The Messianic Age: Millennium and Beyond

Calvary Chapel Bible College of Costa Mesa

Messianic Age

2 Credits

Fall 2011

Instructor: Douglas Hamp M.A. Hebrew University

Course Description

Much of our eschatology rightly deals with the events that lead up to the Second Coming of Jesus. However, little attention is given to looking at the events that happen thereafter. This class will explore from a very bible-centric perspective the Messianic Age/Millenium. We will begin by understanding the literal hermeneutic and how reading literally God’s Word reveals many exciting details of our glorious future. We will also look at the centrality of Israel, our future bodies, aspects of daily life, the decorations of the city, God’s dwelling with mankind, the role of the river of life and trees of life the length of the Millennium where will it be, who is there, what the Rabbis and Church Fathers thought, (Augustine, Justin Martyr), the size of the City, when the creation the of the New Heavens and New Earth occur (what about the first set), place of the H.S., the role of the Sun and the Moon, the role of the feast of tabernacles, and the judgments.

 

Course Objectives

A heavy emphasis will be placed on reading large portions of Scripture before each class. Upon completion of the course, the student will able to look at the Millennium from the entirety of Scripture. With that in mind, some of the portions of eschatology ought to come alive in a fresh way. Once we see all that God has in store for Israel and for those of us that have been grafted in, then we can live with the anticipation of what is coming.

Course Requirements

The student is required to read all of the assigned reading especially from the Bible! A list of what the student must do to pass the course.  Include required reading, any assignments, tests or papers with corresponding due dates.

 

There are three requirements:

  1. 1.       Textbook Reading: 20%

Every student is required to read the selected chapters from The First Six Days, Corrupting the Image, and the articles in their entirety. There will be a number of reading checks given over the course of the semester. A two paragraph summary is required for each chapter / article

 

  1. 2.       Weekly Bible Reading: 30%                A heavy emphasis is placed on a wide range of Scriptures dealing with the Millennium/Messianic Age. Students will give serious time to the study of the assigned verses/chapters. God’s Word alone is our guide – not the ideas of men.
  2. 3.       Research/TimeLine: 50% (Oct 12th)

Each student will prepare a timeline starting from the Second Coming to the Destruction of Satan and Beyond. The READER will serve as your proof texts for the project. The student must include all significant verse references on the timeline. Project may be done by hand on poster board, in an Office-type program (M.S. Word or Excel) or even with an online app. However, it must be very thorough.

 

Attendance

CCBC requires 100% attendance for all classes and that you be at your seat at the hour it starts.. Attendance will be taken by your teacher at the beginning of each class. *EXCUSED ABSENCES can be made up by listening to the MP’3 audio recording of the class session missed and by turning in a typed or legibly hand written copy of your notes to the CCBC Registrar within one week of your absence. Recordings are available on MP3’(no longer on web-page) for $3.00 at the CCBC office 9am-4:00pm M-F. Credit Students can only miss and make up a total of three Excused Absences. PLEASE NOTE: If you are tardy, over 15 minutes late to your class, it will be considered an absence. All unexcused absences will lower and affect your final class letter grade by half a letter grade. (An earned letter grade of an A will become an A- etc. etc.)

*EXCUSED ABSENCES

Please remember, in order to change your unexcused absence into an excused absences you must contact the CCBC Registrar within one week. Excused absences include genuine emergencies such as but not limited to: death in the family, illness, traffic accident etc. etc. Unexcused absences: such as but not limited to: sleeping in, surfing, vacations etc. etc.

 

Course Schedule

In Class Discussion Presentation Assignments Due
1 August22nd    Literal Interpretation of Scripture Triangulation of Scripture

  1. Details matter!
    1. No more, no less
    2. It means what it says

Examine commentaries on the size of the city and Isaiah 65:17

Last Years of Time

Centrality of the Elect (Jews)

forever, even forever and ever! (Dan 7:18)

Last years of TimeWhy God Did Not Elect
2 August  29th  The Fall Feasts Prophetically Fulfilled/ Tabernacles Hamp, Last Years of TimeHamp, First Six Days, 4Hamp, Why God Did Not Elect Calvinists
3 Sept 12th  The Image of God and Need for a New Environment Understanding the Creation literally:

  • No evolution, no Gap, no entropy
  • Original Creation conditions, fall, planned restoration
  • Rocks
  • DNA

(Consider for later Discussion where was Satan c.f. Isa 14:12, Ezek 28:12,14,16)

The Language of Creation Image of God, Biophotons, Radiohalos, Corrupting: 24-91, 65-91, Hamp: The First Six Days, All
4 Sept 19th The Shaking of the Heavens and Earth, Day of the LordIn class discussion of Isaiah 24:20 fall and not get up, All seas turned to blood Rev16 READER 1, 2a-d, Corrupting 321-324
Cont. 4 Sept. 19th When God Returns 2nd Coming (The Parousia of Jesus)

  • Matthew 24
  • Hab 3
  • Isaiah 19
  • Isaiah 63
READER 3, Corrupting 255-259
5 Sept. 26th The New Heavens and Earth created at the beginning of the Millennium, New Jerusalem Discuss the normal order of events. Consider Gen 1 & 2, Rev 16:19 & 17/18, (Rev 20, 21, 22) Jerusalem as a Bride READER 4-6
6 October 3rd God Dwells forever in Mt Zion, The Mountain of the Lord, READER 7, 7a 8
7 Oct.  10th God Himself Will Be In the City, God’s Throne Will Be There, No More Tears, No More Hunger or Thirst, God Makes All Things New, Highway to the City READER 9-14
8 Oct.  17th River of Life, Trees of Life, Restoration of Bodies READER 15, 16
9 Oct.  24th Twelve Gates, Angel Measures (Size of City), Precious Stones, The Temple, READER 17-21
10 Oct.  31st God Will Illuminate the City, Gentiles Bring Gifts Into the City, Gates Always Open, Nothing Unclean Can Enter, Sin Is Present OUTSIDE the City, Nations Shall Serve God/the King READER 22-26
11 Nov. 7th Marriage Supper of the Lamb, Kingdom of Heaven

  • Place of God’s Throne
  • Garments of Salvation
READER, 27, 28
12 Nov. 14th The Judgments

  • Dan 7 Judgment
  • Joel 3:2
  • Matthew 25:41
  • Mat 16:27
  • Rom 14:10
  • I Cor 3:12, 2 Cor 5:10, Eph 6:8
  • Rev 2:23, 20:11
    • Isaiah 30:33

Isaiah 66:24

READER 29, 30, Corrupting 261-280
13 Nov.  28th Satan’s Origin, Fall, Imprisonment, and Destruction Satan’s Origin and Fall (douglashamp.com)

 

 

 

 

The New Heavens and New Earth Verse List

The following compilation of verses I have put together for a book that I will begin the near future and for the class ‘The Messianic Age: Millennium and Beyond’ I taught at Calvary Chapel Bible College. I explain the relationships in the audio lectures. In the book I will bring together the full relationship of these verses. For now these are a rough outline.

 

An Examination of the Kingdom that Lasts

Forever, Even Forever & Ever

‘But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom forever, even forever and ever.’ (Daniel 7:18)

OT

NT

  1. 1.    First Heavens and Earth Decimated and Will Not Rise Again (Things Will Be Shaken and Will Flee Away) In the Day of the Lord (Before Millennium)
The earth is violently broken, The earth is split open, The earth is shaken exceedingly. (Isaiah 24:19) The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, And shall totter like a hut; Its transgression shall be heavy upon it, And it will fall, and not rise again. (Isaiah 24:20) It shall come to pass in that day [That] the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, And on the earth the kings of the earth. (Isaiah 24:21)They will be gathered together, [As] prisoners are gathered in the pit, And will be shut up in the prison; After many days they will be punished. (Isaiah 24:22)Then the moon will be disgraced And the sun ashamed; For the LORD of hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem And before His elders, gloriously. (Isaiah 24:23)Oh, that You would rend [tear, break] the heavens! That You would come down! That the mountains might shake at Your presence– (Isaiah 64:1)They shall go into the holes of the rocks, And into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isaiah 2:19) Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the LORD of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger. (Isaiah 13:13) Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. (Matthew 24:29) Then his voice shook the earth, but now he has promised, “I will once more shake not only the earth but heaven too.” (Hebrews 12:26) Now this phrase “once more” indicates the removal of what is shaken, that is, of created things, so that what is unshaken may remain. (Hebrews 12:27) Then the second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it became blood as of a dead [man;] and every living creature in the sea died. (Revelation 16:3) Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water, and they became blood. (Revelation 16:4) Then the fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and power was given to him to scorch men with fire. (Revelation 16:8) For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, [which] go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. (Revelation 16:14) And there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth. (Revelation 16:18) Then every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. (Revelation 16:20)  And great hail from heaven fell upon men, [each hailstone] about the weight of a talent. Men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, since that plague was exceedingly great. (Revelation 16:21)
All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, And the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; All their host shall fall down As the leaf falls from the vine, And as fruit falling from a fig tree. (Isaiah 34:4) Enter into the rock, and hide in the dust, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty. (Isaiah 2:10)The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, The haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. (Isaiah 2:11) For the day of the LORD of hosts [Shall come] upon everything proud and lofty, Upon everything lifted up– And it shall be brought low– (Isaiah 2:12) Upon all the cedars of Lebanon [that are] high and lifted up, And upon all the oaks of Bashan; (Isaiah 2:13)Upon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills [that are] lifted up; (Isaiah 2:14) Upon every high tower, And upon every fortified wall; (Isaiah 2:15) Upon all the ships of Tarshish, And upon all the beautiful sloops. (Isaiah 2:16) The loftiness of man shall be bowed down, And the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; The LORD alone will be exalted in that day, (Isaiah 2:17) But the idols He shall utterly abolish. (Isaiah 2:18) They shall go into the holes of the rocks, And into the caves of the earth, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily. (Isaiah 2:19) And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. (Revelation 6:13) Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place. (Revelation 6:14) And the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains, (Revelation6:15) and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! (Revelation6:16)  For the great day of His wrath has come… (Revelation 6:17)
  1. 2.    Day of the Lord / Thief in the Night / Earth Destroyed
He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting. (Habakkuk 3:6 [NASB]) Behold, the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it. (Isaiah 13:9) For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine. (Isaiah 13:10) “I will punish the world for [its] evil, And the wicked for their iniquity; I will halt the arrogance of the proud, And will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. (Isaiah 13:11) I will make a mortal more rare than fine gold, A man more than the golden wedge of Ophir. (Isaiah 13:12)“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. (Joel 2:31) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. (Joel 3:15) The LORD also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the LORD will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel. (Joel 3:16) But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10)[1]“Remember therefore how you have received and heard; hold fast and repent. Therefore if you will not watch, I will come upon you as a thief, and you will not know what hour I will come upon you. (Revelation 3:3) “Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed [is] he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame.” (Revelation 16:15) For you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night. (1 Thessalonians 5:2) But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief. (1 Thessalonians 5:4) You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5) Therefore let us not sleep, as others [do,] but let us watch and be sober. (1 Thessalonians 5:6)

 

Watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming. (Matthew 24:42) “But know this, that if the master of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched and not allowed his house to be broken into. (Matthew 24:43) “Therefore you also be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect. (Matthew 24:44)

 

“Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. (Matthew 25:13)

And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day; (Jude 1:6) 

2a Lord Coming With Fire

For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. (Isaiah 66:15) For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many. (Isaiah 66:16)“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10)and to [give] you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2 Thessalonians 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. (2 Thessalonians 1:8)

2b Demons and Satan Bound and Released Later

It shall come to pass in that day [That] the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, And on the earth the kings of the earth. (Isaiah 24:21)They will be gathered together, [As] prisoners are gathered in the pit, And will be shut up in the prison; After many days they will be punished. (Isaiah 24:22) He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is [the] Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; (Revelation20:2) and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. But after these things he must be released for a little while. (Revelation20:3)

