We also look at: the centrality of Israel, our future bodies, aspects of daily life, the size of the City, the decorations of the city, God’s dwelling with mankind, the role of the river of life and trees of life, what the Rabbis and Church Fathers thought about the Millennium, when the creation of the New Heavens and New Earth occurs. This 2 credit class was taught at Calvary Chapel bible College.

Interview part one

Interview part two

New Product! (3 DVDs) 2nd Coming, Millennium, Final Rebellion, & FREE MP3 Messianic Lectures

Twilight of Eternity Trilogy Thumbnail

A Graphic New Look at the Second Coming and Armageddon:

•What are the conditions of the Earth before Jesus comes?
•How do the heavens pass away?
•What happens to the earth at Jesus’ fiery return?
•Where is the Battle of Armageddon?
•How will Jesus fight when he comes back?

Millennium:

If the earth is destroyed and the heavens pass away at the second coming of Jesus, then what will there be during the Millennium? What is the beloved city that Satan will attack after the thousand years? Why is the New Jerusalem called the bride of Christ?  These and questions are answered in this teaching Power Point presentation!

Click here to go to store

The Final Rebelliion:

Douglas examines the Scriptural  clues of Satan’s final rebellion when the 1000 years have expired and he and the nations come up against the beloved city.  Further clues considered to unlock this strange passage:
•The bodies  and role of immortals
•How will high tech be low tech?
•How will the Millennial sacrifices act like a protective shield for the mortals?
•Will mortals have a one hundred year grace period?
•How will the river of life and the tree of life transform mortals?
•How long will Satan have to deceive the nations?
•Why will fire come from  God?
Messianic Age: The Millennium and Beyond ($30 value – free)
Much of our eschatology rightly deals with the events that lead up to the Second Coming of Jesus. However, little attention is given to looking at the events that happen thereafter. This class explores from a very Bible-centric perspective the Messianic Age / Millennium. We begin by understanding how taking God’s Word literally reveals many exciting details of our glorious future. We also look at: the centrality of Israel, our future bodies, aspects of daily life, the size of the City, the decorations of the city, God’s dwelling with mankind, the role of the river of life and trees of life, what the Rabbis and Church Fathers thought about the Millennium, when the creation of the New Heavens and New Earth occurs. This 2 credit class was taught at Calvary Chapel bible College.

The Messianic Age: Millennium and Beyond

Calvary Chapel Bible College of Costa Mesa

Messianic Age

2 Credits

Fall 2011

Instructor: Douglas Hamp M.A. Hebrew University

Course Description

Much of our eschatology rightly deals with the events that lead up to the Second Coming of Jesus. However, little attention is given to looking at the events that happen thereafter. This class will explore from a very bible-centric perspective the Messianic Age/Millenium. We will begin by understanding the literal hermeneutic and how reading literally God’s Word reveals many exciting details of our glorious future. We will also look at the centrality of Israel, our future bodies, aspects of daily life, the decorations of the city, God’s dwelling with mankind, the role of the river of life and trees of life the length of the Millennium where will it be, who is there, what the Rabbis and Church Fathers thought, (Augustine, Justin Martyr), the size of the City, when the creation the of the New Heavens and New Earth occur (what about the first set), place of the H.S., the role of the Sun and the Moon, the role of the feast of tabernacles, and the judgments.

 

Course Objectives

A heavy emphasis will be placed on reading large portions of Scripture before each class. Upon completion of the course, the student will able to look at the Millennium from the entirety of Scripture. With that in mind, some of the portions of eschatology ought to come alive in a fresh way. Once we see all that God has in store for Israel and for those of us that have been grafted in, then we can live with the anticipation of what is coming.

Course Requirements

The student is required to read all of the assigned reading especially from the Bible! A list of what the student must do to pass the course.  Include required reading, any assignments, tests or papers with corresponding due dates.

 

There are three requirements:

  1. 1.       Textbook Reading: 20%

Every student is required to read the selected chapters from The First Six Days, Corrupting the Image, and the articles in their entirety. There will be a number of reading checks given over the course of the semester. A two paragraph summary is required for each chapter / article

 

  1. 2.       Weekly Bible Reading: 30%                A heavy emphasis is placed on a wide range of Scriptures dealing with the Millennium/Messianic Age. Students will give serious time to the study of the assigned verses/chapters. God’s Word alone is our guide – not the ideas of men.
  2. 3.       Research/TimeLine: 50% (Oct 12th)

Each student will prepare a timeline starting from the Second Coming to the Destruction of Satan and Beyond. The READER will serve as your proof texts for the project. The student must include all significant verse references on the timeline. Project may be done by hand on poster board, in an Office-type program (M.S. Word or Excel) or even with an online app. However, it must be very thorough.

 

Attendance

CCBC requires 100% attendance for all classes and that you be at your seat at the hour it starts.. Attendance will be taken by your teacher at the beginning of each class. *EXCUSED ABSENCES can be made up by listening to the MP’3 audio recording of the class session missed and by turning in a typed or legibly hand written copy of your notes to the CCBC Registrar within one week of your absence. Recordings are available on MP3’(no longer on web-page) for $3.00 at the CCBC office 9am-4:00pm M-F. Credit Students can only miss and make up a total of three Excused Absences. PLEASE NOTE: If you are tardy, over 15 minutes late to your class, it will be considered an absence. All unexcused absences will lower and affect your final class letter grade by half a letter grade. (An earned letter grade of an A will become an A- etc. etc.)

*EXCUSED ABSENCES

Please remember, in order to change your unexcused absence into an excused absences you must contact the CCBC Registrar within one week. Excused absences include genuine emergencies such as but not limited to: death in the family, illness, traffic accident etc. etc. Unexcused absences: such as but not limited to: sleeping in, surfing, vacations etc. etc.

 

Course Schedule

In Class Discussion Presentation Assignments Due
1 August22nd    Literal Interpretation of Scripture Triangulation of Scripture

  1. Details matter!
    1. No more, no less
    2. It means what it says

Examine commentaries on the size of the city and Isaiah 65:17

Last Years of Time

Centrality of the Elect (Jews)

forever, even forever and ever! (Dan 7:18)

Last years of TimeWhy God Did Not Elect
2 August  29th  The Fall Feasts Prophetically Fulfilled/ Tabernacles Hamp, Last Years of TimeHamp, First Six Days, 4Hamp, Why God Did Not Elect Calvinists
3 Sept 12th  The Image of God and Need for a New Environment Understanding the Creation literally:

  • No evolution, no Gap, no entropy
  • Original Creation conditions, fall, planned restoration
  • Rocks
  • DNA

(Consider for later Discussion where was Satan c.f. Isa 14:12, Ezek 28:12,14,16)

The Language of Creation Image of God, Biophotons, Radiohalos, Corrupting: 24-91, 65-91, Hamp: The First Six Days, All
4 Sept 19th The Shaking of the Heavens and Earth, Day of the LordIn class discussion of Isaiah 24:20 fall and not get up, All seas turned to blood Rev16 READER 1, 2a-d, Corrupting 321-324
Cont. 4 Sept. 19th When God Returns 2nd Coming (The Parousia of Jesus)