2c Heavens Shake, Earth Burned, Seas Blood

“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood and fire and pillars of smoke. (Joel 2:30) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD. (Joel 2:31) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. (Joel 3:15) The LORD also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the LORD will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel. (Joel 3:16) The first angel sounded: And hail and fire followed, mingled with blood, and they were thrown to the earth. And a third of the trees were burned up, and all green grass was burned up. (Revelation 8:7) Then the second angel sounded: And [something] like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown into the sea, and a third of the sea became blood. (Revelation 8:8) Then the fourth angel sounded: And a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day did not shine, and likewise the night. (Revelation 8:12) I will show wonders in heaven above And signs in the earth beneath: Blood and fire and vapor of smoke.  (Acts 2:19) The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.  (Acts 2:20)

2d Heavens and Earth Perish, Vanish, Pass away

Lift up your eyes to the heavens, ​And look on the earth beneath. ​For the heavens will vanish away like smoke, ​The earth will grow old like a garment, ​And those who dwell in it will die in like manner; ​But My salvation will be forever, ​And My righteousness will not be abolished. (Isaiah 51:6)The mountains melt like wax at the presence of the LORD, At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth. (Psalms 97:5) I beheld the earth, and indeed [it was] without form, and void; And the heavens, they [had] no light. (Jeremiah 4:23) Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. (Psalms 102:25) They will perish, but You will endure; Yes, they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will change them, And they will be changed. (Psalms 102:26)

 

Bow down Your heavens, O LORD, and come down; Touch the mountains, and they shall smoke. (Psalms 144:5)

 

Moreover, the LORD who rules over all says: ‘In just a little while I will once again shake the sky and the earth, the sea and the dry ground. (Haggai 2:6)

Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away. ​But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only. (Matthew 24:35-36 which day? – when the heavens and earth pass away!! and that is because it happens when Jesus returns.) But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (2 Peter 3:7)But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10) Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earthin which righteousness dwells.  (2 Peter 3:13)And: “You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, ​And the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will fold them up, ​And they will be changed. ​But You are the same, ​And Your years will not fail.” (Hebrews 1:10-12)
  1. 3.    When God Returns! [The Parousia] Second Coming
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Behold, the Lord is riding on a swift cloud ​​​​​​​and comes to Egypt; ​​​​​​​and the idols of Egypt will tremble at his presence, ​​​​​​​and the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them. ​​​ (Isaiah 19:1)Who is this who comes from Edom, ​​​​​​​in crimsoned garments from Bozrah, ​​​​​​​he who is splendid in his apparel, ​​​​​​​marching in the greatness of his strength? ​​​​​​​“It is I, speaking in righteousness, ​​​​​​​mighty to save.” ​​​(Isaiah 63:1) ​​​​​​​​Why is your apparel red, ​​​​​​​and your garments like his who treads in the winepress? ​​​(Isaiah 63:2)​​​​​​​​“I have trodden the winepress alone, ​​​​​​​and from the peoples no one was with me; ​​​​​​​I trod them in my anger ​​​​​​​and trampled them in my wrath; ​​​​​​​their lifeblood spattered on my garments, ​​​​​​​and stained all my apparel. ​​​(Isaiah 63:3)​​​​​​​​ For the day of vengeance was in my heart, ​​​​​​​and my year of redemption had come. ​​​(Isaiah 63:4)​​​​​​​​I looked, but there was no one to help; ​​​​​​​I was appalled, but there was no one to uphold; ​​​​​​​so my own arm brought me salvation, ​​​​​​​and my wrath upheld me. ​​​(Isaiah 63:5) ​​​​​​​​I trampled down the peoples in my anger; ​​​​​​​I made them drunk in my wrath, ​​​​​​​and I poured out their lifeblood on the earth.” ​​​(Isaiah 63:6) God comes from Teman, And the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise. (Habakkuk 3:3 [NASB])  [His] radiance is like the sunlight; He has rays [flashing] from His hand, And there is the hiding of His power. (Habakkuk 3:4 [NASB]) Before Him goes pestilence, And plague comes after Him. (Habakkuk 3:5 [NASB]) He stood and surveyed the earth; He looked and startled the nations. Yes, the perpetual mountains were shattered, The ancient hills collapsed. His ways are everlasting. (Habakkuk 3:6 [NASB]) Did the LORD rage against the rivers, Or [was] Your anger against the rivers, Or [was] Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, On Your chariots of salvation? (Habakkuk 3:8 [NASB]) Your bow was made bare, The rods of chastisement were sworn. Selah. You cleaved the earth with rivers.(Habakkuk 3:10 [NASB]) The mountains saw You [and] quaked; The downpour of waters swept by. The deep uttered forth its voice, It lifted high its hands.(Habakkuk 3:9 [NASB]) Sun [and] moon stood in their places; They went away at the light of Your arrows, At the radiance of Your gleaming spear. (Habakkuk 3:11 [NASB]) In indignation You marched through the earth; In anger You trampled the nations. (Habakkuk 3:12 [NASB]) You went forth for the salvation of Your people, For the salvation of Your anointed. You struck the head of the house of the evil To lay him open from thigh to neck. Selah. (Habakkuk 3:13 [NASB]) You pierced with his own spears The head of his throngs. They stormed in to scatter us; Their exultation [was] like those Who devour the oppressed in secret. (Habakkuk 3:14 [NASB]) You trampled on the sea with Your horses, On the surge of many waters. (Habakkuk 3:15 [NASB]) “I saw in the night visions, ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​and behold, with the clouds of heaven ​​​​​​​there came one like a son of man, ​​​​​​​and he came to the Ancient of Days ​​​​​​​and was presented before him. ​​​ (Daniel 7:13) ​​​​​​​​And to him was given dominion ​​​​​​​and glory and a kingdom, ​​​​​​​that all peoples, nations, and languages ​​​​​​​should serve him; ​​​​​​​his dominion is an everlasting dominion, ​​​​​​​which shall not pass away, ​​​​​​​and his kingdom one ​​​​​​​that shall not be destroyed. ​​​ (Daniel 7:14) As I looked, this horn made war with the saints and prevailed over them, (Daniel 7:21) until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when the saints possessed the kingdom. (Daniel 7:22) ​​​​​​​​He shall speak words against the Most High, ​​​​​​​and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, ​​​​​​​and shall think to change the times and the law; ​​​​​​​and they shall be given into his hand ​​​​​​​for a time, times, and half a time. ​​​ (Daniel 7:25) ​​​​​​​​But the court shall sit in judgment, ​​​​​​​and his dominion shall be taken away, ​​​​​​​to be consumed and destroyed to the end. ​​​ (Daniel 7:26) ​​​​​​​​And the kingdom and the dominion ​​​​​​​and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven ​​​​​​​shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High [Jews=Elect]; ​​​​​​​their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, ​​​​​​​and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’ ​​​ (Daniel 7:27) Jesus said to him, “You have said so. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power and coming on the clouds of heaven.” (Matthew 26:64)  And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming. (2 Thessalonians 2:8) Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. (Revelation 19:11) His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. (Revelation 19:12) He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. (Revelation 19:13) And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. (Revelation 19:14) From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. (Revelation 19:15) On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. (Revelation 19:16) Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and with a loud voice he called to all the birds that fly directly overhead, “Come, gather for the great supper of God, (Revelation 19:17) to eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, both small and great.” (Revelation 19:18) And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth with their armies gathered to make war against him who was sitting on the horse and against his army. (Revelation 19:19) And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. (Revelation 19:20) And the rest were slain by the sword that came from the mouth of him who was sitting on the horse, and all the birds were gorged with their flesh. (Revelation 19:21)  
  1. 4.    New Heavens and Earth Created at the Beginning of the Millennium
“For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former shall not be remembered or come to mind.  (Isaiah 65:17)“For as the new heavens and the new earth Which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the LORD, “So shall your descendants and your name remain.  (Isaiah 66:22)[grammar notes]Burton: Greek Grammar 35. The constant characteristic of the Aorist tense in all of its moods, including the participle, is that it represents the action denoted by it indefinitely; i.e. simply as an event, neither on the one hand picturing it in progress, nor on the other affirming the existence of its result. The name indefinite as thus understood is therefore applicable to the tense in all of its uses. 

48. THE AORIST FOR THE (ENGLISH) PLUPERFECT. The Aorist Indicative is frequently used in narrative passages of a past event which precedes another past event mentioned or implied in the context. In English it is common in such a case to indicate the real order of the events by the use of a Pluperfect for the earlier event. Cf. 52, 53. HA. 837; G.MT. 58; B. pp. 199

 

The Greek Pluperfect is used to represent an action as standing complete, i.e. as having an existing result, at a point of past time indicated by the context.

 

The Greek Aorist is used of any past event which is conceived of simply as an event (or as entered upon, or as accomplished), regardless alike of the existence or non-existence of an interval between itself and the moment of speaking, and of the question whether it precedes or not some other past action. It affirms nothing respecting existing result.

 

Instances of the Greek Aorist for the English Pluperfect arise when a past event which is conceived of simply as an event without reference to existing result is mentioned out of its chronological order, or is expressed in a subordinate clauses The Greek employs the Aorist, leaving the context to suggest the order; the English usually suggests the order by the use of a Pluperfect.

 

Robertson: Greek Grammar

1. THE DIFFICULTY OF COMPARING GREEK TENSES WITH GERMANIC TENSES. “The translators of our English version have failed more frequently from their partial knowledge of the force of the tenses than from any other cause.”

 

But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (2 Peter 3:10) Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earthin which righteousness dwells.  (2 Peter 3:13)Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, (from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them). (Revelation 20:11) (explanation: I have inserted parenthesis because it really appears to be a adjectival-parenthetical statement. John saw a throne and Him who sat on it. In other words, the statement is adjectival and not verbal. It is not describing an action that was happening at that moment but was a description of the one who sat on the throne. E.g. I saw an astronaut who first stepped on the moon. It describes a significant feature of the person and not an action that happened the moment that I saw them. See 20:4) See notes on aoristNow I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. (Revelation 21:1) (Note on the sea: There are several options to understand what is meant by sea in light of the numerous OT passages that speak of seas in the Messianic age. 1) The seas in the tribulation all completely turned to blood and were therefore destroyed. 2) In the beginning God made seas that, according to creation science, did not connect. There was more land than water on the pre-flood world and after the flood they became one giant connected mass of water (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Artic oceans all touch)  3) This is the least likely solution: the sea is no longer salinized but is fresh and hence may not fulfill the definition of “sea” but this seems unlikely.
{Then to Adam He said, … “Cursed [is] the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat [of] it All the days of your life. (Genesis 3:17) Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, And you shall eat the herb of the field. (Genesis 3:18) In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread Till you return to the ground [adama], For out of it you were taken; For dust you [are,] And to dust you shall return.” (Genesis 3:19)  And He will destroy on this mountain ​The surface of the covering cast over all people, ​And the veil that is spread over all nations. (Isaiah 25:7) [note] Thayers: ἀποκάλυψις 1.  laying bear, making nakedBDAG ἀποκάλυψις ,  εως,  ἡ (s. ἀποκαλύπτω; Philod., Vit. [περὶ κακιῶν] p. 38 Jensen) (Plut., Cato Mai. 34 8 [20, 8], Aemil. 262 [14, 3], Mor. 70f ἀ. τῆς ἁμαρτίας; Sir 11:27; 22:22; 41:26 v.l.; TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 27 [Stone p. 14]; GrBar, ApcEsdr ins, Just.) the lit. sense ‘uncovering’ as of head (s. Philod. above) does not appear in our lit., which uses the term in transcendent associations.LSJ ἀπο-κάλυψις [κᾰ] , εως , ἡ , uncovering, of the head, Phld. Vit. p.38J. ; disclosing, of hidden springs, Plu. Aem. 14 : metaph., ἁμαρτίας Id. 2.7o f; revelation, esp. of divine mysteries, Ep.Rom. 16.25 , etc.; of persons, manifestation, 2 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy [to be compared] with the glory which shall be revealed in us. (Romans 8:18) For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing [see note] of the sons of God. (Romans 8:19) For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected [it] in hope; (Romans 8:20) because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. (Romans 8:21) For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. (Romans 8:22) Not only [that,] but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body. (Romans 8:23) Jesus Christ (Acts 3:20) “whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began. (Acts 3:21)
  1. 5.    New Jerusalem
In the visions of God He took me into the land of Israel and set me on a very high mountain; on it toward the south was something like the structure of a city. ( Ezekiel 40:2)And behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east. His voice [was] like the sound of many waters; and the earth shone with His glory. (Ezekiel 43:2)  [There is] a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God, The holy [place] of the tabernacle of the Most High. (Psalms 46:4) God [is] in the midst of her, she shall not be moved; God shall help her, just at the break of dawn. (Psalms 46:5)   GREAT [is] the LORD, and greatly to be praised In the city of our God, [In] His holy mountain. (Psalms 48:1) Beautiful in elevation, The joy of the whole earth, [Is] Mount Zion [on] the sides of the north, The city of the great King. (Psalms 48:2) God [is] in her palaces; He is known as her refuge. (Psalms 48:3) For behold, the kings assembled, They passed by together. (Psalms 48:4) They saw [it, and] so they marveled; They were troubled, they hastened away. (Psalms 48:5) Fear took hold of them there, [And] pain, as of a woman in birth pangs, (Psalms 48:6) [As when] You break the ships of Tarshish With an east wind. (Psalms 48:7) As we have heard, So we have seen In the city of the LORD of hosts, In the city of our God: God will establish it forever. ​Selah (Psalms 48:8) We have thought, O God, on Your lovingkindness, In the midst of Your temple. (Psalms 48:9) According to Your name, O God, So [is] Your praise to the ends of the earth; Your right hand is full of righteousness. (Psalms 48:10) Let Mount Zion rejoice, Let the daughters of Judah be glad, Because of Your judgments. (Psalms 48:11) Walk about Zion, And go all around her. Count her towers; (Psalms 48:12) Mark well her bulwarks; Consider her palaces; That you may tell [it] to the generation following. (Psalms 48:13) For this [is] God, Our God forever and ever; He will be our guide [Even] to death. (Psalms 48:14) And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, (Revelation 21:10) He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God… (Revelation 3:12) for he [Abraham] waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10) But now they desire a better, that is, a heavenly country. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for He has prepared a city for them. (Hebrews 11:16) But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, (Hebrews 12:22)

 

but the Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all. (Galatians 4:26)

  1. 6.    Jerusalem As a Bride
You shall no longer be termed Forsaken, ​Nor shall your land any more be termed Desolate; ​But you shall be called Hephzibah and your land Beulah;For the LORD delights in you, ​And your land shall be married. (Isaiah 62:4) For as a young man marries a virgin, ​So shall your sons marry you; ​And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, ​So shall your God rejoice over you [Jerusalem]. (Isaiah 62:5) I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; ​They shall never hold their peace day or night. ​You who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent, (Isaiah 62:6) And give Him no rest till He establishes ​And till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth. (Isaiah 62:7) I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; The voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her, Nor the voice of crying. (Isaiah 65:19) Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Revelation 21:2)
  1. 7.    God Dwells Forever in Mt Zion
HIS foundation [is] in the holy mountains. (Psalms 87:1) The LORD loves the gates of Zion More than all the dwellings of Jacob. (Psalms 87:2) Glorious things are spoken of you, O city of God! ​Selah (Psalms 87:3) And of Zion it will be said, “This [one] and that [one] were born in her; And the Most High Himself shall establish her.” (Psalms 87:5) The LORD will record, When He registers the peoples: “This [one] was born there.” ​Selah (Psalms 87:6) Both the singers and the players on instruments [say,] “All my springs [are] in you.” (Psalms 87:7) Why do you fume with envy, you mountains of [many] peaks? [This is] the mountain [which] God desires to dwell in; Yes, the LORD will dwell [in it] forever. (Psalms 68:16) For the LORD has chosen Zion; He has desired [it] for His dwelling place: (Psalms 132:13) “This [is] My resting place forever; Here I will dwell, for I have desired it. (Psalms 132:14) Many people shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. (Isaiah 2:3)

 

Arise, shine; For your light has come! And the glory of the LORD is risen upon you [Jerusalem cf. v 13]. (Isaiah 60:1) For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, And deep darkness the people; But the LORD will arise over you, And His glory will be seen upon you. (Isaiah 60:2) The Gentiles shall come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising. (Isaiah 60:3) “Lift up your eyes all around, and see: They all gather together, they come to you; Your sons shall come from afar, And your daughters shall be nursed at [your] side. (Isaiah 60:4) Then you shall see and become radiant, And your heart shall swell with joy; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, The wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you. (Isaiah 60:5) Therefore your gates shall be open continually; They shall not be shut day or night, That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession. (Isaiah 60:11) “The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, The cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, To beautify the place of My sanctuary; And I will make the place of My feet glorious. (Isaiah 60:13) Also the sons of those who afflicted you Shall come bowing to you, And all those who despised you shall fall prostrate at the soles of your feet; And they shall call you The City of the LORD, Zion of the Holy One of Israel. (Isaiah 60:14) “The sun shall no longer be your light by day, Nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, And your God your glory. (Isaiah 60:19) Your sun shall no longer go down, Nor shall your moon withdraw itself; For the LORD will be your everlasting light, And the days of your mourning shall be ended. (Isaiah 60:20)

 

For there shall be a day [When] the watchmen will cry on Mount Ephraim, ‘Arise, and let us go up [to] Zion, To the LORD our God.’ ” (Jeremiah 31:6)

 

THE Mighty One, God the LORD, Has spoken and called the earth From the rising of the sun to its going down. (Psalms 50:1) Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God will shine forth. (Psalms 50:2) Our God shall come, and shall not keep silent; A fire shall devour before Him, And it shall be very tempestuous all around Him. (Psalms 50:3) He shall call to the heavens from above, And to the earth, that He may judge His people: (Psalms 50:4) “Gather My saints together to Me, Those who have made a covenant with Me by sacrifice.” (Psalms 50:5) Let the heavens declare His righteousness, For God Himself [is] Judge. ​Selah (Psalms 50:6)

For here we have no continuing city, but we seek the one to come. (Hebrews 13:14) Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred [and] forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads. (Revelation 14:1) And I heard a voice from heaven, like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of loud thunder. And I heard the sound of harpists playing their harps. (Revelation 14:2) They sang as it were a new song before the throne, before the four living creatures, and the elders; and no one could learn that song except the hundred [and] forty-four thousand who were redeemed from the earth. (Revelation 14:3) These are the ones who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever He goes. These were redeemed from [among] men, [being] firstfruits to God and to the Lamb. (Revelation 14:4) 

 

7a  City is a Great Mountain

“Thus says the LORD: ‘I will return to Zion, And dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, The Mountain of the LORD of hosts, The Holy Mountain. (Zechariah 8:3) “So you shall know that I [am] the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”  (Joel 3:17) ​​​​​​​​It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord [בֵּית־יְהוָה הַר] shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and it shall be lifted up above the hills; and peoples shall flow to it,  (Micah 4:1 ESV preferable translation) Many people shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. (Micah 4:2; also: Isaiah 2:2-3)

 

then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering. (Isaiah 4:5)

 

Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?  He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor sworn deceitfully.  (Psalm 24:3-4)

 

You were in Eden, the garden of God; Every precious stone was your covering: The sardius, topaz, and diamond, Beryl, onyx, and jasper, Sapphire, turquoise, and emerald with gold… (Ezekiel 28:13) “You were the anointed cherub who covers; I established you; You were on the holy mountain of God; You walked back and forth in the midst of fiery stones. (Ezekiel 28:14)

 

For you have said in your heart: “I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount[ain] of the congregation On the farthest sides of the north; (Isaiah 14:13)

And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal. (Revelation 21:16) [Note – measurements vary but the city would be bigger than Mt Everest many times over]
  1. 8.    God Will Dwell Gloriously On Zion Before His Elders
…For the LORD of hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem And before His elders, gloriously. (Isaiah 24:23) Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns[2] of gold on their heads. (Revelation 4:4) the twenty-four elders fall down before Him who sits on the throne and worship Him who lives forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying: (Revelation 4:10) Now when He had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. (Revelation 5:8) And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sat on the throne, saying, “Amen! Alleluia!” (Revelation 19:4)
  1. 9.    God Himself Will Be in the City
And Jerusalem will dwell safely. And this is the name by which she will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.’ (Jeremiah 33:16) I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. (Ezekiel 37:26) “My tabernacle also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (Ezekiel 37:27) “The nations also will know that I, the LORD, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore. (Ezekiel 37:28) And He said to me, “Son of man, [this is] the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever. No more shall the house of Israel defile My holy name, they nor their kings, by their harlotry or with the carcasses of their kings on their high places. (Ezekiel 43:7)  and I will dwell in their midst forever.  (Ezekiel 43:9) …the name of the city from [that] day [shall be:] THE LORD [IS] THERE.”  (Ezekiel 48:35)

 

“The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, ​The cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, ​To beautify the place of My sanctuary [מִקְדָּשִׁי]; ​And I will make the place of My feet glorious. (Isaiah 60:13)

 

“Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion! For behold, I am coming and I will dwell in your midst,” says the LORD. (Zechariah 2:10)

 

“Thus says the LORD: ‘I will return to Zion, And dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, The Mountain of the LORD of hosts, The Holy Mountain. (Zechariah 8:3)

God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them. (Revelation 7:15)And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God [is] with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them [and be] their God. (Revelation 21:3) “And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, [there] you may be also. (John 14:3)

 

“Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world. (John 17:24)

 

  1. 10.                       God’s Throne Will Be There
“At that time Jerusalem shall be called The Throne of the LORD, and all the nations shall be gathered to it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem. No more shall they follow the dictates of their evil hearts. (Jeremiah 3:17) And He said to me, “Son of man, [this is] the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever(Ezekiel 43:7) And above the firmament over their heads was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like a sapphire stone; on the likeness of the throne was a likeness with the appearance of a man high above it. (Ezekiel 1:26) and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity. (Exodus 24:10)

 

Then Micaiah said, “Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by, on His right hand and on His left. (1 Kings 22:19)

 

In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the train of His robe filled the temple. (Isaiah 6:1)

The Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, The Spirit of wisdom and understanding, The Spirit of counsel and might, The Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD. (Isaiah 11:2)

 

The LORD is in His holy temple, The LORD’s throne is in heaven; His eyes behold, His eyelids test the sons of men. (Psalms 11:4)

Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. (Psalms 45:6)

 

“I watched till thrones were put in place, And the Ancient of Days was seated; His garment was white as snow, And the hair of His head was like pure wool. His throne was a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire; (Daniel 7:9)

…Proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. (Revelation 22:1) And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. (Revelation 22:3) And he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by Him who sits on it. (Matthew 23:22) looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:2)

 

Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them. (Revelation 7:15)

 

And in their mouth was found no deceit, for they are without fault before the throne of God.(Revelation 14:5)

 

But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; (Matthew 5:34)

 

Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne set in heaven, and One sat on the throne. (Revelation 4:2) And from the throne proceeded lightnings, thunderings, and voices.Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. (Revelation 4:5) Whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to Him who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, (Revelation 4:9)

  1. 11.                       No More Tears In the City
He will swallow up death forever, And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces; The rebuke of His people He will take away from all the earth; For the LORD has spoken.  (Isaiah 25:8)And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come to Zion with singing, With everlasting joy on their heads. They shall obtain joy and gladness, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away.  (Isaiah 35:10 same verse Isaiah 51:11) I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; The voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her, Nor the voice of crying.  (Isaiah 65:19) …Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden, And they shall sorrow no more at all.  (Jeremiah 31:12) “And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.”  (Revelation 21:4) …And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” (Revelation 7:17)    

 

 

  1. 12.                       No More Hunger or Thirst
They shall neither hunger nor thirst, Neither heat nor sun shall strike them; For He who has mercy on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water He will guide them. (Isaiah 49:10) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated. (Isaiah 49:11) Surely these shall come from afar; Look! Those from the north and the west, And these from the land of Sinim.” (Isaiah 49:12) Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted. (Isaiah 49:13)  then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering. (Isaiah 4:5) And there will be a tabernacle for shade in the daytime from the heat, for a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain. (Isaiah 4:6) They shall neither hunger anymore nor thirst anymore; the sun shall not strike them, nor any heat; (Revelation 7:16)  
  1. 13.                       God Makes All Things New
Behold, I will do a new thing, Now it shall spring forth; Shall you not know it? I will even make a road in the wilderness [And] rivers in the desert.  (Isaiah 43:19) Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” And He said to me, “Write, for these words are true and faithful.”  (Revelation 21:5)
  1. 14.                       Highway to the City
A highway shall be there, and a road, And it shall be called the Highway of Holiness. The unclean shall not pass over it, But it [shall be] for others. Whoever walks the road, although a fool, Shall not go astray. (Isaiah 35:8)There will be a highway for the remnant of His people Who will be left from Assyria, As it was for Israel In the day that he came up from the land of Egypt. (Isaiah 11:16) In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian will come into Egypt and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians will serve with the Assyrians. (Isaiah 19:23) I will make each of My mountains a road, And My highways shall be elevated. (Isaiah 49:11)