  • Matthew 24
  • Hab 3
  • Isaiah 19
  • Isaiah 63
READER 3, Corrupting 255-259
5 Sept. 26th The New Heavens and Earth created at the beginning of the Millennium, New Jerusalem Discuss the normal order of events. Consider Gen 1 & 2, Rev 16:19 & 17/18, (Rev 20, 21, 22) Jerusalem as a Bride READER 4-6
6 October 3rd God Dwells forever in Mt Zion, The Mountain of the Lord, READER 7, 7a 8
7 Oct.  10th God Himself Will Be In the City, God’s Throne Will Be There, No More Tears, No More Hunger or Thirst, God Makes All Things New, Highway to the City READER 9-14
8 Oct.  17th River of Life, Trees of Life, Restoration of Bodies READER 15, 16
9 Oct.  24th Twelve Gates, Angel Measures (Size of City), Precious Stones, The Temple, READER 17-21
10 Oct.  31st God Will Illuminate the City, Gentiles Bring Gifts Into the City, Gates Always Open, Nothing Unclean Can Enter, Sin Is Present OUTSIDE the City, Nations Shall Serve God/the King READER 22-26
11 Nov. 7th Marriage Supper of the Lamb, Kingdom of Heaven

  • Place of God’s Throne
  • Garments of Salvation
READER, 27, 28
12 Nov. 14th The Judgments

  • Dan 7 Judgment
  • Joel 3:2
  • Matthew 25:41
  • Mat 16:27
  • Rom 14:10
  • I Cor 3:12, 2 Cor 5:10, Eph 6:8
  • Rev 2:23, 20:11
    • Isaiah 30:33

Isaiah 66:24

READER 29, 30, Corrupting 261-280
13 Nov.  28th Satan’s Origin, Fall, Imprisonment, and Destruction Satan’s Origin and Fall (douglashamp.com)

 

 

 

 

The New Heavens and New Earth Verse List

The following compilation of verses I have put together for a book that I will begin the near future and for the class ‘The Messianic Age: Millennium and Beyond’ I taught at Calvary Chapel Bible College. I explain the relationships in the audio lectures. In the book I will bring together the full relationship of these verses. For now these are a rough outline.

 

An Examination of the Kingdom that Lasts

Forever, Even Forever & Ever

‘But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom forever, even forever and ever.’ (Daniel 7:18)

OT

NT

  1. 1.    First Heavens and Earth Decimated and Will Not Rise Again (Things Will Be Shaken and Will Flee Away) In the Day of the Lord (Before Millennium)
The earth is violently broken, The earth is split open, The earth is shaken exceedingly. (Isaiah 24:19) The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, And shall totter like a hut; Its transgression shall be heavy upon it, And it will fall, and not rise again. (Isaiah 24:20) It shall come to pass in that day [That] the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, And on the earth the kings of the earth. (Isaiah 24:21)They will be gathered together, [As] prisoners are gathered in the pit, And will be shut up in the prison; After many days they will be punished. (Isaiah 24:22)Then the moon will be disgraced And the sun ashamed; For the LORD of hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem And before His elders, gloriously. (Isaiah 24:23)Oh, that You would rend [tear, break] the heavens! That You would come down! That the mountains might shake at Your presence– (Isaiah 64:1)They shall go into the holes of the rocks, And into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isaiah 2:19) Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the LORD of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger. (Isaiah 13:13) Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. (Matthew 24:29) Then his voice shook the earth, but now he has promised, “I will once more shake not only the earth but heaven too.” (Hebrews 12:26) Now this phrase “once more” indicates the removal of what is shaken, that is, of created things, so that what is unshaken may remain. (Hebrews 12:27) Then the second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it became blood as of a dead [man;] and every living creature in the sea died. (Revelation 16:3) Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water, and they became blood. (Revelation 16:4) Then the fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and power was given to him to scorch men with fire. (Revelation 16:8) For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, [which] go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. (Revelation 16:14) And there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth. (Revelation 16:18) Then every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. (Revelation 16:20)  And great hail from heaven fell upon men, [each hailstone] about the weight of a talent. Men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, since that plague was exceedingly great. (Revelation 16:21)
All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, And the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; All their host shall fall down As the leaf falls from the vine, And as fruit falling from a fig tree. (Isaiah 34:4) Enter into the rock, and hide in the dust, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty. (Isaiah 2:10)The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, The haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. (Isaiah 2:11) For the day of the LORD of hosts [Shall come] upon everything proud and lofty, Upon everything lifted up– And it shall be brought low– (Isaiah 2:12) Upon all the cedars of Lebanon [that are] high and lifted up, And upon all the oaks of Bashan; (Isaiah 2:13)Upon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills [that are] lifted up; (Isaiah 2:14) Upon every high tower, And upon every fortified wall; (Isaiah 2:15) Upon all the ships of Tarshish, And upon all the beautiful sloops. (Isaiah 2:16) The loftiness of man shall be bowed down, And the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; The LORD alone will be exalted in that day, (Isaiah 2:17) But the idols He shall utterly abolish. (Isaiah 2:18) They shall go into the holes of the rocks, And into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isaiah 2:19) And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. (Revelation 6:13) Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place. (Revelation 6:14) And the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains, (Revelation6:15) and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! (Revelation6:16)  For the great day of His wrath has come… (Revelation 6:17)
  1. 2.    Day of the Lord / Thief in the Night / Earth Destroyed
He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting. (Habakkuk 3:6 [NASB]) Behold, the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it. (Isaiah 13:9) For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine. (Isaiah 13:10) “I will punish the world for [its] evil, And the wicked for their iniquity; I will halt the arrogance of the proud, And will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. (Isaiah 13:11) I will make a mortal more rare than fine gold, A man more than the golden wedge of Ophir. (Isaiah 13:12)“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. (Joel 2:31) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. (Joel 3:15) The LORD also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the LORD will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel. (Joel 3:16) But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10)[1]“Remember therefore how you have received and heard; hold fast and repent. Therefore if you will not watch, I will come upon you as a thief, and you will not know what hour I will come upon you. (Revelation 3:3) “Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed [is] he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame.” (Revelation 16:15) For you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night. (1 Thessalonians 5:2) But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief. (1 Thessalonians 5:4) You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5) Therefore let us not sleep, as others [do,] but let us watch and be sober. (1 Thessalonians 5:6)

 

Watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming. (Matthew 24:42) “But know this, that if the master of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched and not allowed his house to be broken into. (Matthew 24:43) “Therefore you also be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect. (Matthew 24:44)

 

“Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. (Matthew 25:13)

And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day; (Jude 1:6) 

2a Lord Coming With Fire

For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. (Isaiah 66:15) For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many. (Isaiah 66:16)“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10)and to [give] you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2 Thessalonians 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. (2 Thessalonians 1:8)

2b Demons and Satan Bound and Released Later

It shall come to pass in that day [That] the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, And on the earth the kings of the earth. (Isaiah 24:21)They will be gathered together, [As] prisoners are gathered in the pit, And will be shut up in the prison; After many days they will be punished. (Isaiah 24:22) He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is [the] Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; (Revelation20:2) and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. But after these things he must be released for a little while. (Revelation20:3)

2c Heavens Shake, Earth Burned, Seas Blood

“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. (Joel 2:31) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. (Joel 3:15) The LORD also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the LORD will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel. (Joel 3:16) The first angel sounded: And hail and fire followed, mingled with blood, and they were thrown to the earth. And a third of the trees were burned up, and all green grass was burned up. (Revelation 8:7) Then the second angel sounded: And [something] like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood. (Revelation 8:8) Then the fourth angel sounded: And a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day did not shine, and likewise the night. (Revelation 8:12) I will show wonders in heaven above And signs in the earth beneath: Blood and fire and vapor of smoke.  (Acts 2:19) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.  (Acts 2:20)