 

Go through, Go through the gates! Prepare the way for the people; Build up, Build up the highway! Take out the stones, Lift up a banner for the peoples! (Isaiah 62:10)

  1. 15.                       Fountain/River of Water of Life
Then he brought me back to the door of the temple, and behold, water was issuing from below the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east)…. ​​​ As I went back, I saw on the bank of the river very many trees on the one side and on the other. And he said to me, “[…] For this water goes there, that the waters of the sea may become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. And on the banks, on both sides of the river, there will grow all kinds of trees for food. (Ezek 47)In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. (Zechariah 13:1)And in that day it shall be that living waters shall flow from Jerusalem, Half of them toward the eastern sea And half of them toward the western sea; […] (Zechariah 14:8, 10)And it will come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drip with new wine, The hills shall flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah shall be flooded with water; A fountain shall flow from the house of the LORD. (Joel 3:18)

 

There is a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God, The holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High. (Psalms 46:4)

 

{Consider also the following verses}

 

“For My people have committed two evils:  They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters, And hewn themselves cisterns–broken cisterns that can hold no water. (Jeremiah 2:13)

 

They are abundantly satisfied with the fullness of Your house, And You give them drink from the river of Your pleasures. (Psalms 36:8) For with You is the fountain of life; In Your light we see light. (Psalms 36:9)

And he showed me a pureriver of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb. (Revelation 22:1)And the Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” And let him who hears say, “Come!” And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.  (Revelation 22:17) for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to living fountains of waters.And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” (Revelation 7:17)And He said to me, “It is done!I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. (Revelation 21:6)

 

But whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.  (John 4:14)

 

 

  1. 16.                       Tree of Life
Along the bank of the river, on this side and that, will grow all kinds of trees used for food; their leaves will not wither, and their fruit will not fail. They will bear fruit every month, because their water flows from the sanctuary [הַמִּקְדָּ֖שׁ]. Their fruit will be for food, and their leaves for medicine.” (Ezekiel 47:12) And out of the ground the LORD God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (Genesis 2:9) Then the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put out his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever“– (Genesis 3:22) So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. (Genesis 3:24) In the middle of its street, and on either side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits, each tree yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. (Revelation 22:2) Blessed are those who do His commandments [some mss: wash their robes], that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. (Revelation 22:14) “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.”‘ (Revelation 2:7)           
  1. 17.                       Twelve Gates Named After the Twelve Tribes
the gates of the city shall be named after the tribes of Israel), the three gates northward on the east side… on the south side… on the west side… the name of the city from that day shall be: THE LORD IS THERE.”(Ezekiel 48:31-35) Also she had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels at the gates, and names written on them, which are [the names] of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: (Revelation 21:12) three gates on the east, three gates on the north, three gates on the south, and three gates on the west.  (Revelation 21:13)
[The Faith of the Patriarchs (NT but OT expectation)]{for he [Abraham] waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10) Now the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. (Revelation 21:14)
  1. 18.                       An Angel Measures the City (Laid Out as Square)
He took me there, and behold, [there was] a man whose appearance [was] like the appearance of bronze. He had a line of flax and a measuring rod in his hand, and he stood in the gateway.  (Ezekiel 40:3) And he who talked with me had a gold reed to measure the city, its gates, and its wall. (Revelation 21:15) 
  1. 19.                       City Laid Out as Square, Size of City
“These are the exits of the city. On the north side (Ezekiel 48:30) the south sidethree gates(Ezekiel 48:33) The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth. And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal. (Revelation 21:16)
  1. 20.                       Precious Stones Cover the Walls of the Foundations
11 “O you afflicted one, Tossed with tempest, and not comforted, Behold, I will lay your stones with colorful gems, And lay your foundations with sapphires. 12 I will make your pinnacles of rubies, Your gates of crystal, And all your walls of precious stones. (Isa 54:11-12) The construction of its wall was [of] jasper; and the city [was] pure gold, like clear glass. (Revelation 21:18) The foundations of the wall of the city [were] adorned with all kinds of precious stones: the first foundation [was] jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, (Revelation 21:19) the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, and the twelfth amethyst. (Revelation 21:20) The twelve gates [were] twelve pearls: each individual gate was of one pearl. And the street of the city [was] pure gold, like transparent glass.  (Revelation 21:21)
  1. 21.                       The Temple
  But I saw no temple [naos ναός[2]] in it (the city), for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. (Revelation 21:22) “He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple [ναός] of My God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God. And [I will write on him] My new name. (Revelation 3:12)
  1. 22.                       God Will Illuminate the City
“The sun shall no longer be your light by day, Nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; But the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, And your God your glory. (Isaiah 60:19) Moreover the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun, And the light of the sun will be sevenfold, As the light of seven days, In the day that the LORD binds up the bruise of His people And heals the stroke of their wound. (Isaiah 30:26) It shall be one day Which is known to the LORD– Neither day nor night. But at evening time it shall happen That it will be light. NKJV Zech 14:7 (See 2 Pet 3:8 one day) The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb [is] its light. (Revelation 21:23)  There shall be no night there: They need no lamp nor light of the sun, for the Lord God gives them light. And they shall reign forever and ever. (Rev 22:5) 
  1. 23.                       Gentiles Bring Gifts Into the City
…Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, The wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you.  (Isaiah 60:5)They shall bring gold and incense, And they shall proclaim the praises of the LORD.  (Isaiah 60:6) All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together to you, The rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; They shall ascend with acceptance on My altar, And I will glorify the house of My glory.  (Isaiah 60:7) …That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession.  (Isaiah 60:11) The kings of Tarshish and of the isles Will bring presents; The kings of Sheba and Seba Will offer gifts.  (Psalms 72:10) And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. (Revelation 21:24) And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. (Revelation 21:26)   
  1. 24.                       Gates Always Open
Therefore your gates shall be open continually; They shall not be shut day or night, That [men] may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, And their kings in procession.  (Isaiah 60:11) Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). (Revelation 21:25) And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it. (Revelation 21:26)
  1. 25.                       Nothing Unclean Can Enter

Sin Is Present OUTSIDE the City

Awake, awake! Put on your strength, O Zion; Put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean Shall no longer come to you.  (Isaiah 52:1) ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter My sanctuary, including any foreigner who [is] among the children of Israel.  (Ezekiel 44:9) Yes, every pot in Jerusalem and Judah shall be holiness to the LORD of hosts. Everyone who sacrifices shall come and take them and cook in them. In that day there shall no longer be a Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.  (Zechariah 14:21)“So you shall know that I [am] the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”  (Joel 3:17)

Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?  He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor sworn deceitfully.  (Psalm 24:3-4)

 

No more shall there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, or an old man who does not fill out his days, for the young man shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed […] (Isaiah 65)

But there shall by no means enter it [New Jerusalem] anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.  (Revelation 21:27) Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. Butoutside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. (Revelation 22:14-15)And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison (Revelation 20:7) and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. (Revelation 20:8) And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, (Revelation 20:9)
  1. 26.                       Nations Shall Serve God/the King
Yes, all kings shall fall down before Him; All nations shall serve Him.  (Psalms 72:11)Kings shall be your foster fathers, And their queens your nursing mothers; They shall bow down to you with [their] faces to the earth, And lick up the dust of your feet. Then you will know that I [am] the LORD, For they shall not be ashamed who wait for Me.”  (Isaiah 49:23) You shall drink the milk of the Gentiles, And milk the breast of kings; You shall know that I, the LORD, [am] your Savior And your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.  (Isaiah 60:16) And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. (Revelation 21:24 )
  1. 27.                       Marriage Supper of the Lamb is the Beginning of the Millennium
And in this mountain ​The LORD of hosts will make for all people ​A feast of choice pieces, ​A feast of wines on the lees, ​Of fat things full of marrow, ​Of well-refined wines on the lees. (Isaiah 25:6) And He will destroy on this mountain ​The surface of the covering cast over all people, ​And the veil that is spread over all nations. (Isaiah 25:7) He will swallow up death forever, ​And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from all faces; ​The rebuke of His people ​He will take away from all the earth; ​For the LORD has spoken. (Isaiah 25:8) “Ho! Everyone who thirsts, ​Come to the waters; ​And you who have no money, ​Come, buy and eat. ​Yes, come, buy wine and milk ​Without money and without price. (Isaiah 55:1) Why do you spend money for what is not bread, ​And your wages for what does not satisfy? ​Listen carefully to Me, and eat what is good, ​And let your soul delight itself in abundance. (Isaiah 55:2) (See Rev 22:17) Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, ​Streaming to the goodness of the LORD— ​For wheat and new wine and oil, ​For the young of the flock and the herd; ​Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden, ​And they shall sorrow no more at all. (Jeremiah 31:12) The LORD their God will save them in that day, ​As the flock of His people. ​For they shall be like the jewels of a crown, ​Lifted like a banner over His land– (Zechariah 9:16) For how great [H]is its goodness ​And how great [is His] itsbeauty! ​Grain shall make the young men thrive, ​And new wine the young women. (Zechariah 9:17)

 

“And it shall be, in that day,” ​Says the LORD, ​”That you will call Me “My Husband,’ And no longer call Me “My Master,’ (Hosea 2:16) For I will take from her mouth the names of the Baals, ​And they shall be remembered by their name no more. (Hosea 2:17) In that day I will make a covenant for them ​With the beasts of the field, ​With the birds of the air, ​And with the creeping things of the ground. ​Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, ​To make them lie down safely. (Hosea 2:18) “I will betroth you to Me forever; ​Yes, I will betroth you to Me ​In righteousness and justice, ​In lovingkindness and mercy; (Hosea 2:19) I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness, ​And you shall know the LORD. (Hosea 2:20) “It shall come to pass in that day ​That I will answer,” says the LORD; ​”I will answer the heavens, ​And they shall answer the earth. (Hosea 2:21) The earth shall answer ​With grain, ​With new wine, ​And with oil; ​They shall answer Jezreel. (Hosea 2:22) Then I will sow her for Myself in the earth, ​And I will have mercy on her who had not obtained mercy; Then I will say to those who were not My people, “You are My people!’ ​And they shall say, “You are my God!”‘ (Hosea 2:23)

“The kingdom of heaven is like a certain king who arranged a marriage for his son, (Matthew 22:2) and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the wedding; and they were not willing to come. (Matthew 22:3) Again, he sent out other servants, saying, “Tell those who are invited, “See, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and fatted cattle are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the wedding.”‘ (Matthew 22:4) Then he said to his servants, “The wedding is ready, but those who were invited were not worthy. (Matthew 22:8) Therefore go into the highways, and as many as you find, invite to the wedding.’ (Matthew 22:9) So those servants went out into the highways and gathered together all whom they found, both bad and good. And the wedding hall was filled with guests. (Matthew 22:10) “But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw a man there who did not have on a wedding garment. (Matthew 22:11) So he said to him, “Friend, how did you come in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. (Matthew 22:12) Then the king said to the servants, “Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ (Matthew 22:13)  “For many are called, but few are chosen.” And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me, (Luke 22:29) that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” ​(Luke 22:30) Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.” (Revelation 19:7) And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. (Revelation 19:8) Then he said to me, “Write: “Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!”‘ And he said to me, “These are the true sayings of God.” (Revelation 19:9)  And I say to you that many will come from east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven.  But the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into outer darkness. There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” (Matthew 8:11-12)

 

Awake, awake! Put on your strength, O Zion; Put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean shall no longer come to you.  (Isaiah 52:1) You shall no longer be termed Forsaken, ​Nor shall your land any more be termed Desolate; ​But you shall be called Hephzibah and your land Beulah;For the LORD delights in you, ​And your land shall be married. (Isaiah 62:4) For as a young man marries a virgin, ​So shall your sons marry you; ​And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, ​So shall your God rejoice over you [Jerusalem]. (Isaiah 62:5) I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; ​They shall never hold their peace day or night. ​You who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent, (Isaiah 62:6) And give Him no rest till He establishes ​And till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth. (Isaiah 62:7) Then I, John,saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. (Revelation 21:2)
  1. 28.                       Garments of Salvation/ Wedding Garments
To console those who mourn in Zion, To give them beauty for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they may be called trees of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified.” (Isaiah 61:3)  I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He has clothed me with the garments of salvation, He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, As a bridegroom decks [himself] with ornaments, And as a bride adorns [herself] with her jewels.   (Isaiah 61:10) “Now therefore, Arise, O LORD God, to Your resting place, You and the ark of Your strength. Let Your priests, O LORD God, be clothed with salvation, And let Your saints rejoice in goodness.  (2 Chr 6:41)Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness, And let Your saints shout for joy.   (Ps 132:9) I will also clothe her priests with salvation, And her saints shall shout aloud for joy.   (Ps 132:16)   “But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw a man there who did not have on a wedding garment. (Matthew 22:11) So he said to him, “Friend, how did you come in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. (Matthew 22:12) Then the king said to the servants, “Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ (Matthew 22:13) “You have a few names even in Sardis who have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. (Revelation 3:4) “He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels. (Revelation 3:5 “I counsel you to buy from Me gold refined in the fire, that you may be rich; and white garments, that you may be clothed, [that] the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see. (Revelation 3:18)  Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.” (Revelation 19:7)  And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. (Revelation 19:8)  And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. (Revelation 19:14)  But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to [fulfill its] lusts.   Rom 13:14
  1. 29.                       Judgment of Nations by Jesus
“For behold, in those days and at that time, When I bring back the captives of Judah and Jerusalem, (Joel3:1) I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land. (Joel3:2) They have cast lots for My people, Have given a boy [as payment] for a harlot, And sold a girl for wine, that they may drink. (Joel3:3) Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:14) “When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. (Matthew25:31)All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate them one from another, as a shepherd divides [his] sheep from the goats. (Matthew25:32)“And He will set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. (Matthew25:33)“Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: (Matthew25:34) ‘for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in; (Matthew25:35)“And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did [it] to one of the least of these My brethren, you did [it] to Me.’ (Matthew25:40) “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew25:41) ‘for I was hungry and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink; (Matthew25:42) ‘I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.’ (Matthew25:43) “Then they also will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to You?’ (Matthew25:44) “Then He will answer them, saying, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did not do [it] to one of the least of these, you did not do [it] to Me.’ (Matthew25:45)“And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matthew25:46) “And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He who was ordained by God [to be] Judge of the living and the dead. (Acts 10:42 ) The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, (John 5:22) that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. (John 5:23) Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. (John 5:24) “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. (John 5:25) For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. (John 5:26) And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. (John 5:27) Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice (John 5:28) and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment. (John 5:29)  For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that He might be Lord of both the dead and the living.(Romans 14:9 )  But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. (Romans 14:10 )

 

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things [done] in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)

 

I charge [you] therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom: (2 Timothy 4:1 )

 

They will give an account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.(1 Peter 4:5) For this reason the gospel was preached also to those who are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit. (1 Peter 4:6)

 

Do not grumble against one another, brethren, lest you be condemned. Behold, the Judge is standing at the door! (James 5:9)

  1. 30.                       God’s Fire Will Judge All
For Tophet [was] established of old, Yes, for the king [c.f. Isa 14:5, Ezekiel 28:12] it is prepared. He has made [it] deep and large; Its pyre [is] fire with much wood; The breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, Kindles it. (Isaiah 30:33) “And they have built the high places of Tophet, which [is] in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, nor did it come into My heart.  (Jeremiah 7:31 )​​​​​​ “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew25:41) Now if anyone builds on this foundation [with] gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, (1 Corinthians 3:12) each one’s work will become clear; for the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one’s work, of what sort it is. (1 Corinthians 3:13) If anyone’s work which he has built on [it] endures, he will receive a reward. (1 Corinthians 3:14) If anyone’s work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire. (1 Corinthians 3:15)
For a fire is kindled in My anger, And shall burn to the lowest hell; It shall consume the earth with her increase, And set on fire the foundations of the mountains. (Deuteronomy 32:22) By the breath of God they perish, ​​​​​​​and by the blast of his anger they are consumed. ​​​ (Job 4:9)The sinners in Zion are afraid; Fearfulness has seized the hypocrites: “Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?”(Isaiah 33:14)For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. (Isaiah 66:15) For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many. (Isaiah 66:16) ““For as the new heavens and the new earth Which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the LORD, “So shall your descendants and your name remain. (Isaiah 66:22) And it shall come to pass [That] from one New Moon to another, And from one Sabbath to another, All flesh shall come to worship before Me,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 66:23) “And they shall go forth and look Upon the corpses of the men Who have transgressed against Me. For their worm does not die, And their fire is not quenched. They shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.” (Isaiah 66:24)

 

…and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness with a human appearance. (Ezekiel 1:26) And upward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were gleaming metal [khashmal=electricity], like the appearance of fire enclosed all around. And downward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him. (Ezekiel 1:27)

 

“For behold, the day is coming, Burning like an oven, And all the proud, yes, all who do wickedly will be stubble. And the day which is coming shall burn them up,” Says the LORD of hosts, “That will leave them neither root nor branch. (Malachi 4:1)

 

Smoke went up from His nostrils, And devouring fire from His mouth; Coals were kindled by it. (Psalms 18:8)

 

You shall make them as a fiery oven in the time of Your anger; The LORD shall swallow them up in His wrath, And the fire shall devour them. (Psalms 21:9)

 

A fire goes before Him, And burns up His enemies round about. (Psalms 97:3) His lightnings light the world; The earth sees and trembles. (Psalms 97:4)

“I watched till thrones were put in place, And the Ancient of Days was seated; His garment [was] white as snow, And the hair of His head [was] like pure wool. His throne [was] a fiery flame, Its wheels a burning fire; (Daniel 7:9) A fiery stream issued And came forth from before Him. A thousand thousands ministered to Him; Ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. The court was seated, And the books were opened. (Daniel 7:10) “I watched then because of the sound of the pompous words which the horn was speaking; I watched till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning flame. (Daniel 7:11)

He himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. (Revelation 14:10) and to [give] you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, (2 Thessalonians 1:7) in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. (2 Thessalonians 1:8) These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, (2 Thessalonians 1:9) (note: from, Greek απο apo can mean by reason of, by means of, c.f. BDAG) “His winnowing fan [is] in His hand, and He will thoroughly clean out His threshing floor, and gather His wheat into the barn; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” (Matthew 3:12 ) “Therefore as the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of this age. (Matthew 13:40 )

 

“If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed, rather than having two hands, to go to hell, into the fire that shall never be quenched (Mark 9:43) “where Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:44) “And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame, rather than having two feet, to be cast into hell, into the fire that shall never be quenched– (Mark 9:45) “where ‘Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:46) “And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes, to be cast into hell fire– (Mark 9:47 ) “where ‘Their worm does not die, And the fire is not quenched.’ (Mark 9:48 ) “For everyone will be seasoned with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt. (Mark 9:49)

 

But the heavens and the earth [which] are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (2 Peter 3:7)

And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them… (Revelation 20:4) Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them. (Revelation 20:11 ) And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is [the Book] of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books. (Revelation 20:12 )The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. (Revelation 20:13)  Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire.

 

 

 

 

 

Creation Days According to Ancient Jewish Commentators

Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made.  (Josephus Antiquities Book 1, Chapter 1)

 

What the ancient Bible commentators understood those six days to mean when they opened up to Genesis 1 and 2?  Did they see extremely long indefinite periods of time?  Or did they see regular, twenty-four-hour days?  Would they come to the same conclusion that we have reached?  Or would they be inclined to look for a deeper, hidden meaning in the text?  Even if it can be demonstrated that all or nearly all of the ancient interpreters thought that the Bible and Genesis 1 in particular should be interpreted as six literal days, that does not prove that that is in fact the reality of the Bible.  However, if the overwhelming majority understood the creation account to be referring to a week of six literal days, then it would greatly support our previous conclusion and that the normal method of interpretation or hermeneutic of Scripture was to take it at face value.

 

We will see that when we examine the ancient Jewish and Christian commentators on what they believed concerning the beginning of the world, they almost always talk about the end of it as well.  They claim that the age of the earth is less than six thousand years old.  This becomes an important control for us in that by claiming that the earth was created less than six thousand years previous to their day, they are stating their belief in a young earth, and hence, the six, literal 24-hour days of creation.

 

The Use of Ancient Interpreters

The point of view of ancient interpreters and commentators is very relevant to us because we know that they were in no way influenced by the teachings of Darwinian evolution, which requires billions of years to occur.  The ancient perspective has already been exploited by those seeking to establish that Scripture actually teaches that the earth and the universe are incredibly old.  Perhaps the most prominent of the Progressive Creation perspective is Dr. Hugh Ross.  While we do not wish to question his sincerity nor his belief in the God of the Bible, his interpretation of these ancient commentators is in need of serious review.  Ross states in his book The Fingerprint of God:

Many of the early Church Fathers and other biblical scholars interpret the creation days of Genesis 1 as long periods of time. The list includes the Jewish historian Josephus (1st century); Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, apologist and martyr (2nd century); Origen, who rebutted heathen attacks on Christian doctrine (3rd century); Basil (4th century); Augustine (5th century); and, later, Aquinas (13th century), to name a few. The significance of this list lies not only in the prominence of these individuals as biblical scholars, defenders of the faith, and pillars of the early church (except Josephus), but also in that their scriptural views cannot be said to have been shaped to accommodate secular opinion. Astronomical, paleontological, and geological evidences for the antiquity of the universe, of the earth, and of life did not come forth until the nineteenth century.  (Ross 1991: 141)

Ross’s list of ancient biblical scholars is at first impressive.  But when we begin to study his sources in depth, we find that, at the very least, Ross has not been diligent in his investigation.  Reality is simply not as he states it.  The claim that many of these ancient interpreters believed the creation days to be longer than 24 hours is later parroted by an advocate of Progressive Creation who states:

Dr. Hugh Ross documents in detail what first century Jewish scholars and the early Christian Church Fathers said regarding their interpretation of creation chronology (see Chapter 2, pages 16-24). Many early Church Fathers expressed no opinion on the subject of creation days, since it is a peripheral issue in Christianity. However, Jewish scholars who discussed creation chronology include Philo and Josephus, while Christian fathers include Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus (through writings of Ambrose), Clement, Origen, Lactantius, Victorinus, Methodius, Augustine, Eusebius, Basil, and Ambrose. Among this group, all but one believed that the creation days were longer than 24 hours. The evidence presented in Creation and Time is both overwhelming and well documented (all references are given). (Deem 2006a)

Again, we are not questioning whether Dr. Ross and others of the Progressive Creation position are sincere and hold the God of the Bible in high esteem.  It is their scholarship that is in question.  The truth is that many, if not almost all, of the early Church Fathers (ante-Nicene) definitively thought that the universe was made in six, literal days.  Additionally, most ancient Jewish commentators shared the same point of view – namely, that the heavens and earth were created in six, literal days.  Let’s examine the evidence to see what those interpreters thought about the time frame of creation.  Did they hold to a literal, straightforward, six-day creation as we claim that the Bible teaches?  Or did they believe that allegorizing the text was the proper method of interpretation?

Targumim

A very important source to consider when addressing the issue of how ancient interpreters understood the Bible are the Targumim.  Targumim (Targum is singular) are the Aramaic translations of the Old Testament Scriptures.  They were for the most part written both in and outside of Israel a few centuries after the time of Jesus.  They were written either for those Jews who had lost Hebrew as their mother tongue because of living outside of Israel for so long or for those living in Israel after the time of the Second Jewish Revolt (135 AD) when Hebrew truly started to die out.[i]  Those Jews were no longer comfortable reading the Scriptures solely in Hebrew, but needed the help of a translation as they read along in the original Hebrew.  However, the Targumim were much more than merely word for word translations.  They were running commentaries on the Scriptures filled with typical Jewish interpretations.  The Hebrew text of the Bible was always considered sacred by the Jews, and therefore, it was to be approached with great care.  The text was never to be touched.  Because the Targumim were in Aramaic and not Hebrew, there was no risk that the commentaries might be mistaken for the actual words of the Bible itself.