2d Heavens and Earth Perish, Vanish, Pass away

Lift up your eyes to the heavens, ​And look on the earth beneath. ​For the heavens will vanish away like smoke, ​The earth will grow old like a garment, ​And those who dwell in it will die in like manner; ​But My salvation will be forever, ​And My righteousness will not be abolished. (Isaiah 51:6)The mountains melt like wax at the presence of the LORD, At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth. (Psalms 97:5) I beheld the earth, and indeed [it was] without form, and void; And the heavens, they [had] no light. (Jeremiah 4:23) Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. (Psalms 102:25) They will perish, but You will endure; Yes, they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will change them, And they will be changed. (Psalms 102:26)

 

Bow down Your heavens, O LORD, and come down; Touch the mountains, and they shall smoke. (Psalms 144:5)

 

Moreover, the LORD who rules over all says: ‘In just a little while I will once again shake the sky and the earth, the sea and the dry ground. (Haggai 2:6)

Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away. ​But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only. (Matthew 24:35-36 which day? – when the heavens and earth pass away!! and that is because it happens when Jesus returns.) But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (2 Peter 3:7)But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10) Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earthin which righteousness dwells.  (2 Peter 3:13)And: “You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, ​And the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will fold them up, ​And they will be changed. ​But You are the same, ​And Your years will not fail.” (Hebrews 1:10-12)
  1. 3.    When God Returns! [The Parousia] Second Coming
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Behold, the Lord is riding on a swift cloud ​​​​​​​and comes to Egypt; ​​​​​​​and the idols of Egypt will tremble at his presence, ​​​​​​​and the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them. ​​​ (Isaiah 19:1)Who is this who comes from Edom, ​​​​​​​in crimsoned garments from Bozrah, ​​​​​​​he who is splendid in his apparel, ​​​​​​​marching in the greatness of his strength? ​​​​​​​“It is I, speaking in righteousness, ​​​​​​​mighty to save.” ​​​(Isaiah 63:1) ​​​​​​​​Why is your apparel red, ​​​​​​​and your garments like his who treads in the winepress? ​​​(Isaiah 63:2)​​​​​​​​“I have trodden the winepress alone, ​​​​​​​and from the peoples no one was with me; ​​​​​​​I trod them in my anger ​​​​​​​and trampled them in my wrath; ​​​​​​​their lifeblood spattered on my garments, ​​​​​​​and stained all my apparel. ​​​(Isaiah 63:3)​​​​​​​​ For the day of vengeance was in my heart, ​​​​​​​and my year of redemption had come. ​​​(Isaiah 63:4)​​​​​​​​I looked, but there was no one to help; ​​​​​​​I was appalled, but there was no one to uphold; ​​​​​​​so my own arm brought me salvation, ​​​​​​​and my wrath upheld me. ​​​(Isaiah 63:5) ​​​​​​​​I trampled down the peoples in my anger; ​​​​​​​I made them drunk in my wrath, ​​​​​​​and I poured out their lifeblood on the earth.” ​​​(Isaiah 63:6) God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise. (Habakkuk 3:3 [NASB])  [His] radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays [flashing] from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power. (Habakkuk 3:4 [NASB]) Before Him goes pestilence, And plague comes after Him. (Habakkuk 3:5 [NASB]) He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting. (Habakkuk 3:6 [NASB]) Did the LORD rage against the rivers, Or [was] Your anger against the rivers, Or [was] Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, On Your chariots of salvation? (Habakkuk 3:8 [NASB]) Your bow was made bare, The rods of chastisement were sworn. Selah. You cleaved the earth with rivers.(Habakkuk 3:10 [NASB]) The mountains saw You [and] quaked; The downpour of waters swept by. The deep uttered forth its voice, It lifted high its hands.(Habakkuk 3:9 [NASB]) Sun [and] moon stood in their places; They went away at the light of Your arrows, At the radiance of Your gleaming spear. (Habakkuk 3:11 [NASB]) In indignation You marched through the earth; In anger You trampled the nations. (Habakkuk 3:12 [NASB]) You went forth for the salvation of Your people, For the salvation of Your anointed. You struck the head of the house of the evil To lay him open from thigh to neck. Selah. (Habakkuk 3:13 [NASB]) You pierced with his own spears The head of his throngs. They stormed in to scatter us; Their exultation [was] like those Who devour the oppressed in secret. (Habakkuk 3:14 [NASB]) You trampled on the sea with Your horses, On the surge of many waters. (Habakkuk 3:15 [NASB]) “I saw in the night visions, ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​and behold, with the clouds of heaven ​​​​​​​there came one like a son of man, ​​​​​​​and he came to the Ancient of Days ​​​​​​​and was presented before him. ​​​ (Daniel 7:13) ​​​​​​​​And to him was given dominion ​​​​​​​and glory and a kingdom, ​​​​​​​that all peoples, nations, and languages ​​​​​​​should serve him; ​​​​​​​his dominion is an everlasting dominion, ​​​​​​​which shall not pass away, ​​​​​​​and his kingdom one ​​​​​​​that shall not be destroyed. ​​​ (Daniel 7:14) As I looked, this horn made war with the saints and prevailed over them, (Daniel 7:21) until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when the saints possessed the kingdom. (Daniel 7:22) ​​​​​​​​He shall speak words against the Most High, ​​​​​​​and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, ​​​​​​​and shall think to change the times and the law; ​​​​​​​and they shall be given into his hand ​​​​​​​for a time, times, and half a time. ​​​ (Daniel 7:25) ​​​​​​​​But the court shall sit in judgment, ​​​​​​​and his dominion shall be taken away, ​​​​​​​to be consumed and destroyed to the end. ​​​ (Daniel 7:26) ​​​​​​​​And the kingdom and the dominion ​​​​​​​and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven ​​​​​​​shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High [Jews=Elect]; ​​​​​​​their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, ​​​​​​​and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’ ​​​ (Daniel 7:27) Jesus said to him, “You have said so. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power and coming on the clouds of heaven.” (Matthew 26:64)  And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming. (2 Thessalonians 2:8) Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. (Revelation 19:11) His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. (Revelation 19:12) He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. (Revelation 19:13) And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. (Revelation 19:14) From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. (Revelation 19:15) On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. (Revelation 19:16) Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and with a loud voice he called to all the birds that fly directly overhead, “Come, gather for the great supper of God, (Revelation 19:17) to eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, both small and great.” (Revelation 19:18) And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth with their armies gathered to make war against him who was sitting on the horse and against his army. (Revelation 19:19) And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. (Revelation 19:20) And the rest were slain by the sword that came from the mouth of him who was sitting on the horse, and all the birds were gorged with their flesh. (Revelation 19:21)  
  1. 4.    New Heavens and Earth Created at the Beginning of the Millennium
“For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former shall not be remembered or come to mind.  (Isaiah 65:17)“For as the new heavens and the new earth Which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the LORD, “So shall your descendants and your name remain.  (Isaiah 66:22)[grammar notes]Burton: Greek Grammar 35. The constant characteristic of the Aorist tense in all of its moods, including the participle, is that it represents the action denoted by it indefinitely; i.e. simply as an event, neither on the one hand picturing it in progress, nor on the other affirming the existence of its result. The name indefinite as thus understood is therefore applicable to the tense in all of its uses. 