 

Targum Onkelos

Targum Onkelos, translates Genesis 1:1 very literally: “In the first times the Lord created the heavens and the earth.  And the earth was waste and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the abyss.”  In fact, the entire chapter of Targum Onkelos of Genesis 1 shows no indication whatsoever that the translator/commentator was persuaded that the six days of Genesis were to be taken in any way but literally.  Conversely, the translator actually places a comment in chapter 3 regarding the curse put on the serpent and the promised savior.

 

And I will put enmity between thee and between the woman, and between thy son and her son.  He will remember thee, what thou didst to him (at) from the beginning, and thou shalt be observant unto him at the end. (Emphasis mine)

 

Notice that here the targumist defines when the time of this occurred – “from the beginning.”  Although this doesn’t prove that the six days in Genesis were truly literal, it does demonstrate that an ancient interpreter understood them as being literal since the time of the fall happened in the beginning, not some millions or billions of years after the initial act of creation.

 

Targumim Jonathan

Targum Jonathan[ii] in translating Genesis 2:3 (which is really the end of chapter 1 and is an unfortunate and mistaken chapter break) adds a reason which goes beyond the original text by adding the words “the days of the week.”

 

And the creatures of the heavens and earth, and all the hosts of them, were completed. And the Lord had finished by the Seventh Day the work which He had wrought, […] And the Lord blessed the Seventh Day more than all the days of the week, and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His works which the Lord had created and had willed to make. (Emphasis mine)

 

The words “the days of the week” demonstrate that the Targumist also understood the first through sixth days in Genesis 1 to be “the days of the week” and the seventh to be the final day of that week.  What did he have in mind when he added that comment that is not found in the Hebrew Scriptures?  Did his belief that the seventh was blessed more than all the other days of the week actually mean that the last age or era of time was better than the rest?  Or did he think that days of the week meant Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, etc. (or as it would be in Hebrew First Day, Second Day, Third Day etc.)?  If we consider what God declared to Moses via the Targumim as we did in the Hebrew Bible, then the conclusion of six, literal days becomes very difficult to circumvent.

 

For in six days the Lord created the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and whatever is therein, and rested on the seventh day: therefore the Lord hath blessed the day of Shabbatha and sanctified it. (Targum Jonathan, Exodus 20:11)

This is again reiterated in the same Targum in Exodus 31:15 and 17:

 

Six days ye shall do work; but the seventh day is Sabbath, the holy Sabbath before the Lord […] For in six days the Lord created and perfected the heavens and the earth; and in the seventh day He rested and refreshed.  (Emphasis mine)

 

The Targum of Onkelos confirms again that the commonly accepted time frame for the creation of the heavens and the earth was but a mere six, literal days.  There is no intimation that those days somehow really meant long, indefinite ages of perhaps billions of years.

 

For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the seas and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the Lord blessed the day of Shabbatha, and sanctified it. (Targum Onkelos, Exodus 20:11 emphasis mine)

Six days shalt thou do work, and the seventh day is Sabbath, the Holy Sabbath before the Lord […] for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth; and in the seventh day rested and was refreshed.  (Targum Onkelos Exodus 31: 15, 17 emphasis mine)

 

These passages are some of the clearest passages in the Bible regarding the time God took to create everything and yet there isn’t even a minor hint that those time frames mean anything other than what we can take at face value.  Although the Targumim are not listed among the ancient Jewish writers cited by Dr. Ross and others, they are certainly an important source, and one of the primary sources when wanting to know about common Jewish thought just before and after the time of Christ.

Josephus

Josephus

An indispensable voice of Jewish history and thought in first century Israel is that of Josephus, who appears on the list of supposed ancient supporters of an old earth.  Josephus is considered the most important source historians have regarding the events of the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem in 70 A.D.  Josephus single-handedly wrote the history of the debacle of the Jewish state at the hands of their Roman enemies.  Born in 37 A.D., Josephus was raised a Jew in Israel and fought alongside his Jewish countrymen before being taken a hostage by the Romans, who granted him the opportunity to write not only the story of the Wars of the Jews, but also later a work entitled The Antiquities of the Jews.  Josephus’ mother tongue was Hebrew.  His expertise in Hebrew and the fact that he was also well acquainted with the Hebrew Scriptures were essential in writing Antiquities of the Jews.  While not everything that Josephus wrote is considered to always be accurate or without bias, recent discoveries in the past 100 years have proven that Josephus’s account of Jewish history was extremely accurate.[iii]

 

From The Creation

Josephus opens his monumental work Antiquities of the Jews with a rather significant chapter title: “Containing The Interval Of Three Thousand Eight Hundred And Thirty-Three Years.  From the Creation to the Death of Isaac.”  Just from the chapter title one already begins to see that Josephus understood the time from the creation until the death of Isaac as a relatively short period – 3833 years.  Adding that to the time from Isaac (approximately 1950 B.C.) to the time of Josephus (about 80 AD) we get a number of 5863 years – hardly millions of years.  There is absolutely no suggestion from him that “the creation” happened indefinite ages ago; rather it was but a relatively short time ago.  It is interesting that Josephus’ date corresponds very closely with that of young earth creationists’ calculations based on the genealogies of the Bible.  The point is that Josephus in no way thought that the days of creation were long periods of millions or billions of years.  He then begins with the same words as found directly in the Bible, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” He goes on:

 

God commanded that there should be light: and when that was made, he considered the whole mass, and separated the light and the darkness; and the name he gave to one was Night, and the other he called Day: and he named the beginning of light, and the time of rest, The Evening and The Morning, and this was indeed the first day. But Moses said it was one day Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made. And that the seventh day was a rest, and a release from the labor of such operations; whence it is that we celebrate a rest from our labors on that day, and call it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Hebrew tongue.  (Josephus Antiquities Book 1, Chapter 1, emphasis mine)

 

Notice that Josephus is careful to note that there was evening and there was morning, which he says was the first day, but then he adds “But Moses said it was one day”. By doing this, he not only demonstrates his understanding of Hebrew, but also points out that the Hebrew shows that all of these events happened in one day.  He also states his opinion since it is not directly in the text of Genesis 1, though, it is more than likely that he was merely parroting the commonly accepted belief.

 

In Just Six Days

Josephus in no way thought that the days of creation were long periods of time in which the slow process of evolution happened!  He says that “in just six days the world and all that is therein” was made.  He then discusses that the origin of the Jews resting on the seventh day came from God resting on the seventh day.  Keep in mind that Josephus has to explain the history of his people to Romans who would probably have known next to nothing about the religion of one of the people in their vast empire.  The most that they might have known was that his people foolishly rebelled against them and consequently paid the price for their rebellion.  So Josephus has to explain the small details in order for them to truly appreciate the splendor of the Jewish sacred book.

 

Here too, we find that one of the most prominent ancient commentators thought nothing but of a literal, six-day creation.  The thought of a day of the creation week equaling millions or billions of years or even some super long duration just never crossed his mind.  Conversely, he clearly states that in just six days God made all that is.

 

Rabbinic interpretation

We next turn to rabbinic interpretation in hopes of discovering what they thought about the six days of creation.  Did they too interpret the days of Genesis 1 to be literal days of 24-hours like those that we have already seen or, as it has been suggested, did they allegorize those as days of incredibly long duration?  We should note that Rabbinic interpretation of the Scriptures is such that it generally seeks to find a deeper meaning to the text.  They quite often would take what would seem to us to be two rather dissimilar passages and, through a few keys words, tie them together in such a way as to teach a deeper truth.

 

For example, let’s look at tractate Sabbath 17, Chapter 7 which, as the title suggests, deals with the Sabbath and the regulations necessary to properly keep it.  The Rabbis are discussing what to do if someone who is traveling misses the Sabbath due to not knowing which day it is.

R. Huna said: One who has been traveling in a desert and does not know what day is Sabbath, must count six days from the day (on which he realizes) that he has missed the Sabbath, and observe the seventh. Hyya b. Rabh said: He must observe that very day and then continue his counting from that day. And what is the point of their differing? The former holds that one must act in accordance with the creation (which commenced six days before the Sabbath), while the latter holds that one must be guided by Adam’s creation (on the eve of Sabbath). (Emphasis mine)

The Rabbis immediately turn to the week of creation as a real week whereby they might demonstrate how one must count the days before the Sabbath.  They then look back at the creation week from the point of view that Adam was made on the eve of the Sabbath, which was the literal sixth day of time.  Thus, the days of a workweek plus the Sabbath are equal to the days of the creation week.

 

The Talmud Comments on the Mishna

The Talmud comments on the discussion in the Mishna[iv] concerning one who might ask “what was before creation?” and tries to draw out further applications and to answer any questions unresolved.

 

Lest one assume that a man can ask, What was before the creation? therefore it is written: “Since the day that God created man from the earth“; but lest one assume, a man must not ask even what was done in the six days of creation?  (Book 3 Tract Hagigah 4 chapter 2)

 

Notice that they make reference to the six days of creation and very matter-of-factly state “what was done in the six days of creation.”  The implication is that those days were real days, not long drawn out indefinite ages.

Rashi

Rashi

From another portion of the Talmud we read:

 

Four thousand two hundred and thirty-one years after the creation of the world, if any one offers thee for one single denarius a field worth a thousand denarii, do not buy it. (Avodah Zarah, fol. 9, col. 2.)

 

According to this passage the creation of the world happened 4231 years previous to the statement.  The famed medieval Jewish commentator Rashi (below) was noted to have given an explanation on the passage that helps us understand what ancient Jews believed concerning the time that elapsed from creation until their time.

 

Rashi gives this as the reason of the prohibition: For then the restoration of the Jews to their own land will take place, so that the denarius paid for a field in a foreign land would be money thrown awayFour thousand two hundred and ninety-one years after the creation of the world the wars of the dragons and the wars of Gog and Magog will cease, and the rest of the time will be the days of the Messiah; and the Holy One – blessed be He! – will not renew His world till after seven thousand years…Rabbi Jonathan said, “May the bones of those who compute the latter days (when the Messiah shall appear) be blown; for some say, ‘Because the time (of Messiah) has come and Himself has not, therefore He will never come!’ But wait thou for Him, as it is said (Hab. ii. 3), ‘Though He tarry, wait for Him.’” (Sanhedrin, fol. 97, col. 2, emphasis mine)

 

Rashi evidently separated human history, from the time of creation until the end, into seven thousand years.  Notice that Rashi understood these years as real periods of time that began in the beginning with the creation of the world.  This fact is further established by Rabbi Jonathan by noting it is not good to compute the time of the Messiah, which, according to some Jews, had already come.  For a Christian, this is a very significant statement, but to pursue it would derail us from our current discussion that key, ancient Rabbis understood the earth to be young – less than six thousand years.

 

Other Rabbis

A few other examples only serve to confirm what we have seen so far – namely, that ancient Rabbis considered the creation week to be nothing less than real days and not day-ages as is often suggested.  The Rabba commentaries (Harris, Translator 1901) on the Bible yield several important perspectives on the literalness of the six-day creation.  The first chapter of Genesis Rabba asserts “Even the new heavens and earth, spoken of by the Prophet Isaiah (65:17), were created in the six days of creation.”  Another discussion from the Talmud regarding the importance of the Hebrew month Tishri states it this way, “Rabbi Eleazer said […] On the first of Tishri Adam was created; from his existence we count our years, that is the sixth day of the creation” (Talmud Part 5, Holy Days, emphasis mine).  Exodus Rabba 23 associates the formation of Adam with the event of creation itself,

 

The song of praise that Israel offered on the Red Sea was pleasing to God as an outburst of real gratitude.  There had indeed been no such praise offered to God since creation. Adam, formed out of dust and put above all creation, omitted to praise the Creator for the dignity conferred on him.  (Exodus Rabba 23)

 

Leviticus Rabba 14 succinctly places man along with the creation, “Man is the last in creation and the first in responsibility.”  If God started making the universe some 15 billion years earlier, it would be hard to link man with creation due to the enormous time gap between them.  Midrash Esther 1 offers a similar scenario,

 

As early as the time of creation it was decreed that the following should have precedence, each in his own sphere. Adam was first of man, Cain of murderers, and Abel of the murdered.  Noah the first to escape from peril.  (Harris, Translator 1901)

 

And finally, another rabbinic source, Tanchum Bereshith unequivocally states that God created in six days,

 

As one who finishes the building of his house proclaims that day a holiday, and consecrates the building, so God, having finished creation in the six days, proclaimed the seventh day a holy day and sanctified it.  (Electronic Text, The Word Bible Software)

 

Where is the slightest hint in any of the aforementioned sources that they believed in an old earth and universe?  Where does one get the impression that the ancient Rabbis truly believed that God didn’t actually create in six, literal days but in six day-ages each lasting some billions of years?  Those day-ages are conspicuously missing.  They only show up if one’s theory depends on such interpretations.  Even Philo, the very allegorical Jewish philosopher of first century Alexandria, Egypt, thought that the days of creation as recorded in Genesis were referring to six literal days.