48. THE AORIST FOR THE (ENGLISH) PLUPERFECT. The Aorist Indicative is frequently used in narrative passages of a past event which precedes another past event mentioned or implied in the context. In English it is common in such a case to indicate the real order of the events by the use of a Pluperfect for the earlier event. Cf. 52, 53. HA. 837; G.MT. 58; B. pp. 199

 

The Greek Pluperfect is used to represent an action as standing complete, i.e. as having an existing result, at a point of past time indicated by the context.

 

The Greek Aorist is used of any past event which is conceived of simply as an event (or as entered upon, or as accomplished), regardless alike of the existence or non-existence of an interval between itself and the moment of speaking, and of the question whether it precedes or not some other past action. It affirms nothing respecting existing result.

 

Instances of the Greek Aorist for the English Pluperfect arise when a past event which is conceived of simply as an event without reference to existing result is mentioned out of its chronological order, or is expressed in a subordinate clauses The Greek employs the Aorist, leaving the context to suggest the order; the English usually suggests the order by the use of a Pluperfect.

 

Robertson: Greek Grammar

1. THE DIFFICULTY OF COMPARING GREEK TENSES WITH GERMANIC TENSES. “The translators of our English version have failed more frequently from their partial knowledge of the force of the tenses than from any other cause.”

 

But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10) Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earthin which righteousness dwells.  (2 Peter 3:13)Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, (from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them). (Revelation 20:11) (explanation: I have inserted parenthesis because it really appears to be a adjectival-parenthetical statement. John saw a throne and Him who sat on it. In other words, the statement is adjectival and not verbal. It is not describing an action that was happening at that moment but was a description of the one who sat on the throne. E.g. I saw an astronaut who first stepped on the moon. It describes a significant feature of the person and not an action that happened the moment that I saw them. See 20:4) See notes on aoristNow I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. (Revelation 21:1) (Note on the sea: There are several options to understand what is meant by sea in light of the numerous OT passages that speak of seas in the Messianic age. 1) The seas in the tribulation all completely turned to blood and were therefore destroyed. 2) In the beginning God made seas that, according to creation science, did not connect. There was more land than water on the pre-flood world and after the flood they became one giant connected mass of water (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Artic oceans all touch)  3) This is the least likely solution: the sea is no longer salinized but is fresh and hence may not fulfill the definition of “sea” but this seems unlikely.
{Then to Adam He said, … “Cursed [is] the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat [of] it All the days of your life. (Genesis 3:17) Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, And you shall eat the herb of the field. (Genesis 3:18) In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread Till you return to the ground [adama], For out of it you were taken; For dust you [are,] And to dust you shall return.” (Genesis 3:19)  And He will destroy on this mountain ​The surface of the covering cast over all people, ​And the veil that is spread over all nations. (Isaiah 25:7) [note] Thayers: ἀποκάλυψις 1.  laying bear, making nakedBDAG ἀποκάλυψις ,  εως,  ἡ (s. ἀποκαλύπτω; Philod., Vit. [περὶ κακιῶν] p. 38 Jensen) (Plut., Cato Mai. 34 8 [20, 8], Aemil. 262 [14, 3], Mor. 70f ἀ. τῆς ἁμαρτίας; Sir 11:27; 22:22; 41:26 v.l.; TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 27 [Stone p. 14]; GrBar, ApcEsdr ins, Just.) the lit. sense ‘uncovering’ as of head (s. Philod. above) does not appear in our lit., which uses the term in transcendent associations.LSJ ἀπο-κάλυψις [κᾰ] , εως , ἡ , uncovering, of the head, Phld. Vit. p.38J. ; disclosing, of hidden springs, Plu. Aem. 14 : metaph., ἁμαρτίας Id. 2.7o f; revelation, esp. of divine mysteries, Ep.Rom. 16.25 , etc.; of persons, manifestation, 2 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy [to be compared] with the glory which shall be revealed in us. (Romans 8:18) For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing [see note] of the sons of God. (Romans 8:19) For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected [it] in hope; (Romans 8:20) because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. (Romans 8:21) For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. (Romans 8:22) Not only [that,] but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body. (Romans 8:23) Jesus Christ (Acts 3:20) “whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began. (Acts 3:21)
  1. 5.    New Jerusalem
In the visions of God He took me into the land of Israel and set me on a very high mountain; on it toward the south was something like the structure of a city. ( Ezekiel 40:2)And behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east. His voice [was] like the sound of many waters; and the earth shone with His glory. (Ezekiel 43:2)  [There is] a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God, The holy [place] of the tabernacle of the Most High. (Psalms 46:4) God [is] in the midst of her, she shall not be moved; God shall help her, just at the break of dawn. (Psalms 46:5)   GREAT [is] the LORD, and greatly to be praised In the city of our God, [In] His holy mountain. (Psalms 48:1) Beautiful in elevation, The joy of the whole earth, [Is] Mount Zion [on] the sides of the north, The city of the great King. (Psalms 48:2) God [is] in her palaces; He is known as her refuge. (Psalms 48:3) For behold, the kings assembled, They passed by together. (Psalms 48:4) They saw [it, and] so they marveled; They were troubled, they hastened away. (Psalms 48:5) Fear took hold of them there, [And] pain, as of a woman in birth pangs, (Psalms 48:6) [As when] You break the ships of Tarshish With an east wind. (Psalms 48:7) As we have heard, So we have seen In the city of the LORD of hosts, In the city of our God: God will establish it forever. ​Selah (Psalms 48:8) We have thought, O God, on Your lovingkindness, In the midst of Your temple. (Psalms 48:9) According to Your name, O God, So [is] Your praise to the ends of the earth; Your right hand is full of righteousness. (Psalms 48:10) Let Mount Zion rejoice, Let the daughters of Judah be glad, Because of Your judgments. (Psalms 48:11) Walk about Zion, And go all around her. Count her towers; (Psalms 48:12) Mark well her bulwarks; Consider her palaces; That you may tell [it] to the generation following. (Psalms 48:13) For this [is] God, Our God forever and ever; He will be our guide [Even] to death. (Psalms 48:14) And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, (Revelation 21:10) He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God… (Revelation 3:12) for he [Abraham] waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10) But now they desire a better, that is, a heavenly country. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for He has prepared a city for them. (Hebrews 11:16) But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, (Hebrews 12:22)

 

but the Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all. (Galatians 4:26)