 

Philo

If there were someone that we should expect to back up the old-earth theory, it would be Philo.  Philo was an Alexandrian Jew who was born approximately 20 years before Jesus.  Philo knew the Hebrew Scriptures very well and was very fond of them.  However, he also was open to the ideas of Greek philosophy and tried to marry the two to accommodate both worldviews.  The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia states concerning Philo:

Philo of Alexandria

He addressed himself to two tasks, difficult to weld into a flawless unity. On the one hand, he wrote for educated men in Greek-Roman society, attempting to explain, often to justify, his racial religion before them […] On the other hand, he had to confront his orthodox coreligionists, with their separatist traditions and their contempt for paganism in all its works. He tried to persuade them that, after all, Greek thought was not inimical to their cherished doctrines, but, on the contrary, involved similar, almost identical, principles.  (ISBE: Philo, point 3)

 

The ISBE continues by saying that Philo represented a position which tried to blend the philosophy of Hellenism with the “historical and dogmatic deductions of the Jewish Scriptures” (ISBE: Philo point 3), which resulted in rather strange interpretations.  Furthermore the ISBE states:

 

He taught that the Scriptures contain two meanings: a “lower” meaning, obvious in the literal statements of the text; and a “higher,” or hidden meaning, perceptible to the “initiate” alone. In this way he found it possible to reconcile Greek intellectualism with Jewish belief. Greek thought exhibits the “hidden” meaning; it turns out to be the elucidation of the “allegory” which runs through the Old Testament like a vein of gold. (ISBE: Philo, point 3)

 

Thus, even if we were to find an allegorical meaning associated with the creation of the world in his writings, we would understand that the allegorical side was Philo’s attempt to reconcile the historical text of the Bible with the philosophy of Greek thought.  Therefore such an allegory would not be indicative of the true meaning of the biblical text.  What we actually see Philo say regarding the creation, both from a literal and allegorical point of view, is astonishing.

 

Philo’s Paraphrase

Philo begins his treatise with the creation of the world as given by Moses.  That is to say, Philo is loosely paraphrasing the Genesis account in his own words.  This is extremely important to note since here we have a writer that is very much in favor of interpreting Scripture from an allegorical approach and yet he lets us know what he thought Moses was truly communicating before moving on to his allegorical method.

 

And he says that the world was made in six days, not because the Creator stood in need of a length of time (for it is natural that God should do everything at once, not merely by uttering a command, but by even thinking of it); but because the things created required arrangement; and number is akin to arrangement; and, of all numbers, six is, by the laws of nature, the most productive… (Philo, On The Creation – Part 1 III. 13)

 

Philo is actually saying here that the world was made in six days which was actually much more time than God required.  He says that God took his time “because the things created required arrangement.”  According to Philo, God slowed himself down not for His own sake since merely by thinking He could have made all, but so that there would be order.  The old-earth position is right in suggesting that God could have taken billions of years to create the world.  But they miss the mark when affirming that God actually did.  According to Scripture and all of the testimony we have seen up until now, God did go at an incredibly slow pace – that is if you are God!  The passing of a mere thought versus creating at a tremendously slow speed of six (24-hour) days are radically different.  Rather than confirming the old-earth position as Dr. Ross has suggested, Philo defends the belief that the biblical creation occurred in just a six-day week.

 

Philo’s Allegorical Treatise

After providing his paraphrase of Genesis 1, Philo next begins his allegorical treatise to pull out the deeper truths and thereby make the Bible more palatable to his Greco-Roman audience:

 

“And the heaven and the earth and all their world was completed.”  [Genesis 2:1] Having previously related the creation of the mind and of sense, Moses now proceeds to describe the perfection which was brought about by them both. And he says that neither the indivisible mind nor the particular sensations received perfection, but only ideas, one the idea of the mind, the other of sensation. And, speaking symbolically, he calls the mind heaven, since the natures which can only be comprehended by the intellect are in heaven. And sensation he calls earth, because it is sensation which has obtained a corporeal and some what earthy constitution. (Philo, Allegorical Interpretation, I – Part 1)

 

It is obvious that Philo is now speaking in a very allegorical fashion.  However, if we read carefully the above paragraph, we see that in his allegorizing of Genesis 1 he is rejecting altogether that Moses is referring to any type of numerical value of the creation regardless of how long that might have taken.  He is advocating, allegorically speaking, neither a literal six day creation nor a six day-age theory.  The amount of time required is absolutely inconsequential to him.  Notice below in his statement that time is not the issue.

 

“And on the sixth day God finished his work which he had made.” It would be a sign of great simplicity to think that the world was created in six days, or indeed at all in time. […] Therefore it would be correctly said that the world was not created in time, but that time had its existence in consequence of the world. For it is the motion of the heaven that has displayed the nature of time. (Philo, Allegorical Interpretation, II – Part 2 emphasis mine)

 

For Philo, six days is not what one is to understand from the Genesis account but rather, the number six and all of its amazing mathematical properties is what is to be appreciated.  His concept of time is that it is in itself a created thing.  On that point most scientists would agree, evolutionists and creationists alike, that time was created along with space and that space and time cannot be separated.[v]  Because Philo does not see time beginning until the creation of the sun, what can we conclude regarding how long the first four days were?  Obviously, if they came into being outside of time, as he suggests, then it is impossible to discuss their duration since that would be an oxymoron by definition.  Consequently, the assertion that Philo in any way held to the belief in a universe that was billions of years old, as the Progressive Creation position suggests, is simply unfounded.  Conversely, we see from Philo’s paraphrase of Genesis 1 (in which he stated that according to Moses the world was created in six, literal days) what he thinks the deeper meaning of six days actually is:

 

When, therefore, Moses says, “God completed his works on the sixth day,” we must understand that he is speaking not of a number of days, but that he takes six as a perfect number. Since it is the first number which is equal in its parts, in the half, and the third and sixth parts, and since it is produced by the multiplication of two unequal factors, two and three. (Philo Allegorical Interpretation, II  – Part 3 emphasis mine)

 

Philo and the Number Six

Philo is not arguing about how long a day was.  He was not saying that they were long indefinite ages in which God did His handiwork.  In no way is his statement grounds for proving that he, as an ancient interpreter, believed that those days were indefinite and therefore allowed for enough time for evolution to occur.  Rather he was saying that it wasn’t six days, but really just about the number six which he continues to describe as a “perfect number.”  For Philo, the argument isn’t about the days, but about the incredible features of the number of six.  Philo has not even considered how long the days were, but thought that a deeper truth to be mined from the Scriptures was the profoundness of the mathematical qualities of six as a number.

 

We may not be able to pin Philo down on exactly how long he thought the creation took.  If we simply accept at face value what he said in the beginning of his treatise, then we could just conclude that according to Moses, God took six literal days though looking at his allegory, we see a different picture.  However, it can hardly be denied that his consideration of the six days has nothing to do with time but everything to do with the number six as a mathematical entity worthy of contemplation.  Thus, we leave Philo fairly convinced that on the literal plain, he believed that Genesis 1 did indeed refer to the creation of heaven and earth in six, literal, 24-hour days and from an allegorical point of view believed the six to be included because it was a perfect number.


 [i] For a detailed explanation of the language of Israel in the first century, see Hamp (2005) Discovering the Language of Jesus Calvary Publishing, Santa Ana.

[ii] Also known as Pseudo Jonathan.

[iii] Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the sect known as the Essenes, which Josephus describes in detail in Wars of the Jews book 2, chapter 8, there was no record of it ever existing.  Josephus’ account has since been corroborated by much of the material finds at the Qumran compound near the Dead Sea as well as by the Scrolls themselves.

[iv] The Mishna deals with the Mosaic Law and applies it to every conceivable area of life.

[v] This is signified by the term “space-time continuum.” Dr. Sholar notes: “The space-time continuum however, was a mathematical assumption of Einstein leading to relativity…which has predicted outcomes of certain experiments with some degree of accuracy.  However, there are many today who believe that time and space are not so intertwined that they must be cojoined as a continuum the way Einstein postulated.  There are other theories that consider space and time quite distinctly separate, yet predict the same results as does relativity.  Since most scientists are not expert in relativity, it is easier for them to accept the establishment’s entrenchment of a theory into textbooks and academia, than swim upstream against the more popular theory, with an alternative that gives similar answers, though void philosophical problems like paradoxes.  The almost certain fact that space and time were each created anew does not depend upon whether or not they are connected as Einstein postulates, or are completely disparate and separate entities.”  (Dr. Stan Sholar, personal communication, September 21, 2006)

 

Rabbinic Quotations on Messiah

Rabbinic Messianic Quotations

Rabbinic Quotations on Messiah (click on link to visit source)Submitted by Jean Gibson on Mon, 05/22/2006

The following quotations are an amazing collection of statements from the Rabbis over the years confirming that the many passages which speak of the Messiah point to Yeshua (Jesus). See Jewish Messianic Texts and The Zohar, Three in One and Exodus Rabbah

RASH MISHLE [10:21]:   Rab Huna counted amongst the seven Names of Messiah also:   haShem Zidkenu [Referring to Jer. 23:6].

 

R. JOSEPH ALBO OF TOLEDO [SEPHER IKKARIM 28:54]:   The Scripture calleth the Names of Messiah also:   L-rd Zidkenu, because He is the Mediator through Whom we shall get the righteousness of the L-rd.

 

R. ELIJAH DE VIDAS:   The meaning of He was wounded for our transgressions bruised for our iniquities is that since Messiah bears our iniquities, which produce the effect of His being bruised, it follows that whoso will not admit that the Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities must endure and suffer for them himself [on Isa. 53].

 

SANHEDRIN [93B]:   Messiah…What is His name?   The disciples of the school of the Rabbi [Yehudah Hanassi, the author of the Mishnah] said:   Cholaja [the sickly] for it says [Isa. 53:4]:   Surely He hath borne our sicknesses and carried our pains; and we did regard him stricken, smitten of G-d and afflicted.

 

ZOHAR [To Deut. 6:4]:   Hear O Israel:   HaShem our G-d, HaShem is One.   Why is there a need of mentioning the Name of G-d three times in this verse?   The First HaShem is the Father above.   The Second is the Stem of Jesse, the Messiah Who is to come from the family of Jesse through David.   And the Third One is the Way which is below [meaning the Holy Spirit Who shows us the way] and These Three are One   (Zohar quotes from Amsterdam Version).

 

Rabbi Moshe el Sheikh, Chief Rabbi of Safed…

“I will do yet a third thing, and that is, that ‘they shall look unto Me,’ for they shall lift up their eyes unto Me in perfect repentance, when they see Him Whom they pierced, that is Messiah, the Son of Joseph; for our Rabbis, of blessed memory, have said that He will take upon himself all the guilt of Israel, and then shall be slain in the war to make an atonement in such manner that it shall be accounted as if Israel had pierced Him for on account of their sin He has died; and therefore, in order that it may be reckoned to them as perfect atonement, they will repent and look to the Blessed One, saying that there is none beside Him to forgive those that mourn on account of Him who died for their sin; this is the meaning of ‘They shall look upon Me….’”

 

G-d will set His own crown upon the head of King Messiah, and clothe Him with honor and majesty…Midrash Tehillim on Ps. 21:3….   Rabbi Hann, in the name of Rabbi Aha, continues the thought…G-d will bestow a portion of His supernatural glory on Messiah….   The Midrash then continues with two designations of Messiah; HaShem, a man of war and HaShem, is our righteousness.