  1. 6.    Jerusalem As a Bride
You shall no longer be termed Forsaken, ​Nor shall your land any more be termed Desolate; ​But you shall be called Hephzibah and your land Beulah;For the LORD delights in you, ​And your land shall be married. (Isaiah 62:4) For as a young man marries a virgin, ​So shall your sons marry you; ​And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, ​So shall your God rejoice over you [Jerusalem]. (Isaiah 62:5) I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; ​They shall never hold their peace day or night. ​You who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent, (Isaiah 62:6) And give Him no rest till He establishes ​And till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth. (Isaiah 62:7) I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; The voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her, Nor the voice of crying. (Isaiah 65:19) Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Revelation 21:2)
  1. 7.    God Dwells Forever in Mt Zion
HIS foundation [is] in the holy mountains. (Psalms 87:1) The LORD loves the gates of Zion More than all the dwellings of Jacob. (Psalms 87:2) Glorious things are spoken of you, O city of God! ​Selah (Psalms 87:3) And of Zion it will be said, “This [one] and that [one] were born in her; And the Most High Himself shall establish her.” (Psalms 87:5) The LORD will record, When He registers the peoples: “This [one] was born there.” ​Selah (Psalms 87:6) Both the singers and the players on instruments [say,] “All my springs [are] in you.” (Psalms 87:7) Why do you fume with envy, you mountains of [many] peaks? [This is] the mountain [which] God desires to dwell in; Yes, the LORD will dwell [in it] forever. (Psalms 68:16) For the LORD has chosen Zion; He has desired [it] for His dwelling place: (Psalms 132:13) “This [is] My resting place forever; Here I will dwell, for I have desired it. (Psalms 132:14) Many people shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. (Isaiah 2:3)

 

Arise, shine; For your light has come! And the glory of the LORD is risen upon you [Jerusalem cf. v 13]. (Isaiah 60:1) For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, And deep darkness the people; But the LORD will arise over you, And His glory will be seen upon you. (Isaiah 60:2) The Gentiles shall come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising. (Isaiah 60:3) “Lift up your eyes all around, and see: They all gather together, they come to you; Your sons shall come from afar, And your daughters shall be nursed at [your] side. (Isaiah 60:4) Then you shall see and become radiant, And your heart shall swell with joy; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, The wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you. (Isaiah 60:5) Therefore your gates shall be open continually; They shall not be shut day or night, That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession. (Isaiah 60:11) “The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, The cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, To beautify the place of My sanctuary; And I will make the place of My feet glorious. (Isaiah 60:13) Also the sons of those who afflicted you Shall come bowing to you, And all those who despised you shall fall prostrate at the soles of your feet; And they shall call you The City of the LORD, Zion of the Holy One of Israel. (Isaiah 60:14) “The sun shall no longer be your light by day, Nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, And your God your glory. (Isaiah 60:19) Your sun shall no longer go down, Nor shall your moon withdraw itself; For the LORD will be your everlasting light, And the days of your mourning shall be ended. (Isaiah 60:20)

 

For there shall be a day [When] the watchmen will cry on Mount Ephraim, ‘Arise, and let us go up [to] Zion, To the LORD our God.’ ” (Jeremiah 31:6)

 

THE Mighty One, God the LORD, Has spoken and called the earth From the rising of the sun to its going down. (Psalms 50:1) Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God will shine forth. (Psalms 50:2) Our God shall come, and shall not keep silent; A fire shall devour before Him, And it shall be very tempestuous all around Him. (Psalms 50:3) He shall call to the heavens from above, And to the earth, that He may judge His people: (Psalms 50:4) “Gather My saints together to Me, Those who have made a covenant with Me by sacrifice.” (Psalms 50:5) Let the heavens declare His righteousness, For God Himself [is] Judge. ​Selah (Psalms 50:6)

For here we have no continuing city, but we seek the one to come. (Hebrews 13:14) Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred [and] forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads. (Revelation 14:1) And I heard a voice from heaven, like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of loud thunder. And I heard the sound of harpists playing their harps. (Revelation 14:2) They sang as it were a new song before the throne, before the four living creatures, and the elders; and no one could learn that song except the hundred [and] forty-four thousand who were redeemed from the earth. (Revelation 14:3) These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever He goes. These were redeemed from [among] men, [being] firstfruits to God and to the Lamb. (Revelation 14:4) 

 

7a  City is a Great Mountain

“Thus says the LORD: ‘I will return to Zion, And dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, The Mountain of the LORD of hosts, The Holy Mountain. (Zechariah 8:3) “So you shall know that I [am] the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”  (Joel 3:17) ​​​​​​​​It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord [בֵּית־יְהוָה הַר] shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and it shall be lifted up above the hills; and peoples shall flow to it,  (Micah 4:1 ESV preferable translation) Many people shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. (Micah 4:2; also: Isaiah 2:2-3)

 

then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering. (Isaiah 4:5)

 

Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?  He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor sworn deceitfully.  (Psalm 24:3-4)

 

You were in Eden, the garden of God; Every precious stone was your covering: The sardius, topaz, and diamond, Beryl, onyx, and jasper, Sapphire, turquoise, and emerald with gold… (Ezekiel 28:13) “You were the anointed cherub who covers; I established you; You were on the holy mountain of God; You walked back and forth in the midst of fiery stones. (Ezekiel 28:14)

 

For you have said in your heart: “I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount[ain] of the congregation On the farthest sides of the north; (Isaiah 14:13)

And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal. (Revelation 21:16) [Note – measurements vary but the city would be bigger than Mt Everest many times over]
  1. 8.    God Will Dwell Gloriously On Zion Before His Elders
…For the LORD of hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem And before His elders, gloriously. (Isaiah 24:23) Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns[2] of gold on their heads. (Revelation 4:4) the twenty-four elders fall down before Him who sits on the throne and worship Him who lives forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying: (Revelation 4:10) Now when He had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. (Revelation 5:8) And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sat on the throne, saying, “Amen! Alleluia!” (Revelation 19:4)
  1. 9.    God Himself Will Be in the City
And Jerusalem will dwell safely. And this is the name by which she will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.’ (Jeremiah 33:16) I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. (Ezekiel 37:26) “My tabernacle also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (Ezekiel 37:27) “The nations also will know that I, the LORD, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore. (Ezekiel 37:28) And He said to me, “Son of man, [this is] the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever. No more shall the house of Israel defile My holy name, they nor their kings, by their harlotry or with the carcasses of their kings on their high places. (Ezekiel 43:7)  and I will dwell in their midst forever.  (Ezekiel 43:9) …the name of the city from [that] day [shall be:] THE LORD [IS] THERE.”  (Ezekiel 48:35)

 

“The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, ​The cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, ​To beautify the place of My sanctuary [מִקְדָּשִׁי]; ​And I will make the place of My feet glorious. (Isaiah 60:13)

 

“Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion! For behold, I am coming and I will dwell in your midst,” says the LORD. (Zechariah 2:10)

 

“Thus says the LORD: ‘I will return to Zion, And dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, The Mountain of the LORD of hosts, The Holy Mountain. (Zechariah 8:3)

God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them. (Revelation 7:15)And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God [is] with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them [and be] their God. (Revelation 21:3) “And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, [there] you may be also. (John 14:3)

 

“Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world. (John 17:24)

 

  1. 10.                       God’s Throne Will Be There
“At that time Jerusalem shall be called The Throne of the LORD, and all the nations shall be gathered to it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem. No more shall they follow the dictates of their evil hearts. (Jeremiah 3:17) And He said to me, “Son of man, [this is] the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever(Ezekiel 43:7) And above the firmament over their heads was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like a sapphire stone; on the likeness of the throne was a likeness with the appearance of a man high above it. (Ezekiel 1:26) and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity. (Exodus 24:10)

 

Then Micaiah said, “Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by, on His right hand and on His left. (1 Kings 22:19)

 

In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the train of His robe filled the temple. (Isaiah 6:1)

The Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, The Spirit of wisdom and understanding, The Spirit of counsel and might, The Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD. (Isaiah 11:2)

 

The LORD is in His holy temple, The LORD’s throne is in heaven; His eyes behold, His eyelids test the sons of men. (Psalms 11:4)

Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. (Psalms 45:6)

 

“I watched till thrones were put in place, And the Ancient of Days was seated; His garment was white as snow, And the hair of His head was like pure wool. His throne was a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire; (Daniel 7:9)

…Proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. (Revelation 22:1) And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. (Revelation 22:3) And he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by Him who sits on it. (Matthew 23:22) looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:2)

 

Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them. (Revelation 7:15)

 

And in their mouth was found no deceit, for they are without fault before the throne of God.(Revelation 14:5)

 

But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; (Matthew 5:34)

 

Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne set in heaven, and One sat on the throne. (Revelation 4:2) And from the throne proceeded lightnings, thunderings, and voices.Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. (Revelation 4:5) Whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to Him who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, (Revelation 4:9)

  1. 11.                       No More Tears In the City
He will swallow up death forever, And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces; The rebuke of His people He will take away from all the earth; For the LORD has spoken.  (Isaiah 25:8)And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come to Zion with singing, With everlasting joy on their heads. They shall obtain joy and gladness, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away.  (Isaiah 35:10 same verse Isaiah 51:11) I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; The voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her, Nor the voice of crying.  (Isaiah 65:19) …Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden, And they shall sorrow no more at all.  (Jeremiah 31:12) “And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.”  (Revelation 21:4) …And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” (Revelation 7:17)    

 

 

  1. 12.                       No More Hunger or Thirst
They shall neither hunger nor thirst, Neither heat nor sun shall strike them; For He who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. (Isaiah 49:10) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated. (Isaiah 49:11) Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim.” (Isaiah 49:12) Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted. (Isaiah 49:13)  then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering. (Isaiah 4:5) And there will be a tabernacle for shade in the daytime from the heat, for a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain. (Isaiah 4:6) They shall neither hunger anymore nor thirst anymore; the sun shall not strike them, nor any heat; (Revelation 7:16)  
  1. 13.                       God Makes All Things New
Behold, I will do a new thing, Now it shall spring forth; Shall you not know it? I will even make a road in the wilderness [And] rivers in the desert.  (Isaiah 43:19) Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” And He said to me, “Write, for these words are true and faithful.”  (Revelation 21:5)
  1. 14.                       Highway to the City
A highway shall be there, and a road, And it shall be called the Highway of Holiness. The unclean shall not pass over it, But it [shall be] for others. Whoever walks the road, although a fool, Shall not go astray. (Isaiah 35:8)There will be a highway for the remnant of His people Who will be left from Assyria, As it was for Israel In the day that he came up from the land of Egypt. (Isaiah 11:16) In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian will come into Egypt and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians will serve with the Assyrians. (Isaiah 19:23) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated. (Isaiah 49:11)

 

Go through, Go through the gates! Prepare the way for the people; Build up, Build up the highway! Take out the stones, Lift up a banner for the peoples! (Isaiah 62:10)

  1. 15.                       Fountain/River of Water of Life
Then he brought me back to the door of the temple, and behold, water was issuing from below the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east)…. ​​​ As I went back, I saw on the bank of the river very many trees on the one side and on the other. And he said to me, “[…] For this water goes there, that the waters of the sea may become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. And on the banks, on both sides of the river, there will grow all kinds of trees for food. (Ezek 47)In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. (Zechariah 13:1)And in that day it shall be that living waters shall flow from Jerusalem, Half of them toward the eastern sea And half of them toward the western sea; […] (Zechariah 14:8, 10)And it will come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drip with new wine, The hills shall flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah shall be flooded with water; A fountain shall flow from the house of the LORD. (Joel 3:18)

 

There is a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God, The holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High. (Psalms 46:4)

 

{Consider also the following verses}

 

“For My people have committed two evils:  They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters, And hewn themselves cisterns–broken cisterns that can hold no water. (Jeremiah 2:13)

 

They are abundantly satisfied with the fullness of Your house, And You give them drink from the river of Your pleasures. (Psalms 36:8) For with You is the fountain of life; In Your light we see light. (Psalms 36:9)

And he showed me a pureriver of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. (Revelation 22:1)And the Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” And let him who hears say, “Come!” And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.  (Revelation 22:17) for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to living fountains of waters.And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” (Revelation 7:17)And He said to me, “It is done!I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. (Revelation 21:6)

 

But whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.  (John 4:14)

 

 

  1. 16.                       Tree of Life
Along the bank of the river, on this side and that, will grow all kinds of trees used for food; their leaves will not wither, and their fruit will not fail. They will bear fruit every month, because their water flows from the sanctuary [הַמִּקְדָּ֖שׁ]. Their fruit will be for food, and their leaves for medicine.” (Ezekiel 47:12) And out of the ground the LORD God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (Genesis 2:9) Then the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever“– (Genesis 3:22) So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. (Genesis 3:24) In the middle of its street, and on either side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits, each tree yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. (Revelation 22:2) Blessed are those who do His commandments [some mss: wash their robes], that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. (Revelation 22:14) “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.”‘ (Revelation 2:7)           
  1. 17.                       Twelve Gates Named After the Twelve Tribes
the gates of the city shall be named after the tribes of Israel), the three gates northward on the east side… on the south side… on the west side… the name of the city from that day shall be: THE LORD IS THERE.”(Ezekiel 48:31-35) Also she had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels at the gates, and names written on them, which are [the names] of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: (Revelation 21:12) three gates on the east, three gates on the north, three gates on the south, and three gates on the west.  (Revelation 21:13)
[The Faith of the Patriarchs (NT but OT expectation)]{for he [Abraham] waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10) Now the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. (Revelation 21:14)
  1. 18.                       An Angel Measures the City (Laid Out as Square)
He took me there, and behold, [there was] a man whose appearance [was] like the appearance of bronze. He had a line of flax and a measuring rod in his hand, and he stood in the gateway.  (Ezekiel 40:3) And he who talked with me had a gold reed to measure the city, its gates, and its wall. (Revelation 21:15) 
  1. 19.                       City Laid Out as Square, Size of City
“These are the exits of the city. On the north side (Ezekiel 48:30) the south sidethree gates(Ezekiel 48:33) The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth. And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal. (Revelation 21:16)
  1. 20.                       Precious Stones Cover the Walls of the Foundations
11 “O you afflicted one, Tossed with tempest, and not comforted, Behold, I will lay your stones with colorful gems, And lay your foundations with sapphires. 12 I will make your pinnacles of rubies, Your gates of crystal, And all your walls of precious stones. (Isa 54:11-12) The construction of its wall was [of] jasper; and the city [was] pure gold, like clear glass. (Revelation 21:18) The foundations of the wall of the city [were] adorned with all kinds of precious stones: the first foundation [was] jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, (Revelation 21:19) the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, and the twelfth amethyst. (Revelation 21:20) The twelve gates [were] twelve pearls: each individual gate was of one pearl. And the street of the city [was] pure gold, like transparent glass.  (Revelation 21:21)
  1. 21.                       The Temple
  But I saw no temple [naos ναός[2]] in it (the city), for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. (Revelation 21:22) “He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple [ναός] of My God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God. And [I will write on him] My new name. (Revelation 3:12)
  1. 22.                       God Will Illuminate the City
“The sun shall no longer be your light by day, Nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, And your God your glory. (Isaiah 60:19) Moreover the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun, And the light of the sun will be sevenfold, As the light of seven days, In the day that the LORD binds up the bruise of His people And heals the stroke of their wound. (Isaiah 30:26) It shall be one day Which is known to the LORD– Neither day nor night. But at evening time it shall happen That it will be light. NKJV Zech 14:7 (See 2 Pet 3:8 one day) The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb [is] its light. (Revelation 21:23)  There shall be no night there: They need no lamp nor light of the sun, for the Lord God gives them light. And they shall reign forever and ever. (Rev 22:5) 
  1. 23.                       Gentiles Bring Gifts Into the City
…Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, The wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you.  (Isaiah 60:5)They shall bring gold and incense, And they shall proclaim the praises of the LORD.  (Isaiah 60:6) All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together to you, The rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; They shall ascend with acceptance on My altar, And I will glorify the house of My glory.  (Isaiah 60:7) …That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession.  (Isaiah 60:11) The kings of Tarshish and of the isles Will bring presents; The kings of Sheba and Seba Will offer gifts.  (Psalms 72:10) And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. (Revelation 21:24) And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. (Revelation 21:26)   
  1. 24.                       Gates Always Open
Therefore your gates shall be open continually; They shall not be shut day or night, That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession.  (Isaiah 60:11) Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). (Revelation 21:25) And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. (Revelation 21:26)
  1. 25.                       Nothing Unclean Can Enter