 

[On Isa.9:6:   R. Aben Ezra:]…There are some interpreters who say that “Wonderful, Everlasting Father” are Names of G-d and only “Prince of Peace” is the Name of the Child.   But according to my view, the interpretation is right (which says):   all are the Names of the child.

 

[Midrash Echa (1:51)]:   …What is the Name of King Messiah:   To this answered Rabbi Abba bar Kahana:   HaShemis His Name, for it is written:   “This is the Name whereby He shall be called:   HaShem Kidkenu.”

 

[See also, Midrash Rabbah [999:8), (Ps. 45:6), (Prov. 30:4), (Ps. 2:7), (Sukkah [52a]), (Zohar [part III, fo. 307, Amsterdam edition]), (Ps. 2:12 Leesor’s trans.)…{etc.…also, verses in Tanach may be one or two verses difference depending upon your translation}… [Zohar vol. III]…The Ancient and Holy One is revealed and described as being Three; it is because the Other Lights are Two complete Ones, yet is the Ancient and Holy One described and complete as One, and He is One, positively One; thus are the Other Lights united and glorified in One, because They are One…[Rabbi Simeon further states]…Thus are the Three Lights united in One.   The Spirit which is downward, Who is called the Holy Spirit, the Spirit which is the Middle Pillar, Who is called the Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, also called the Spirit below.   The Upper Spirit is hidden in secret; in Him are existing all the Holy Spirits [the Holy Spirit and the Spirit that is the middle pillar], and all that is light.

 

{see also, (Bereshis rabba 2), (R. Simeon on Song of Songs 2:6, Zohar Tanchuma), (R. Tzvi Nassi’s book, The Great Mystery), (Burt Yellin’s book, Messiah, A Rabbinic & Scriptural Viewpoint) (Sukkah 52a; Rabbi Dosa), (Rabbi B’rekhyah:   From the Suffering Servant of Isaiah, S. Driver & A. Neubauer, Hermon Press, New York.

 

Our Rabbis have a tradition that in the week in which Messiah will be born, there will be a bright star in the east, which is the “star of the Messiah.” – Pesikta Sortarta.   (fo. 58c.1).

 

The thought of Torah changing in the “Age to Come” is again made perfectly clear in the rendering of Deuteronomy 17:18, in Sifra.   Here it is stated that the L-rd wrote a copy of Mishna-Torah for Himself, and that He would not be content with the Mishna-Torah of the father.   The question is asked… “Why does He say Mishna-Torah?   Because it is destined to be changed.”

 

“The Torah which a man learns in this world is but vanity compared with the Torah of Messiah” Midrash Qohelet on Eccl. 11:8.

 

And I will put enmity between thee and the WOMAN and between thy seed and her SEED; He shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise His heel.   Gen. 3:15 Leesor’s.

 

It is not written that we may preserve [sic] a son from our father, but SEED from our father.   This is the SEED that is coming from another place.   And Who is this?   This is the King Messiah.

 

Ber. Rabbah (51, ed. Warsh. p. 95a, on Genesis 19:32)…This is that SEED that is coming from another place, and Who is this?   This is the King Messiah.   – Ber.   Rabbah 51,ed.   Wars.   P.95,a, on Gen.   19:23).

 

My Son art Thou; I have indeed this day begotten Thee.   *Do homage to the Son, lest He be angry, and ye be lost on the way; for His wrath is so speedily kindled.   Happy are all they that put their trust in Him.   – Psalm 2:7-12 Leesor’s

 

*[Ps. 2:12, Heb. ‘Bar’ = 202]…Thou art the Son, the faithful shepherd; of Thee it is said, “Kiss the Son.”   {note:   this has been removed in English in many new Jewish Tanach translations, but it is there in the Hebrew!}   Thou art the Governor of the Universe, the Head of Israel, the Lord of ministering angels, the Son of the Highest, the Son of the Holy and Blessed One, yea the very Shechinah.   {note:   The Schechinah is the VERY HOLY SPIRIT OF HA-SHEM!}

 

Our doctors expound the Psalm of the Messiah – (Jarchi (mass) [ref. Ps. 2])

 

Whosoever is not willing to praise This Son, his sins shall be brought before the Holy King.   – Zohar (Dent. fol. 109) [ref. Ps. 2]

 

It is a tradition of the Rabbis that Messiah, The Son of David, Who is to be revealed speedily…the Holy One said unto Him, Ask of Me anything and I will give it thee, for it is said, “I will declare the decree, etc.   Today have I begotten thee.” – Talmud Bab.   (Succah, fol. 52) [ref. Ps. 2]

 

*This is the faithful Shepherd; Of Thee it is said, “Kiss the Son,” Thou art the Prince of the Israelites, the L-rd of the earth…The Son of the Most High, the Son of the Holy G-d …and the gracious Shekinah.   – Zohar (Gen. fol. 88, c. 348) [ref. Ps. 2]

 

They He [My Servant Messiah] will become despised, and will cut off the glory of all the Kingdoms; they will be prostrate and mourning, like a man of pains, and like One destined for sickness; and as though the Presence of the Shekinah had been withdrawn from us, they will be despised, and esteemed not.   – Targum Jonathan Isaiah 53:3.

 

Our Rabbis with one voice accept and affirm the opinion that the prophet is here speaking of the Messiah.   – R. Mosheh El-Sheikh [ref. Isa. 53:3]

 

The L-rd is the King Messiah; He is also the Angel of the Covenant.   – Kimchi

 

The L-rd is both the Divine Majesty, and the Angel of the Covenant, for the sentence is doubled.   – Aben Ezra

 

The L-rd may be explained of the King Messiah.   – Mashmiah Jeshua, fol. 76

 

For to us a Son is born, to us a Son is given:   and He shall receive the Law upon Him to keep it; and His Name is called from of old, Wonderful, Counselor, ELOHA, The Mighty, Abiding to Eternity, The Messiah, because peace shall be multiplied on us in His days.   – Isaiah 9:6 Targum Jonathan

 

Rabbi Samuel, the son of Nachman, said, “When Esau met Jacob he said unto him, ‘My brother Jacob, let us walk together in this world.’   Jacob replied:   ‘Let my L-rd, I pray thee, pass over before his servant’” (Genesis 3:14).   What is the meaning of, “I pray thee, pass over”?   Jacob said to him:   I have yet to supply the Messiah, of Whom it is said: “Unto us a Child is born.”   – Midrash (Deuteronomy 2:4)

 

But the wise man, R. Abraham Ben Ezra, has interpreted this prophecy of the great wars which shall be in all the world in the days of the Messiah, the Son of Joseph… The Messiah therefore is the Person to be smitten before the scattering of the sheep. – R. Kimchi [ref. Zech. 13:7]

 

While He bore the sins of many and for the transgressors He let (evil) befall Him.   – Isaiah 53:12.b Leesor’s

 

And when Israel is sinful, the Messiah seeks for mercy upon them, as it is written, “By His stripes we were healed, and He carried the sins of many; and made intercession for the transgressors.” – B’reshith Rabbah (pp. 430, 671)

 

…And they will look up toward Me (for every one) Whom they have thrust through, and they will lament for Him as one lamenteth for an Only Son, and weepeth bitterly for the Firstborn. – Zechariah 12:10 Leesor’s.

 

And the heathen will look unto Me to see what I will do to those who have pierced Messiah, the Son of Joseph. – Aben Ezra

 

It must be granted him that says, for Messiah the Son of Joseph that shall be slain as it is written, And they shall look upon Me Whom they have pierced.   – Talmud Bab.   (Succah 52, 1)

 

He will revive us after two days; on the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in His Presence.   – Hosea 6:2 Leesor’s

 

This passage is applied to the resurrection and to the Messiah by R. Moses Hadarshan in Genesis 22:4.   – Ber Rabbah (Frey)

 

R. Alexander said R. Joshua ben Levi objects to what is written, “And behold one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven; and it is written, “Poor and riding upon an ass”; if they {Israel} are worthy, He {Messiah} comes with the clouds of heaven; but if they are not worthy, He comes poor and riding on an ass. – Talmud Babl. (Sanh., fol. 98, 1)

 

Therefore will the Lord Himself give you a sign; behold this almah/young woman [in LXX trans.   done by 70 Rabbis, it is the Greek word for virgin] shall conceive, and bear a Son and she shall call His Name Immanuel (G-d with us).   – Isaiah 7:14 Leesor’s

 

R. Huni, in the name of R. Ide and R. Joshua, said that this man is the King of Messiah of Whom it is said, Psalm 2:7, “This day have I begotten Thee.” – Talmud Bab

 

Out of thee Bethlehem shall Messiah go forth before me, to exercise dominion over Israel.   Whose Name has been spoken from of old from the day of eternity.   – Micah 5:2 Targum Jonathan

 

Out of thee ( Bethlehem) shall come forth unto me Messiah, the Son of David.   – R. Jarcdhi

 

Behold, I will send my messenger, and He shall clear out the way before me: and suddenly will come to His Temple the L-rd Whom ye seek; and the Messenger of the Covenant Whom ye desire, for behold He is coming saith the L-rd of hosts.   – Malachi 3:1 Leesor’s

 

DAVID FLUSSER, PROFESSOR OF RELIGIOUS HISTORY AT HEBREW UNIVERSITY, JERUSALEM:   I do not think that many Jews would object if the Messiah – when He came – was the Jew Jesus.

 

We may all feel thankful that the Jewish race was so prolific in great men, that even so late in history, it produced one {Jesus} Who deserves to be compared with Moses, Isaiah and Hillel.   – Rabbi Adolph Moses in Courier-Journal 1885

 

Many ancient rabbinic sources understood Isaiah 53 as referring to the Messiah.   Here are quotations from some of them:

 

Midrash Ruth Rabbah:   Another explanation (of Ruth ii.14): – He is speaking of king Messiah; “Come hither,” draw near to the throne; and “eat of the bread,” that is, the bread of the kingdom; “and dip thy morsel in the vinegar,” this refers to his chastisements, as it is said, “But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities.

 

Zohar:   “He was wounded for our transgressions,” etc…There is in the Garden of Eden a palace called the Palace of the Sons of Sickness; this palace the Messiah then enters, and summons every sickness, every pain, and every chastisement of Israel; they all come and rest upon him.   And were it not that he had thus lightened them off Israel and taken them upon himself, there had been no man able to bear Israel’s chastisements for the transgression of the law:   and this is that which is written, “Surely our sicknesses he hath carried.”

 

Rabbi Moses Maimonides:   What is the manner of Messiah’s advent…there shall rise up one of whom none have known before, and signs and wonders which they shall see performed by him will be the proofs of his true origin; for the Almighty, where he declares to us his mind upon this matter, says, “Behold a man whose name is the Branch, and he shall branch forth out of his place” (Zech. 6:12).   And Isaiah speaks similarly of the time when he shall appear, without father or mother or family being known, He came up as a sucker before him, and as a root out of dry earth, etc …in the words of Isaiah, when describing the manner in which kings will harken to him, At him kings will shut their mouth; for that which had not been told them have they seen, and that which they had not heard they have perceived. (From the Letter to the South (Yemen), quoted in The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters, Ktav Publishing House, 1969, Volume 2, pages 374-5.)

 

Rabbi Mosheh   Kohn Ibn Crispin:   This rabbi described those who interpret Isaiah 53 as referring to Israel as those:   “having forsaken the knowledge of our Teachers, and inclined after the stubbornness of their own hearts,” and of their own opinion, I am pleased to interpret it, in accordance with the teaching of our Rabbis, of the King Messiah… This prophecy was delivered by Isaiah at the divine command for the purpose of making known to us something about the nature of the future Messiah, who is to come and deliver Israel, and his life from the day when he arrives at discretion until his advent as a redeemer, in order that if anyone should arise claiming to be himself the Messiah, we may reflect, and look to see whether we can observe in him any resemblance to the traits described here; if there is any such resemblance, then we may believe that he is the Messiah our righteousness; but if not, we cannot do so. (From his commentary on Isaiah, quoted in The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters, Ktav Publishing House, 1969, Volume 2, pages 99-114.)