Sin Is Present OUTSIDE the City

Awake, awake! Put on your strength, O Zion; Put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean Shall no longer come to you.  (Isaiah 52:1) ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter My sanctuary, including any foreigner who [is] among the children of Israel.  (Ezekiel 44:9) Yes, every pot in Jerusalem and Judah shall be holiness to the LORD of hosts. Everyone who sacrifices shall come and take them and cook in them. In that day there shall no longer be a Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.  (Zechariah 14:21)“So you shall know that I [am] the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”  (Joel 3:17)

Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?  He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor sworn deceitfully.  (Psalm 24:3-4)

 

No more shall there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, or an old man who does not fill out his days, for the young man shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed […] (Isaiah 65)

But there shall by no means enter it [New Jerusalem] anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.  (Revelation 21:27) Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. Butoutside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. (Revelation 22:14-15)And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison (Revelation 20:7) and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. (Revelation 20:8) And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, (Revelation 20:9)
  1. 26.                       Nations Shall Serve God/the King
Yes, all kings shall fall down before Him; All nations shall serve Him.  (Psalms 72:11)Kings shall be your foster fathers, And their queens your nursing mothers; They shall bow down to you with [their] faces to the earth, And lick up the dust of your feet. Then you will know that I [am] the LORD, For they shall not be ashamed who wait for Me.”  (Isaiah 49:23) You shall drink the milk of the Gentiles, And milk the breast of kings; You shall know that I, the LORD, [am] your Savior And your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.  (Isaiah 60:16) And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. (Revelation 21:24 )
  1. 27.                       Marriage Supper of the Lamb is the Beginning of the Millennium
And in this mountain ​The LORD of hosts will make for all people ​A feast of choice pieces, ​A feast of wines on the lees, ​Of fat things full of marrow, ​Of well-refined wines on the lees. (Isaiah 25:6) And He will destroy on this mountain ​The surface of the covering cast over all people, ​And the veil that is spread over all nations. (Isaiah 25:7) He will swallow up death forever, ​And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces; ​The rebuke of His people ​He will take away from all the earth; ​For the LORD has spoken. (Isaiah 25:8) “Ho! Everyone who thirsts, ​Come to the waters; ​And you who have no money, ​Come, buy and eat. ​Yes, come, buy wine and milk ​Without money and without price. (Isaiah 55:1) Why do you spend money for what is not bread, ​And your wages for what does not satisfy? ​Listen carefully to Me, and eat what is good, ​And let your soul delight itself in abundance. (Isaiah 55:2) (See Rev 22:17) Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, ​Streaming to the goodness of the LORD— ​For wheat and new wine and oil, ​For the young of the flock and the herd; ​Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden, ​And they shall sorrow no more at all. (Jeremiah 31:12) The LORD their God will save them in that day, ​As the flock of His people. ​For they shall be like the jewels of a crown, ​Lifted like a banner over His land– (Zechariah 9:16) For how great [H]is its goodness ​And how great [is His] itsbeauty! ​Grain shall make the young men thrive, ​And new wine the young women. (Zechariah 9:17)

 

“And it shall be, in that day,” ​Says the LORD, ​”That you will call Me “My Husband,’ And no longer call Me “My Master,’ (Hosea 2:16) For I will take from her mouth the names of the Baals, ​And they shall be remembered by their name no more. (Hosea 2:17) In that day I will make a covenant for them ​With the beasts of the field, ​With the birds of the air, ​And with the creeping things of the ground. ​Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, ​To make them lie down safely. (Hosea 2:18) “I will betroth you to Me forever; ​Yes, I will betroth you to Me ​In righteousness and justice, ​In lovingkindness and mercy; (Hosea 2:19) I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness, ​And you shall know the LORD. (Hosea 2:20) “It shall come to pass in that day ​That I will answer,” says the LORD; ​”I will answer the heavens, ​And they shall answer the earth. (Hosea 2:21) The earth shall answer ​With grain, ​With new wine, ​And with oil; ​They shall answer Jezreel. (Hosea 2:22) Then I will sow her for Myself in the earth, ​And I will have mercy on her who had not obtained mercy; Then I will say to those who were not My people, “You are My people!’ ​And they shall say, “You are my God!”‘ (Hosea 2:23)

“The kingdom of heaven is like a certain king who arranged a marriage for his son, (Matthew 22:2) and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the wedding; and they were not willing to come. (Matthew 22:3) Again, he sent out other servants, saying, “Tell those who are invited, “See, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and fatted cattle are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the wedding.”‘ (Matthew 22:4) Then he said to his servants, “The wedding is ready, but those who were invited were not worthy. (Matthew 22:8) Therefore go into the highways, and as many as you find, invite to the wedding.’ (Matthew 22:9) So those servants went out into the highways and gathered together all whom they found, both bad and good. And the wedding hall was filled with guests. (Matthew 22:10) “But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw a man there who did not have on a wedding garment. (Matthew 22:11) So he said to him, “Friend, how did you come in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. (Matthew 22:12) Then the king said to the servants, “Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ (Matthew 22:13)  “For many are called, but few are chosen.” And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, (Luke 22:29) that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” ​(Luke 22:30) Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.” (Revelation 19:7) And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. (Revelation 19:8) Then he said to me, “Write: “Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!”‘ And he said to me, “These are the true sayings of God.” (Revelation 19:9)  And I say to you that many will come from east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven.  But the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into outer darkness. There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” (Matthew 8:11-12)

 

Awake, awake! Put on your strength, O Zion; Put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean shall no longer come to you.  (Isaiah 52:1) You shall no longer be termed Forsaken, ​Nor shall your land any more be termed Desolate; ​But you shall be called Hephzibah and your land Beulah;For the LORD delights in you, ​And your land shall be married. (Isaiah 62:4) For as a young man marries a virgin, ​So shall your sons marry you; ​And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, ​So shall your God rejoice over you [Jerusalem]. (Isaiah 62:5) I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; ​They shall never hold their peace day or night. ​You who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent, (Isaiah 62:6) And give Him no rest till He establishes ​And till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth. (Isaiah 62:7) Then I, John,saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Revelation 21:2)
  1. 28.                       Garments of Salvation/ Wedding Garments
To console those who mourn in Zion, To give them beauty for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they may be called trees of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified.” (Isaiah 61:3)  I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He has clothed me with the garments of salvation, He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, As a bridegroom decks [himself] with ornaments, And as a bride adorns [herself] with her jewels.   (Isaiah 61:10) “Now therefore, Arise, O LORD God, to Your resting place, You and the ark of Your strength. Let Your priests, O LORD God, be clothed with salvation, And let Your saints rejoice in goodness.  (2 Chr 6:41)Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness, And let Your saints shout for joy.   (Ps 132:9) I will also clothe her priests with salvation, And her saints shall shout aloud for joy.   (Ps 132:16)   “But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw a man there who did not have on a wedding garment. (Matthew 22:11) So he said to him, “Friend, how did you come in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. (Matthew 22:12) Then the king said to the servants, “Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ (Matthew 22:13) “You have a few names even in Sardis who have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. (Revelation 3:4) “He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels. (Revelation 3:5 “I counsel you to buy from Me gold refined in the fire, that you may be rich; and white garments, that you may be clothed, [that] the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see. (Revelation 3:18)  Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.” (Revelation 19:7)  And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. (Revelation 19:8)  And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. (Revelation 19:14)  But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to [fulfill its] lusts.   Rom 13:14
  1. 29.                       Judgment of Nations by Jesus
“For behold, in those days and at that time, When I bring back the captives of Judah and Jerusalem, (Joel3:1) I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land. (Joel3:2) They have cast lots for My people, Have given a boy [as payment] for a harlot, And sold a girl for wine, that they may drink. (Joel3:3) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) “When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. (Matthew25:31)All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate them one from another, as a shepherd divides [his] sheep from the goats. (Matthew25:32)“And He will set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. (Matthew25:33)“Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: (Matthew25:34) ‘for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in; (Matthew25:35)“And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did [it] to one of the least of these My brethren, you did [it] to Me.’ (Matthew25:40) “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew25:41) ‘for I was hungry and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink; (Matthew25:42) ‘I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.’ (Matthew25:43) “Then they also will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to You?’ (Matthew25:44) “Then He will answer them, saying, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did not do [it] to one of the least of these, you did not do [it] to Me.’ (Matthew25:45)“And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matthew25:46) “And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He who was ordained by God [to be] Judge of the living and the dead. (Acts 10:42 ) The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, (John 5:22) that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. (John 5:23) Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. (John 5:24) “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. (John 5:25) For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. (John 5:26) And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. (John 5:27) Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice (John 5:28) and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment. (John 5:29)  For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that He might be Lord of both the dead and the living.(Romans 14:9 )  But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. (Romans 14:10 )

 

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things [done] in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)

 

I charge [you] therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom: (2 Timothy 4:1 )

 

They will give an account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.(1 Peter 4:5) For this reason the gospel was preached also to those who are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit. (1 Peter 4:6)

 

Do not grumble against one another, brethren, lest you be condemned. Behold, the Judge is standing at the door! (James 5:9)

  1. 30.                       God’s Fire Will Judge All
For Tophet [was] established of old, Yes, for the king [c.f. Isa 14:5, Ezekiel 28:12] it is prepared. He has made [it] deep and large; Its pyre [is] fire with much wood; The breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, Kindles it. (Isaiah 30:33) “And they have built the high places of Tophet, which [is] in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, nor did it come into My heart.  (Jeremiah 7:31 )​​​​​​ “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew25:41) Now if anyone builds on this foundation [with] gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, (1 Corinthians 3:12) each one’s work will become clear; for the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one’s work, of what sort it is. (1 Corinthians 3:13) If anyone’s work which he has built on [it] endures, he will receive a reward. (1 Corinthians 3:14) If anyone’s work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire. (1 Corinthians 3:15)
For a fire is kindled in My anger, And shall burn to the lowest hell; It shall consume the earth with her increase, And set on fire the foundations of the mountains. (Deuteronomy 32:22) By the breath of God they perish, ​​​​​​​and by the blast of his anger they are consumed. ​​​ (Job 4:9)The sinners in Zion are afraid; Fearfulness has seized the hypocrites: “Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?”(Isaiah 33:14)For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. (Isaiah 66:15) For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many. (Isaiah 66:16) ““For as the new heavens and the new earth Which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the LORD, “So shall your descendants and your name remain. (Isaiah 66:22) And it shall come to pass [That] from one New Moon to another, And from one Sabbath to another, All flesh shall come to worship before Me,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 66:23) “And they shall go forth and look Upon the corpses of the men Who have transgressed against Me. For their worm does not die, And their fire is not quenched. They shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.” (Isaiah 66:24)

 

…and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness with a human appearance. (Ezekiel 1:26) And upward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were gleaming metal [khashmal=electricity], like the appearance of fire enclosed all around. And downward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him. (Ezekiel 1:27)

 

“For behold, the day is coming, Burning like an oven, And all the proud, yes, all who do wickedly will be stubble. And the day which is coming shall burn them up,” Says the LORD of hosts, “That will leave them neither root nor branch. (Malachi 4:1)

 

Smoke went up from His nostrils, And devouring fire from His mouth; Coals were kindled by it. (Psalms 18:8)

 

You shall make them as a fiery oven in the time of Your anger; The LORD shall swallow them up in His wrath, And the fire shall devour them. (Psalms 21:9)

 

A fire goes before Him, And burns up His enemies round about. (Psalms 97:3) His lightnings light the world; The earth sees and trembles. (Psalms 97:4)

“I watched till thrones were put in place, And the Ancient of Days was seated; His garment [was] white as snow, And the hair of His head [was] like pure wool. His throne [was] a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire; (Daniel 7:9) A fiery stream issued And came forth from before Him. A thousand thousands ministered to Him; Ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. The court was seated, And the books were opened. (Daniel 7:10) “I watched then because of the sound of the pompous words which the horn was speaking; I watched till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning flame. (Daniel 7:11)

He himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. (Revelation 14:10) and to [give] you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2 Thessalonians 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. (2 Thessalonians 1:8) These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, (2 Thessalonians 1:9) (note: from, Greek απο apo can mean by reason of, by means of, c.f. BDAG) “His winnowing fan [is] in His hand, and He will thoroughly clean out His threshing floor, and gather His wheat into the barn; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” (Matthew 3:12 ) “Therefore as the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of this age. (Matthew 13:40 )

 

“If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed, rather than having two hands, to go to hell, into the fire that shall never be quenched (Mark 9:43) “where Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:44) “And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame, rather than having two feet, to be cast into hell, into the fire that shall never be quenched– (Mark 9:45) “where ‘Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:46) “And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes, to be cast into hell fire– (Mark 9:47 ) “where ‘Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:48 ) “For everyone will be seasoned with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt. (Mark 9:49)

 

But the heavens and the earth [which] are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (2 Peter 3:7)

And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them… (Revelation 20:4) Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them. (Revelation 20:11 ) And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is [the Book] of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. (Revelation 20:12 )The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. (Revelation 20:13)  Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire.